Table of contents for Digital television : technology and standards / by John F. Arnold, Michael R. Frater, Mark R. Pickering.

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	Introduction
1.1.	Introduction
1.2.	Analog Television
1.2.1.	Video
1.2.1.1.	Horizontal Synchronisation
1.2.1.2.	Horizontal Resolution
1.2.1.3.	Interlaced Video
1.2.1.4.	Colour Television
1.2.1.5.	Summary
1.2.2.	Audio
1.2.3.	Systems
1.2.3.1.	Ancillary services
1.3.	The Motivation for Digital Television
1.4.	The Need for Compression
1.5.	Standards for Digital Television
 	
2	Characteristics of Video Material
2.1	Picture Correlation
2.2	Information Content
2.3	The Human Visual System
2.3.1	Perception of Changes in Brightness
2.3.2	Spatial Masking
2.3.3	Temporal Masking
2.3.4	Frequency Sensitivity
2.3.5	Tracking of Motion
2.3.6	Conclusion
2.4	Summary
3	Predictive Encoding
3.1	Entropy Coding
3.1.1	Huffman Coding
3.1.2	Run Length Coding
3.2	Predictive Coding
3.3	Motion Compensated Prediction
3.3.1	Motion Estimation
3.3.2	Motion Compensated Prediction to Sub-Pixel Accuracy
3.4	Quantization
3.5	Rate-Distortion Curves
3.6	Summary
4	Transform Coding
4.1	Introduction to Transform Coding
4.2	The Fourier Transform
4.3	The Karhunen-Loeve Transform
4.4	The Discrete Cosine Transform
4.4.1	Choice of Transform Block Size
4.4.2	Quantization of DCT Transform Coefficients
4.4.3	Quantization of DCT Coefficients based on the Human Visual System
4.4.4	Coding of Non-Zero DCT Coefficients
4.5	Motion Compensated DCT Encoders and Decoders
4.6	Rate Control
4.7	Conclusion
5	Video Coder Syntax
5.1	Introduction
5.2	Representation of Chrominance Information
5.3	Structure of a Video Bitstream
5.3.1	The Block Level
5.3.2	The Macroblock Layer
5.3.3	The Slice Layer
5.3.4	The Picture Layer
5.3.5	The Sequence Layer
5.4	Bitstream Syntax
5.5	A Simple Bitstream Syntax
5.5.1	The Video Sequence Layer
5.5.2	The Picture Layer
5.5.3	The Slice Layer
5.5.4	The Macroblock Level
5.5.5	The Block Level
5.6	Conclusion
6	The MPEG-2 Video Compression Standard
6.1	Introduction
6.2	Picture Types in MPEG-2
6.3	The Syntax of MPEG-2
6.3.1	Extension Start Code and Extension Data
6.3.2	Sequence Layer
6.3.3	The Group of Pictures Layer
6.3.4	The Picture Layer
6.3.5	The Slice Layer
6.3.6	The Macroblock Layer
6.3.7	The Block Layer
6.4	Video Buffer Verifier
6.5	Profiles and Levels
6.5.1	Profiles
6.5.2	Levels
6.6	Summary
7	Perceptual Audio Coding
7.1 The Human Auditory System
7.1.1 Outer Ear
7.1.2 Middle Ear
7.1.3 Inner Ear
7.2 Psychoacoustics
7.2.1 Sound Pressure Level
7.2.2 Auditory Thresholds
7.2.3 The Critical Bandwidth and Auditory Filters
7.2.4 Auditory Masking
7.3 Summary
8	Frequency Analysis and Synthesis
8.1 The Sampling Theorem
8.1.1 Digital Filters
8.1.2 Subband Filtering
8.1.3 The Analysis Filter Bank
8.1.4 The Synthesis Filter Bank
8.1.5 Filters for Perfect Reconstruction
8.2 Cosine Modulated Filters
8.3 Efficient Implementation of a Cosine Modulated Filterbank
8.3.1 Analysis Filter
8.3.2 Synthesis Filter
8.4 Time-Domain Aliasing Cancellation
8.5 Summary
9	MPEG Audio
9.1 MPEG-1 Layer I,II Encoder
9.1.1 Analysis Filter Bank
9.1.2 Scalefactor Calculation
9.1.3 Psychoacoustic model 1
1.1.1 Dynamic Bit Allocation
9.1.4 Coding of Bit Allocation
9.1.5 Quantization and Coding of Subband Samples
9.1.6 Formatting
9.2 Layer II Encoder
9.2.1 Analysis Filter Bank
9.2.2 Scalefactor Calculation
9.2.3 Coding of Scalefactors
9.2.4 Dynamic Bit Allocation
9.2.5 Coding of Bit Allocation
9.2.6 Quantization and Coding of Subband Samples
9.2.7 Ancillary Data
