Table of contents for Cradling literacy : instructor's guide / by Janice H. Im ... [et al.].

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Cradling Literacy provides instructional materials for early childhood instructors and trainers for building teachers? knowledge and skills in nurturing early language and literacy in young children birth to 5 years. For the purposes of this instructional manual, the term ?teachers? refers to those professionals who directly teach and care for young children, including center-based teachers and caregivers, and family child-care providers. The research and strategies presented in this instructional manual center on how the child, parent, and teacher can work in concert to support and nurture early language and literacy skills. 
The content of the Cradling Liteacy Instructor?s Guide is organized into five main sections. A description of each section is as follows:
Introduction 
The Introduction includes core beliefs, an overview of early language and emergent literacy research, and guidance on instructional approaches when providing training and professional development to early childhood educators. The introduction also includes ?Session at a Glance,? which indicates the main theme each session targets, a chart defining early literacy skills and relationship-based teaching strategies, and an overview of the typical development of communication skills of young children. 
Modules and Training Sessions
Twelve training sessions are organized within four modules. Each module focuses on one component of early language and emergent literacy development and curriculum. The modules are designed to help early childhood teachers understand and develop skills to support early language and emergent literacy development in children aged birth to 5. 
Training sessions are designed to be 2 hours in length. Training sessions may be modified based upon your training preferences and audience needs. Each training session builds on the content of the preceding session, though you may choose to present the sessions independently or out of sequence. 
Each training session includes the following:
* Presentation outline and talking points
* Reflection preparation for the trainer 
* Trainer?s Background Article?an article that provides research and philosophical background for each training session. 
* Tips for Teachers?a handout with practical teaching strategies
* Journal Reflection & Action Plan?a handout that provides thoughtful reflective questions and space to write down what teachers will do as a result of the training session
 
A CD-ROM also accompanies the manual with a PowerPoint presentation for each training session. 
* 
* 
A CD-ROM containing an orientation to key concepts and messages, along with 24 Video Vignettes is also included. The vignettes were filmed in both center-based and home care settings. Uses of Video Vignettes are indicated within the presentation outline. A description of each Video Vignette is provided in this manual?s Introduction. 
Resources 
Resources include:
* A comprehensive resource list of early language and literacy articles, books, videos and other instructional materials. 
* A list of recommended children?s books that relate to the themes of each of the 12 training sessions. 
Technical Report
Finally, a technical report includes evaluation findings from the Literacy, Learning and Life professional development project and research base for the content and instructional approaches for this manual. 
This report also discusses the critical role of professional development in enhancing teachers? knowledge, skills, and self-awareness. Included in this discussion are key research findings for developing and sustaining an effective professional development program. 
We hope that you will use the important messages and professional development approaches from Cradling Literacy to provide training that supports early childhood teachers, who in turn can use the information to best support the children in their care. 
Our Core Beliefs
Several deeply held beliefs fundamentally shaped the design of this professional development experience, the training content, and our strategies for partnering with teachers. More about these core beliefs follow: 
1. Child care is a profession. Providing high-quality, developmentally appropriate, enriching services to very young children and their families is deeply challenging work on an intellectual, emotional, and physical level. The professional recognition that child care providers lack for their work is damaging to retention rates, morale, service quality, and the motivation to improve practice. These are but a few reasons why we have structured this training curriculum to emphasize the professional skills involved in providing care for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, as well as why we have woven collegial learning experiences and networking opportunities into the instructional approaches.
2. Relationships are central to learning. It is within a warm, supportive relationship that very young children come to know their world. Adults are no different. Adult learners need the safety of a respectful, reciprocal relationship within which they are free to reflect on their own beliefs, explore new ideas, and practice new skills.
3. Language and literacy begin at birth. Let us not forget the babies. Too often, early literacy skills are presented as something that adults ?give? babies. This is not the case. Babies are prewired to learn, communicate, and connect with others. They offer us their own curiosity and passion for learning, their unique temperament and way of exploring the world, and their affection for and connection with us. Babies tell us what they want and need through their cries, facial expressions, and movements. All this sets the stage for later language and literacy. 
