Table of contents for Principles and techniques of electromagnetic compatibility / Christos Christopoulos.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
Preface to the Second Edition................................................... ix
Preface ......................................................................................... xi
The Author ................................................................................ xiii
Part I Underlying Concepts and Techniques
1
Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility ........................1
2
Electromagnetic Fields.................................................................5
2.1 Static Fields ............................................................................................6
2.1.1 Electric Field ..............................................................................6
2.1.2 Magnetic Field ..........................................................................15
2.2 Quasistatic Fields..................................................................................22
2.2.1 The Relationship Between Circuits and Fields........................26
2.2.2 Electromagnetic Potentials.......................................................31
2.3 High-Frequency Fields..........................................................................33
2.3.1 Electromagnetic Waves.............................................................34
2.3.2 Radiating Systems.....................................................................39
References .....................................................................................................53
3
Electrical Circuit Components ..................................................55
3.1 Lumped Circuit Components ..............................................................55
3.1.1 Ideal Lumped Components......................................................56
3.1.2 Real Lumped Components.......................................................57
3.2 Distributed Circuit Components .........................................................64
3.2.1 Time-Domain Analysis of Transmission Lines...........................67
3.2.2 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Transmission Lines..................70
References .....................................................................................................76
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Contents
4
Electrical Signals and Circuits...................................................77
4.1 Representation of a Signal in Terms of Simpler Signals ......................78
4.2 Correlation Properties of Signals .........................................................88
4.2.1 General Correlation Properties ................................................89
4.2.2 Random Signals ........................................................................90
4.3 The Response of Linear Circuits to Deterministic and Random
Signals...................................................................................................92
4.3.1 Impulse Response ....................................................................92
4.3.2 Frequency Response ................................................................93
4.3.3 Detection of Signals in Noise ..................................................95
4.4 The Response of Nonlinear Circuits ...................................................98
4.5 Characterization of Noise ..................................................................100
References ...................................................................................................108
Part II General EMC Concepts and Techniques
5
Sources of Electromagnetic Interference...............................111
5.1 Classification of Electromagnetic
Interference Sources111
5.2 Natural Electromagnetic Interference Sources..................................112
5.2.1 Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields ........................112
5.2.2 Lightning ................................................................................113
5.2.3 High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields ................................117
5.3 Man-Made Electromagnetic Interference Sources .............................118
5.3.1 Radio Transmitters..................................................................118
5.3.2 Electroheat Applications ........................................................119
5.3.3 Digital Signal Processing and Transmission ...........................119
5.3.4 Power Conditioning and Transmission ..................................122
5.3.4.1 Low-Frequency Conducted Interference .................122
5.3.4.2 Low-frequency radiated interference.......................123
5.3.4.3 High-Frequency Conducted Interference ................124
5.3.4.4 High-Frequency Radiated Interference ....................124
5.3.5 Switching Transients...............................................................125
5.3.5.1 Nature and Origin of Transients...............................125
5.3.5.2 Circuit Behavior During Switching Assuming An
Idealized Switch .......................................................126
5.3.5.3 Circuit Behavior During Switching Assuming A
Realistic Model of the Switch ..................................131
5.3.6 The Electrostatic Discharge (ESD).........................................135
5.3.7 The Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP) and High
Power Electromagnetics (HPEM)...........................................137
5.4 Surveys of the Electromagnetic Environment...................................139
References ...................................................................................................139
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ix
6
Penetration through Shields and Apertures..........................143
6.1 Introduction .......................................................................................143
6.2 Shielding Theory ................................................................................145
6.2.1 Shielding Effectiveness...........................................................145
6.2.2 Approximate Methods ¿ The Circuit Approach...................146
6.2.3 Approximate Methods ¿ The Wave Approach .....................156
6.2.4 Analytical Solutions to Shielding Problems ...........................161
6.2.5 General Remarks Regarding Shielding Effectiveness at
Different Frequencies.............................................................161
6.2.6 Surface Transfer Impedance and Cable Shields .....................163
6.3 Aperture Theory.................................................................................167
6.4 Rigorous Calculation of the Shielding Effectiveness (SE) of a
Conducting Box With an Aperture ....................................................174
6.5 Intermediate Level Tools for SE Calculations ....................................176
6.6 Numerical Simulation Methods for Penetration through Shields
and Apertures .....................................................................................185
6.6.1 Classification of Numerical Methods .....................................185
6.6.2 The Application of Frequency-Domain Methods...................187
6.6.3 The Application of Time-Domain Methods............................190
6.7 Treatment of Multiple Apertures through a Digital Filter Interface... 194
6.8 Further Work Relevant to Shielding...................................................200
References ...................................................................................................201
7
Propagation and Crosstalk ......................................................207
7.1 Introduction .......................................................................................207
7.2 Basic Principles ..................................................................................210
7.3 Line Parameter Calculation ................................................................223
7.3.1 Analytical Methods.................................................................223
7.3.2 Numerical Methods................................................................231
7.4 Representation of EM Coupling from External Fields ......................232
7.5 Determination of the EM Field Generated by Transmission Lines.... 246
7.6 Numerical Simulation Methods for Propagation Studies ..................252
References ...................................................................................................253
8
Simulation of the Electromagnetic Coupling Between