9.2.8 Formatting
9.3 Joint Stereo Coding
9.4 MPEG-1 Syntax
9.4.1 Audio Sequence Layer
9.4.2 Audio Frame
9.4.3 Header
9.4.4 Error Check
9.4.5 Audio data, Layer I
9.4.6 Audio data, Layer II
9.5 MPEG-1 Layer I,II Decoder
9.5.1 Bit allocation decoding
9.5.2 Scalefactor selection information decoding
9.5.3 Scalefactor decoding
9.5.4 Requantization of subband samples
9.5.5 Synthesis filter bank
9.6 MPEG-2
9.6.1 Backwards-Compatible MPEG-2 Frame Formatting
9.6.2 Matrixing Procedures for Backwards Compatibility
9.7 Summary
10	Dolby AC-3 Audio
10.1 Encoder
10.1.1 Audio Input Format
10.1.2 Transient Detection
10.1.3 Forward Transform
10.1.4 Channel Coupling
10.1.5 Rematrixing
10.1.6 Extract Exponents
10.1.7 Encode Exponents
10.1.8 Bit Allocation
10.1.9 Quantize Mantissas
10.1.10 Dialogue Normalization
10.1.11 Dynamic range compression
10.1.12 Heavy Compression
10.1.13 Downmixing
10.2 Syntax
10.2.1 Syntax specification
10.3 Decoder
10.3.1 Decode Exponents
10.3.2 Bit Allocation
10.3.3 Decode Coefficients
10.3.4 De-coupling
10.3.5 Inverse Transform
10.3.6 Overlap and Add
10.4 Summary
11	MPEG-2 Systems
11.1.	Introduction
11.2.	Service Overview
11.3.	Multiplexer Structure
11.3.1.	PES Sub-layer
11.3.1.1.	PES Packet Header
11.3.1.2.	Overheads due to the PES Layer
11.3.2.	Transport Stream Sub-layer
11.3.2.1.	Transport Stream Packet Header
11.3.2.2.	Adaptation Field
11.3.2.3.	Transport Stream Payload
11.3.2.4.	Alignment between Transport Stream and PES
11.3.2.5.	Overhead due to Transport Stream
11.3.3.	Program Stream Sub-layer
11.4.	Timing
11.4.1.	System Time Clock
11.4.2.	Clock References and Reconstruction of the STC
11.4.3.	Time Stamps
11.5.	Buffer Management
11.6.	Program Specific Information (PSI)
11.6.1.	MPEG-2 Descriptors
11.6.1.1.	Generic Descriptor Syntax
11.6.1.2.	MPEG-2 Audio Stream Descriptor
11.6.1.3.	MPEG-2 Video Stream Descriptor
11.6.1.4.	MPEG-2 Hierarchy Descriptor
11.6.1.5.	MPEG-2 Registration Descriptor
11.6.1.6.	MPEG-2 Data Stream Alignment Descriptor
11.6.1.7.	Descriptors for Video Windows
11.6.1.8.	MPEG-2 CA Descriptor
11.6.1.9.	MPEG-2 ISO 639 Language Descriptor
11.6.1.10.	MPEG-2 System Clock Descriptor
11.6.1.11.	MPEG-2 Multiplex Buffer Utilization Descriptor
11.6.1.12.	MPEG-2 Copyright Descriptor
11.6.1.13.	MPEG-2 Maximum Bitrate Descriptor
11.6.1.14.	MPEG-2 Private Data Indicator Descriptor
11.6.1.15.	MPEG-2 Smoothing Buffer Descriptor
11.6.1.16.	MPEG-2 STD Descriptor
11.6.1.17.	MPEG-2 IBP Descriptor
11.6.2.	MPEG-2 Tables
11.6.2.1.	Generic Table Syntax
11.6.2.2.	Program Association Table
11.6.2.3.	Program Map Table
11.6.2.4.	Conditional Access Table
11.6.2.5.	Network Information Table
11.6.3.	Overheads due to PSI
11.7.	MPEG-2 Decoder Operation
11.8.	Use Of MPEG-2 Systems In Digital Television
11.8.1.	Use of MPEG-2 Systems in ATSC
11.8.1.1.	Implementation of Multiplexing in ATSC
11.8.1.2.	Implementation of PSI in ATSC
11.8.2.	Use of MPEG-2 Systems in DVB
11.8.2.1.	Implementation of Multiplexing in DVB
11.8.3.	Implementation of PSI in DVB
11.9.	Conclusion
12	DVB Service Information and ATSC Program and System Information Protocol
12.1.	Introduction
12.2.	Why SI and PSIP?
12.3.	DVB-SI
12.3.1.	DVB Common Data Formats
12.3.2.	DVB Descriptors
12.3.2.1.	DVB Content Descriptor
12.3.2.2.	DVB Delivery System Descriptors
12.3.2.3.	DVB Name descriptors
12.3.2.4.	DVB Component Descriptor
12.3.2.5.	DVB Event Descriptors
12.3.2.6.	DVB Descriptors for Ancillary Services
12.3.2.7.	DVB Service Descriptor
12.3.2.8.	DVB Service List Descriptor
12.3.2.9.	DVB Linkage Descriptor