4. Language and literacy unfold within a cultural context. Young children do not come to us alone. They come connected to their family and community culture. Their family and community literacy practices, routines, and home language shape young children?s sense of security, belonging, and self. In turn, teachers reflect their own culture in the ways they support and nurture early language and literacy. Understanding the influence of culture in the lives of teachers and young children is essential to effective teaching. 
5. Literacy learning emerges from loving interactions and daily routines. From birth to 5, children do the majority of their learning through the everyday interactions they have with the adults in their lives. Sensitive and intentional teachers make the most of these daily routines?finding the ?magic of everyday moments.? These teachers support infants?, toddlers?, and preschoolers? early language and literacy learning in a manner that is not only natural and nurturing but powerfully effective as well.
6. Sharing, hearing, and reflecting on stories are important to nurturing language and literacy. Beginning in the earliest years, stories help young children make meaning of their lives. Young children learn about culture through the stories that they hear and read. Each day, through their experiences with the world and others, young children build new stories that will later become their life novels. It is through stories that young children begin to organize events that occur around and to them and also learn the essential skills needed to read and write. 
The Importance of Early
 Language and Literacy
Many people believe that children learn to read and write in kindergarten or first grade; however, the foundation for literacy skills is laid years before children enter school. Emergent literacy, much like any other cognitive skill, begins at birth. During the early years, children develop competency in language and literacy not through a set curriculum, but through interactions and experiences with the adults around them. Young children benefit when teachers are both knowledgeable and intentional in how they support and nurture early language and literacy. 
When we use the term ?early,? or ?emergent literacy,? we are referring to what children know about communication, language (verbal and nonverbal), reading, and writing before they can actually read and write. It encompasses all the experiences children have had with conversation, stories (oral and written), books, and print (Parlakian, 2003). Early literacy skills unfold simultaneously as children master other domains of development, such as social emotional skills. In fact, the emotional bonds between young children and their families, other adults, and peers influence children?s motivation and potential to learn (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). It is through positive, meaningful relationships and experiences that children gain confidence in their ability to explore and learn from the world around them. 
Similarly, research indicates that family expectations and involvement are also important factors influencing later school achievement in young children. Families who support and believe in their children?s ability to learn are promoting their school readiness (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Likewise, teacher expectations have also been shown to influence children?s school achievement (Bamburg, 1994). 
For young children, literacy, language, and culture are interrelated. Through literacy experiences, children see the values and beliefs of their culture presented in a positive and nurturing light. Language is also an important expression of culture. As young children acquire their home language, they are mastering the knowledge and skills that form the basis of their cultural identity. For this reason, it is important for young children to be supported in maintaining their home language, especially when they are receiving care in English-language settings. 
Communication: The 
Foundation for Learning
Children?s ability to communicate effectively?through reading, writing, and language?is critical to exploring the world and interpreting their experiences in it. Babies, it seems, are born with the ability to communicate basic needs, first using unintentional communication techniques (e.g., cooing, babbling, crying) as newborns and young infants, and gradually expanding their repertoire to more intentional techniques (e.g., eye gaze, pointing, use of words). Caring observers can watch children make the transition from random gestures to pointing, repetitive sounds to specific words, scribbling to writing. These transitions exemplify children?s innate motivation to communicate and to be understood by those around them. Indeed, research tells us that babies are born ?prewired? to learn language (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2000).
Communication skills are crucial for the healthy development of all children. Although methods of communication may vary?for example, a child may use American Sign Language or point at a communication board?the ability to share one?s needs, feelings, and ideas with others is a key achievement. The feelings of confidence and self-efficacy that arise from successful communications encourage children to continue?and expand?their efforts to communicate as well as shape their view of themselves as competent learners. 