Systems......................................................................................257
8.1 Overview............................................................................................257
8.2 Source/External Environment............................................................258
8.3 Penetration and Coupling ..................................................................259
8.4 Propagation and Crosstalk .................................................................270
8.5 Device Susceptibility and Emission ...................................................273
8.6 Numerical Simulation Methods..........................................................274
8.6.1 The Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FD-TD) Method ...........275
8.6.2 The Transmission-Line Modeling (TLM) Method ...................275
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8.6.3 The Method of Moments (MM) .............................................276
8.6.4 The Finite-Element (FE) Method............................................276
References ...................................................................................................278
9
Effects of Electromagnetic Interference on Devices and
Systems......................................................................................281
9.1 Immunity of Analogue Circuits ..........................................................283
9.2 The Immunity of Digital Circuits.......................................................284
References ...................................................................................................288
Part III Interference Control Techniques
10
Shielding and Grounding ........................................................291
10.1 Equipment Screening.........................................................................291
10.1.1 Practical Levels of Attenuation...............................................292
10.1.2 Screening Materials ................................................................292
10.1.3 Conducting Penetrations........................................................297
10.1.4 Slits, Seams, and Gasketing.....................................................297
10.1.5 Damping of Resonances ........................................................299
10.1.6 Measurement of Screening Effectiveness ..............................299
10.2 Cable Screening .................................................................................300
10.2.1 Cable Transfer Impedance......................................................300
10.2.2 Earthing of Cable Screens......................................................301
10.2.3 Cable Connectors...................................................................302
10.3 Grounding ..........................................................................................303
10.3.1 Grounding in Large-Scale Systems .........................................304
10.3.2 Grounding in Self-Contained Equipment...............................307
10.3.3 Grounding in an Environment of Interconnected
Equipment..............................................................................308
References ...................................................................................................309
11
Filtering and Nonlinear Protective Devices...........................311
11.1 Power-Line Filters...............................................................................311
11.2 Isolation..............................................................................................316
11.3 Balancing ............................................................................................319
11.4 Signal-Line Filters ...............................................................................320
11.5 Nonlinear Protective Devices ............................................................320
References ...................................................................................................326
12
General EMC Design Principles ..............................................329
12.1 Reduction of Emissions at Source .....................................................330
12.2 Reduction of Coupling Paths.............................................................331
12.2.1 Operating Frequency and Rise-Time .....................................331
12.2.2 Reflections and Matching.......................................................333
12.2.3 Ground Paths and Ground Planes .........................................334
12.2.4 Circuit Segregation and Placement........................................335
12.2.5 Cable Routing.........................................................................336
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12.3 Improvements in Immunity ...............................................................336
12.3.1 Immunity by Software Design ...............................................338
12.3.2 Spread Spectrum Techniques.................................................339
12.4 The Management of EMC ..................................................................342
References ...................................................................................................344
Part IV EMC Standards and Testing
13
EMC Standards..........................................................................347
13.1 The Need for Standards .....................................................................347
13.2 The International Framework ............................................................348
13.3 Civilian EMC Standards ......................................................................349
13.3.1 FCC Standards ........................................................................349
13.3.2 European Standards................................................................351
13.3.3 Other EMC Standards.............................................................354
13.3.4 Sample Calculation for Conducted Emission ........................354
13.4 Military Standards...............................................................................357
13.4.1 Military Standard MIL-STD-461D17........................................357
13.4.2 Defence Standard DEF-STAN 59-4118....................................359
13.5 Company Standards............................................................................360
13.6 EMC at Frequencies Above 1 GHz.....................................................360
13.7 Human Exposure Limits to EM Fields ...............................................364
References ...................................................................................................368
14
EMC Measurements and Testing .............................................371
14.1 EMC Measurement Techniques ..........................................................371
14.2 Measurement Tools.............................................................................372
14.2.1 Sources ...................................................................................372
14.2.2 Receivers ................................................................................373
14.2.3 Field Sensors ..........................................................................375
14.2.4 Antennas.................................................................................376
14.2.5 Assorted Instrumentation.......................................................380
14.3 Test Environments..............................................................................383
14.3.1 Open-Area Test Sites...............................................................384
14.3.2 Screened Rooms.....................................................................387
14.3.3 Reverberating Chambers........................................................391
14.3.4 Special EMC Test Cells ...........................................................396
References ...................................................................................................397
Part V EMC in Systems Design
15
EMC and Signal Integrity (SI)..................................................403
15.1 Introduction .......................................................................................403
15.2 Transmission Lines As Interconnects.................................................408
15.3 Board and Chip Level EMC................................................................422
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Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Electronic circuits -- Noise.
Electromagnetic compatibility.
Electromagnetic interference.