12.3.2.10.	DVB Parental Rating Descriptor
12.3.2.11.	DVB Local Time Offset Descriptor
12.3.3.	DVB Tables
12.3.3.1.	DVB Use of the Network Information Table
12.3.3.2.	DVB Bouquet Association Table
12.3.3.3.	DVB Service Description Table
12.3.3.4.	DVB Event Information Table
12.3.3.5.	DVB Running Status Table
12.3.3.6.	DVB Time and Date Table
12.3.3.7.	DVB Time Offset Table
12.3.3.8.	DVB Stuffing Table
12.3.4.	DVB Delivery Issues
12.3.4.1.	Size of Tables
12.3.4.2.	Table Entries
12.3.4.3.	Repetition Rates
12.4.	ATSC Program and System Information Protocol
12.4.1.	Common Data Formats
12.4.1.1.	String Representation
12.4.1.2.	ATSC Time and Date Formats
12.4.1.3.	ATSC Virtual channels
12.4.2.	ATSC Descriptors
12.4.2.1.	ATSC AC-3 Audio Descriptor
12.4.2.2.	ATSC Caption Service Descriptor
12.4.2.3.	ATSC Content Advisory Descriptor
12.4.2.4.	ATSC Extended Channel Name Descriptor
12.4.2.5.	ATSC Service Location Descriptor
12.4.2.6.	ATSC Time-Shifted Service Descriptor
12.4.2.7.	ATSC Component Name Descriptor
12.4.2.8.	ATSC Stuffing Descriptor
12.4.2.9.	Descriptors for Inactive Channels
12.4.3.	ATSC Tables
12.4.3.1.	ATSC use of the Program Map Table
12.4.3.2.	ATSC System Time Table
12.4.3.3.	ATSC Master Guide Table
12.4.3.4.	ATSC Virtual Channel Table
12.4.3.5.	ATSC Rating Region Table
12.4.3.6.	ATSC Event Information Table
12.4.3.7.	ATSC Extended Text Table
12.5.	DVB SI and ATSC PSIP Interoperability
12.5.1.	PIDs
12.5.2.	Use of table_id
12.5.3.	Use of descriptor_tag
12.6.	Conclusion
13 	Digital Television Channel Coding and Modulation
13.1.	Introduction
13.2.	Generic Concepts
13.2.1.	Channel Characteristics and Intersymbol Interference
13.2.2.	Modulation
13.2.3.	Equalisation
13.2.3.1.	Fixed-Tap Equaliser
13.2.3.2.	Trained Adaptive Equaliser
13.2.3.3.	Blind Adaptive Equaliser
13.2.3.4.	The LMS Algorithm
13.2.3.5.	Practical Blind Adaptive Equalisers
13.2.4.	Randomisation
13.2.5.	Channel Coding Technology
13.2.5.1.	Block codes
13.2.5.2.	Convolutional Codes
13.2.5.3.	Interleaving
13.2.5.4.	Concatenated Codes
13.3.	Channel Coding and Modulation for ATSC
13.3.1.	ATSC 8-VSB Modulation
13.3.2.	ATSC Data Framing
13.3.3.	ATSC Concatenated Channel Coder
13.3.3.1.	ATSC RS Coder.
13.3.3.2.	ATSC Interleaver.
13.3.3.3.	ATSC Inner Coder and Interleaver.
13.3.3.4.	ATSC Randomisation
13.3.4.	ATSC Channel Capacity
13.4.	Channel Coding and Modulation for DVB
13.4.1.	DVB Modulation
13.4.1.1.	DVB Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing
13.4.1.2.	DVB Guard Interval
13.4.1.3.	Single-Frequency Network
13.4.1.4.	DVB Transmission Parameter Signalling
13.4.1.5.	DVB Reference Signals
13.4.1.6.	DVB Spectrum Characteristics
13.4.2.	DVB Channel Coding
13.4.2.1.	DVB Randomisation
13.4.2.2.	DVB Outer Coding
13.4.2.3.	DVB Outer Interleaving
13.4.2.4.	DVB Inner Coding
13.4.2.5.	DVB Inner Interleaving
13.4.3.	DVB Channel Capacity
13.5.	Conclusion
14	Closed-Captioning, Subtitling and Teletext
14.1.	Introduction
14.2.	DVB Subtitles and Teletext
14.2.1.	Sub-titles
14.2.1.1.	Timing
14.2.1.2.	Example Sub-title Operation
14.2.1.3.	Coding for DVB Subtitling Data
14.2.1.4.	Pixel Data Sub-block
14.2.1.5.	Colour Lookup Table
14.2.2.	Teletext
14.2.2.1.	ITU-R System B Teletext
14.2.2.2.	DVB Teletext
14.3.	ATSC Closed Captioning
14.3.1.	Line-21 Data Service
14.3.2.	Digital Television Closed Captioning
14.3.2.1.	Caption Display Model
14.3.2.2.	Caption Packet Format
14.3.2.3.	Service Block Payload
14.3.2.4.	DTVCC Commands
14.4.	Conclusion

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Digital television.