All children, including those with disabilities, have both the right and the desire to communicate effectively with those around them. Communication skills are a window to the world, regardless of whether a child?s primary communication strategy is language, gesturing, or writing. 
Why Begin With Infants?
The early years of life are a period in which the foundation for future learning is being laid at the emotional, cognitive, experiential, and even cellular levels. 
Brain Development. During infancy, brain development is occurring at a faster pace than at any other time in a human being?s development. The networks within the infant?s brain are transformed into an increasingly complex web of visual, motor, language, and social?emotional connections that are essential for later literacy learning. 
Narrative Understanding. Narrative refers to the process of stringing together meaningful ideas as a story. Through exploration and discovery, observing daily events, and listening to simple stories, infants and toddlers begin to appreciate narrative and to themselves become ?storytellers.? When a baby points to a dropped bottle and gestures grandly, she may be saying, ?I was holding my bottle. Then it slipped. Now look, there?s a big mess!? When these narratives are acknowledged, infants are motivated to continue sharing their stories with adults. Narrative understanding is at the heart of learning to read and communicate. 
Communication and Language Development. Print, spoken language, and gesturing are all strategies human beings use to communicate. In the first 3 years, infants and toddlers begin acquiring the first of thousands of words they will use throughout their lives. Simultaneously, children are learning the rules of grammar as well as absorbing the social conventions that exist around communication in their community. When adults respond sensitively and consistently to infants? and toddlers? attempts to communicate, children develop a sense of their own competence and self-efficacy. 
Social?Emotional Development. The development of strong attachment relationships with family and primary caregivers may be the central task of infancy. It is in the context of warm, loving relationships that infants learn to trust, to feel safe exploring their worlds, and to develop a sense of competence and confidence in their own ability to master new skills. This growing sense of self-esteem and personal identity prepares them for later success as communication partners, readers, and writers. 
Culture. As infants and toddlers, children are introduced to their cultural community, their culture?s approach to learning, ways of interacting, and important stories and traditions. Ensuring continuity between home and child care is one important way that teachers can support children?s early learning. 
 Appreciation of Print and Pleasure in Reading. Long before children are readers, they can develop an appreciation for the sounds of language (phonological awareness) through the songs, imitation, and sound plays that all cultures share with their infants. Very young children also begin to associate pleasure with reading when they share this experience with a loving adult.
Instructional Approaches
 Much like learning environments for young children, training and professional development for adults needs to be emotionally safe and flexible in order to support individual learning styles, temperaments, and content needs. Therefore, the following techniques highlight relationship-based approaches to professional development, emphasizing the teacher?s connection with the child and parents, as well as the importance of building connections to the trainer, peers, and colleagues. These techniques are also strengths-based, helping teachers build new competencies on the foundation of existing skills. While trainers must always individualize their activities and approaches based upon the unique needs of teachers, organizing professional development experiences with these approaches in mind helps to ensure that training is relevant, respectful, and reciprocal. 
Building Relationships. Each time you meet for training, it is important to begin with activities that help teachers warm up to the session and transition from their work life. One way to do this is through transitional icebreakers. Ice breakers are brief opening activities that provide an opportunity for participants to get to know one another better. Another way is by introducing a favorite children?s book that relates to the topic of the day or by having teachers share their favorite story or book. Engaging teachers in an energizer, such as a finger play, silly song, or movement activity is another way to create a relaxed and warm learning atmosphere. 
Active Participation. It is important to provide opportunities for teachers to actively participate during training and professional development. Participatory and hands-on activities, such as case study analysis, role-playing, and Video Vignette discussions, assist teachers to translate research into practice. Activities should be directly relevant to the cultural environment and type of care provided (e.g., family child care or center-based care). 
Experiences that allow teachers to apply information directly to their own work with young children not only helps to facilitate understanding of concepts, but also aids in crystallizing the meaningfulness of their interactions with the children in their care. Activities that are open-ended are more easily relatable and less likely to convey judgments or assumptions, thereby building a sense of confidence and competence that new ideas and skills can be implemented. 
Opportunities for Peer Networking and Sharing.
Opportunities to network with peers reinforces the professional role of teachers. Training and professional development that foster relationship building among teachers help to establish a community of learners who can act as a support system for one another. Creating opportunities for teachers to share their knowledge and experiences provides the implicit message that their work is valued. 
Opportunities for Reflection. Opportunities to reflect on the relationship between one?s personal experiences, attitudes, and beliefs and one?s current practice is important to effective professional development. Reflective opportunities and activities should be directly related to the teacher?s work with young children. 
Reflection offers teachers opportunities to examine their beliefs, attitudes, and assumptions about caring for and teaching young children. Experiences that allow teachers to reflect on their culture and current teaching practices is an important process in their being open to new ideas, willing to try new strategies, and motivated to hone their craft. 
Note that the process of reflection can sometimes feel challenging or uncomfortable or can be viewed as unimportant to the adult learner. For this reason, it is helpful to introduce the concept of reflection and explain how it assists with learning and application, prior to the use of reflective activities. 
 
Modeling of Effective Communication and Problem-Solving Techniques. Effective communication and problem-solving techniques are critical in building effective working relationships with young children and their families. Trainers and instructors can model these skills in their interactions with teachers. For example, when teachers make comments or questions, rather than provide an immediate answer, trainers can ask open-ended questions that elicit additional information and facilitate teachers? further analysis of the situation. Encourage teachers to clearly define and state their challenges and current situations, explore their feelings on an issue, and when appropriate, facilitate peer problem-solving. Strategies like these help to model the type of communication and problem-solving techniques that are easily transferred to work with young children. 
References
Bamburg, J. (1994). Raising expectations to improve student learning (ED 378 290). Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. 
National Research Council & Institute of Medicine. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. J. P. Shonkoff & D. A. Phillips (Eds.), Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development, Board on Children, Youth and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 
Parlakian, R. (2003). Before the ABCs: Promoting school readiness in infants and toddlers. Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE Press.
Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 
Early Language and Literacy are cradled by?
Training Sessions 
Module 1: A Framework for Early Language and Literacy
Stories
1. The Powerful Role of Stories in Supporting Early Language and Literacy
Culture
2. Cultural Influences on Language and Literacy Teaching Practices
Relationships
3. The Importance of Relationships in Early Language and Literacy Learning
Module 2: Understanding Early Language and Literacy in Young Children
Development
4. Early Language and Literacy Development
Home Language
5. Emergent Literacy in Two Languages
Family Engagement
6. Families as Partners in Supporting Early Language and Literacy
Module 3: Emergent Literacy Curriculum Building
Meaningful Experiences
7. The Role of Meaningful Experiences in Supporting Early Language and Literacy
Careful Observation
8. The Link Between Observation, Assessment, and Language and Literacy Curriculum
Purposeful Interactions
9. Strategies for Supporting Early Language and Literacy
Module 4: Social?Emotional Literacy
Supportive Environments
10. Environments That Nurture Early Language and Literacy 
Behavioral Understanding
11. Using?Language and Literacy?in Guiding Children's Behavior?
Social?Emotional Competence
12. Effective Teaching Strategies for Supporting Social?Emotional Literacy
Early Literacy Skills
This chart outlines the skills young children need to acquire early literacy and provides relationship-based strategies for nurturing positive attitudes toward literacy. The skills are organized within the following four categories: Concepts of Language, Concepts of Books, Concepts of Text, and Concepts of Story 
 Concepts of Language
 VOCABULARY
Descriptor
Skill
What teachers can do to nurture 
positive attitudes toward literacy
The words used for spoken and written expression
Uses more and varied vocabulary with increased frequency
Expose children to new and varied materials to introduce new vocabulary.
Notice children?s interest and name relevant items in children?s environment.
Use child?s home language if possible. Otherwise, learn varied vocabulary in child?s home language.
Look for opportunities to introduce new vocabulary during daily conversations and interactions with children.
Use books and fantasy stories to extend children?s vocabulary beyond their experiences.
MEANING MAKING
Descriptor
Skill
What teachers can do to nurture 
positive attitudes toward literacy
Having sufficient background knowledge and comprehension for understanding and interpreting vocabulary, concepts, and stories
Uses vocabulary and behaviors appropriate to context
Treat children as partners in conversation.
Use conversation, stories, and books to help children interpret their world.
Talk with children about their interests, actions, and feelings. Ask questions and provide materials, activities, and experiences that further learning.
Recall and reflect on shared experiences.
Link new experiences to previous experiences.
Offer experiences that encourage self-discovery and inquiry.
Find opportunities for children to connect with home experiences. Talk about home and community life.
PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS
Descriptor
Skill
What teachers can do to nurture 
positive attitudes toward literacy
The ability to recognize spoken words as a sequence of sounds
Discriminates and differentiates the sounds of language
* Share fun and interactive vocal play; sound and listening games; songs and stories that contain rhyming, alliteration, rhythm, and repetition.
* Encourage children to find and identify patterns and similarities in sounds and words.
* Incorporate words, songs, rhymes, and phrases that use the sounds of the home language.
* Introduce children to letter/sound and sound/letter relationships.
PRAGMATICS
Descriptor
Skill
What teachers can do to nurture 
positive attitudes toward literacy
A set of social rules about language to communicate within a cultural context?
concerned with the function of language rather than the form
Uses effective verbal and nonverbal communication appropriate to social context and cultural rules
* Know communication cues children use during various stages of development.
* Encourage and support children?s varied verbal and nonverbal ways to communicate their needs, intentions, and thoughts.
* Acknowledge and recognize communicative intent and verbally state your understanding of children?s verbal and nonverbal messages.
* Talk about how messages are conveyed in books, stories, and pictures.
* Model strategies and use language to help children negotiate social interactions.
SYNTAX
Descriptor
Skill
What teachers can do to nurture 
positive attitudes toward literacy
Rules of language
Uses speech that increasingly follows the rules of language
* Accept the child?s form of speech without correction. Respond in ways that acknowledge meaning.
* Provide a more expanded version of what the child is stating using conventional rules of language.
 Concepts of Books
BOOK HANDLING
Descriptor
Skill
What teachers can do to nurture 
positive attitudes toward literacy
Understanding of book design and components
Shows interest in books;
increasingly shows awareness of the components and sequence of books
* Encourage children to actively explore books in their own way.
* Create warm inviting places for children to explore books.
* Provide access to age-appropriate books throughout the environment.
* When reading to children, identify the various book components.
* Make books with children based on their interest, family life, and daily experiences.
FUNCTION OF BOOKS
Descriptor
Skill
What teachers can do to nurture 
positive attitudes toward literacy
Books convey meaning
Interacts with books in increasingly meaningful ways; for instance, pretends to read books, retells, comments, asks questions, and requests books to be read
* Share books with children in enthusiastic and varied ways.
* Set aside special time to read individually with each child.
* Encourage children to use books as ways to gain more information about their interests.
* Provide and support children in using nonfiction and reference books to learn about their world.
* Watch for children?s interest while reading books and ask open-ended questions that allow children to elaborate on the story or picture.
 Concepts of Text
PRINT AWARENESS AND LETTER KNOWLEDGE
Descriptor
Skill
What teachers can do to nurture 
positive attitudes toward literacy
Graphic symbols represent sounds and sound combinations make words
Discriminates between print and pictures and begins to recognize letters
* Notice children?s interest and label relevant items in children?s environment.
* Display and use a variety of print material that reflects children?s interest and culture.
* Provide opportunities for children to draw and scribble with a variety of materials.
* Encourage children to sign their artwork.
* Use children?s own names to introduce the alphabet through songs, games, stories, and books.
* Offer alphabet books on a variety of topics.
WRITING
Descriptor
Skill
What teachers can do to nurture 
positive attitudes toward literacy
Translating ideas into print using alphabetic symbols
Uses letters or letter-like symbols to convey meaning and communicate with others
* Ask children to tell or draw you a story and write it down. Read back to children what they have dictated.
* Create a writing area filled with an array of writing utensils, stationery, and surfaces (chalk, dry-erase, and magnetic boards).
* Give children opportunities to read their invented spelling creations.
Concepts of Story
ELEMENTS OF A STORY
Descriptor
Skill
What teachers can do to nurture 
positive attitudes toward literacy
A sequence of events organized into a narrative and linked together by a common theme
Increasing awareness that stories have a beginning, middle, and end; characters, setting, plot, climax, and resolution
* Model storytelling using a variety of modes, such as books, flannel boards, puppets, and dramatic play.
* Share a variety of literary genres (e.g., oral tales, fables, poems, nonfiction, and fiction).
* Set up a daily routine that provides children opportunities to tell stories.
FUNCTION OF STORY
Descriptor
Skill
What teachers can do to nurture 
positive attitudes toward literacy
To organize experiences and events, real or imagined, and convey cultural meaning
Increasingly able to tell, retell, and create stories based on real or imagined events or experiences of self or others
* Encourage children to share stories by inquiring about their family and home life, daily and past experiences.
* Allow time for children to tell a story without interruption.
* Offer opportunities for children to recall events of their day through stories.
COMPREHENSION OF STORY
Descriptor
Skill
What teachers can do to nurture 
positive attitudes toward literacy
Understand meaning conveyed by the story
Increasingly able to describe what happened in the story, answer questions, and make predictions about the story
* Make connections from stories to real-life experiences.
* Offer opportunities for children to reenact or extend stories.
* Have children share their favorite part of the story and describe why.
* When reading a book, ask children to make predictions about the plot of the story based on the cover.
Typical Development of Communication from Birth to 5
This chart outlines typical development achievements of young children?s communication. The skills are organized within the following five broad age categories: Young Babies, Mobile Babies, Toddlers, Young Preschoolers, and Older Preschoolers. It is important to remember that there can be wide variations in children?s development. The chart denotes typical communication development within a child?s home language. The chart does not apply to second language acquisition. 
Typical Development of Communication Skills from Birth to 5
AGE RANGE
TYPICAL DEVELOPMENTAL ACHIEVEMENTS
 Young Babies
Birth to 8 months
* Recognizes parents? voices and prefers them over others? voices
* Produces reflexive responses (e.g., crying, fussing, looking, smiling) to physical needs (hunger, discomfort, etc.)
* Shows interest in others and interact with others
* Recognizes and attends to familiar voices, sounds, and words
* Quiets or calms when picked up
* Communicates varied emotions
* Uses sounds (vocalization) to attract caregivers? attention
* Smiles
* Takes turns gazing and smiling at caregivers
* Babbles and coos
* Uses gestures to communicate needs (e.g., pointing)
* Reaches for or gestures at objects of interest
Mobile Babies
8 to 18 months
* Communicates intentionally (with a purpose or goal in mind)
* Becomes sociable; enjoys watching and listening to others speak
* Begins question-asking by using rising intonation
* Takes turns, initiates, and responds during games like ?pat-a-cake,? ?peek-a-boo,? and waving bye-bye
* Babbling includes consonant sounds
* Babbling includes some repeated syllables (e.g., ?ba ba ba?)
* Repeats sounds that others make 
* Understands simple, frequently used words, like ?no,? ?eat,? ?bottle?
* By 12 months, uses 1?2 simple words and by 18 months, uses 20?50 words
* Continues using gestures along with talk to communicate needs
* Begins pretend play
* Begins using simple sentences (by end of period)
* Imitates adult speech
* ?Overgeneralizes??that is, uses one word, like ?kitty,? to stand for any four-legged animal
AGE RANGE
TYPICAL DEVELOPMENTAL ACHIEVEMENTS
Toddlers
18 to 36 months
* Begins to understand simple prepositions (e.g., ?in,? ?out,? ?up,? ?down?)
* Answers questions with action words (e.g., will say that a baby is ?crying?)
* Names pictured objects and will point to body parts when asked
* Enjoys listening and occasionally joining in on songs, rhymes, and stories
* Begins to understand abstract words (e.g., ?big,? ?little,? ?my turn?)
* By 24 months, understands 500?900 words (receptive vocabulary, time of rapid development)
* By 24 months, uses 50?250 words (expressive vocabulary, time of rapid development)
* By end of the period, constructs 3- to 5-word sentences
* Tells whole name
* Tells stories
* By 30 months, begins to use pronouns (e.g., ?he,? ?she,? ?me?)
* Speaks clearly most of the time
* Begins to repeat questions
* Enjoys side-by-side (parallel) play with peers
* Strictly applies rules of grammar, even when incorrect. For example, the toddler may say ?mouses? for ?mice? or ?thinked? for ?thought?
* Towards the middle of the period, understands and follows 2-step directions
Young Preschoolers
3 to 4 years
* Is easily understandable and talks in sentences using 4?5 words
* Understands and responds appropriately to ?yes,? ?no,? and simple ?who,? ?what,? and ?where? questions 
* Enjoys talking with other adults and children
* Remembers and sings simple songs (e.g., ?Itsy Bitsy Spider?)
* Recounts activities of the day and talks about what they may like to do tomorrow 
* Understands 1200?2000 words (receptive vocabulary)
* Uses 800?1500 words (expressive vocabulary)
* Begins to use descriptive words and to describe what is happening (e.g., round ball, soft grass; ?Lots of cars going by?)
* Comprehends stories with simple plots and begins to retell stories 
* ?Acts out? simple scenarios during dramatic or imaginary play
* Begins to ask questions, even those to which they may already know the answers (e.g., ?When are we going outside?? or ?Why??) 
* Understands and follows 3-step directions 
Older Preschoolers
4 to 5 years
* Understands most of what is being said by others and talks in sentences using 5?8 words 
* Understands 2000?2800+ words (receptive vocabulary)
* Uses 900?2000 words (expressive vocabulary)
* Communicates easily with adults and other children and can carry on a conversation (sticking to the topic)
* Enjoys reading short stories and can answer questions about the plot and characters and can hypothesize what might happen next 
* Sentences take on more adultlike grammar
* Recalls and sequences events of the day 
* Requests further explanations (e.g., ?What does that word mean??; ?How much longer??)
* Identifies and sorts out subtle differences (e.g., ?This rock is rough, and that rock is smooth?; ?You have long hair and I have short hair?)
* Tells more elaborate stories that have a defined beginning, middle, and end
* Provides directions and follow rules for simple games 
Adapted from the following resources: 
Bowen, C. (1998?2006). Ages and stages: Developmental Milestones for receptive and expressive language acquisition. Retrieved July 20, 2005, from http://members.tripod.com/Caroline_Bowen/devel2.htm
California Department of Education and West Ed. Program for Infant?Toddler Caregivers. 
Dombro, A. L., Colker, L. J., & Trister Dodge, D. (1997). The creative curriculum for infants and toddlers. Washington, DC: Teaching Strategies.
Healy, K. M. (Ed.). (1999). Brilliant beginnings: Nurturing the genius in your child. Long Beach, CA: Brilliant Beginnings.
Healy, K. M. (Ed.). (1999). Toddler brainbasics guidebook: Everything you need to know to nurture your toddler?s developing mind. Long Beach, CA: Brilliant Beginnings.
Mathews, V. H., & Roman, S. (1999). A library Head Start to literacy: The resource notebook for the library?museum?Head Start partnership. Washington, DC: The Center for the Book.
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health. (2000, April). Speech and language: Developmental milestones. (NIH Publication No. 00-4781.) Retrieved July 20, 2005, from www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/speechandlanguage.asp#mychild
Shipley, K., & McAfee, J. (1998). Assessment in speech language pathology: A resource manual (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.
Weitzman, E., & Greenberg, J. (2002). Learning language and loving it. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Hanen Centre.
Video Vignettes
The following Video Vignettes can be found in the accompanying CD-ROM. The vignettes are used for learning discussions and/or to illustrate a concept within training sessions. The corresponding training session provide detailed instructions for using the vignettes within the presentation outline. The vignettes are numbered in the order they are used within each module. 
Vignette
Description
Training Session
2.1
Infant and teacher reading a book with a mirror
Module 2: Early Language and Literacy Development
2.2
Older infant and family child care provider reading a book on a sofa
Module 2: Early Language and Literacy Development
2.3
Toddler reading a book about sharks and monkeys
Module 2: Early Language and Literacy Development
2.4
Preschooler drawing a picture and writing his name
Module 2: Early Language and Literacy Development
2.5
Teacher trying to communicate with child who speaks little English 
Module 2: Emergent Literacy in Two Languages
2.6
Bilingual teacher who is communicating with infants and toddlers, switching back and forth between English and Spanish 
Module 2: Emergent Literacy in Two Languages
3.1
Teacher demonstrating responsive approaches in interactions with an infant
Module 3: The Role of Meaningful Experiences in Supporting Early Language and Literacy 
3.2
Teacher playing alongside children in dramatic play area
Module 3: The Role of Meaningful Experiences in Supporting Early Language and Literacy
3.3
Two toddlers and a teacher drawing together
Module 3: The Link Between Observation, Assessment, and Language and Literacy Curriculum
3.4
Preschooler drawing and writing
Module 3: The Link Between Observation, Assessment, and Language and Literacy Curriculum
Vignette
Description
Training Session
3.5
Family child care provider having a conversation with an older toddler before naptime
Module 3: Strategies for Supporting Early Language and Literacy
3.6
Teacher and children recalling a story using a flannel board
Module 3: Strategies for Supporting Early Language and Literacy
3.7
Teacher and children talking together during mealtime
Module 3: Strategies for Supporting Early Language and Literacy
4.1
Language and literacy in ?book area?
Module 4: Environments That Nurture Early Language and Literacy
4.2
Language and literacy in ?dramatic play area?
Module 4: Environments That Nurture Early Language and Literacy
4.3
Language and literacy in ?construction area?
Module 4: Environments That Nurture Early Language and Literacy
4.4
Focus group of teachers sharing their ?hot spots? for challenging behaviors
Module 4: Using Language and Literacy in Guiding Children's Behavior
		
4.6
Focus group of teacher sharing how challenging behaviors make them feel
Module 4: Using Language and Literacy in Guiding Children's Behavior	
4.6
Toddler screaming rather than using words to communicate
Module 4: Using Language and Literacy in Guiding Children's Behavior
4.7
Toddler who takes toys from other children
Module 4: Using Language and Literacy in Guiding Children's Behavior
4.8
Toddler hitting to communicate
Module 4: Using Language and Literacy in Guiding Children's Behavior
4.9
Toddler who is upset and hits to take a toy
Module 4: Using Language and Literacy in Guiding Children's Behavior
Vignette
Description
Training Session
4.10
Interactions between toddlers and their teacher; one toddler displays some behaviors teachers may find challenging
Module 4: Using Language and Literacy in Guiding Children's Behavior
4.11
Toddler learning to use words to describe his emotions and express his needs
Module 4: Effective Teaching Strategies for Supporting Social?Emotional Literacy		

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Early childhood education.
Curriculum planning.
Literacy.