Table of contents for Assessment in early childhood education / Sue C. Wortham.

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Brief Contents
<PART NUM="1" ID="PT.00.001">Part I    Introduction to Assessment in Early Childhood 
<CHAP NUM="1" ID="CH.01.001">1	An Overview of Assessment in Early Childhood	
<CHAP NUM="2" ID="CH.01.002">2	How Infants and Young Children Should Be Assessed
	
<PART NUM="2" ID="PT.00.002">Part II    Standardized Tests
<CHAP NUM="3" ID="CH.02.003">3	Standardized Tests: How They are Used, Designed, and Selected	
<CHAP NUM="4" ID="CH.02.004">4	Standardized Tests: Using and Reporting Standardized Test Results
	
<PART NUM="2" ID="PT.00.002">Part III    Informal Assessments
<CHAP NUM="5" ID="CH.03.005">5	Classroom Assessments: Observation	
<CHAP NUM="6" ID="CH.03.006">6	Classroom Assessments: Checklists, Rating Scales, and Rubrics	
<CHAP NUM="7" ID="CH.03.007">7	Classroom Assessments: Teacher-Designed Strategies	
<CHAP NUM="8" ID="CH.03.008">8	Classroom Assessments: Performance-Based Strategies
	
<PART NUM="4" ID="PT.00.004">Part IV    Using Assessment Systems
<CHAP NUM="9" ID="CH.04.009">9	Assessment Systems: Portfolio Assessment	
<CHAP NUM="10" ID="CH.05.010">10	Assessment Systems: Communciating with Parents	
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Contents
<PART NUM="1" ID="PT.00.001">Part I    Introduction to Assessment in Early Childhood
<CHAP NUM="1" ID="CH.01.001">1	An Overview of Assessment in Early Childhood	1
Understanding Assessment in Infancy and Early Childhood  2
The Evolution of Assessment of Young Children  4
The Child Study Movement  4
Standardized Tests  5
Head Start and the War on Poverty  6
Legislation for Young Children with Disabilities  7
Current Issues and Trends in Assessment in Early Childhood Education  9
Trends in a New Century  9
Emerging Issues with NCLB
Concerns About Testing Young Children in Public School Settings  11
Concerns About Testing Young Children with Cultural and Language Differences  11
Concerns About Testing Young Children with Disabilities  12
Authentic and Performance Assessment  13
An Overview of Topics Covered in This Book  14
Summary  15
Review Questions  16
Suggested Activity  16
Key Terms  17
References  17
<CHAP NUM="2" ID="CH.01.002">2	How Infants and Young Children Should Be Assessed	20
What Assessment Should Do  20
Principles for Assessment  20
Principles for Early Childhood Assessments  22
How Infants and Young Children Are Assessed  26
Developing a Comprehensive System of Assessment  29
Components of an Assessment System  29
Using Assessment Results  31
Using Assessment Results to Plan for Instruction  31
Using Assessment Results to Report Progress  32
Using Assessment Results to Evaluate the Instructional Program  32
Assessment of Young Children: The Process  32
Assessment at the Beginning of the School Year: Preassessment  33
Ongoing Assessment  33
Assessment at the End of Reporting Periods  33
Assessment at the End of the School Year  33
Addressing and Assessing For Standards
Working with Young Children in an Assessment Setting  34
Summary  35
Review Questions  35
Suggested Activities  36
Key Terms  36
References  36
<PART NUM="2" ID="PT.00.002">Part II    Standardized Tests
<CHAP NUM="3" ID="CH.02.003">3	Standardized Tests: How They Are Used, Designed, and Selected	38
How Standardized Tests Are Used with Infants and Young Children  39
Types of Standardized Tests  39
Steps in Standardized Test Design  48
Specifying the Purpose of the Test  48
Determining Test Format  49
Developing Experimental Forms  50
Assembling the Test  50
Standardizing the Test  50
Developing the Test Manual  51
Validity and Reliability  51
Factors That Affect Validity and Reliability  53
Standard Error of Measurement  53
Considerations for Choosing and Evaluating Tests  54
Summary  56
Review Questions  57
Suggested Activities  57
Key Terms  58
References  58
<CHAP NUM="4" ID="CH.02.004">4	Standardized Tests: Using and Reporting Standardized Test Results	61
Uses of Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests  62
Distinctions Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests  62
Uses of Norm-Referenced Tests with Preschool Children  64
Uses of Norm-Referenced Tests with School-Age Children  65
Uses of Criterion-Referenced Tests with Preschool Children  65
Uses of Criterion-Referenced Tests with School-Age Children  68
Interpreting Test Scores  70
The Normal Curve  70
Standard Deviations  71
Percentile Ranks and Stanines  72
Z Scores and T Scores  73
Reporting Standardized Test Results  74
Individual Test Record  75
Norm-Referenced Scores  75
Class Reports  75
School and District Reports  78
Reporting Test Results to Parents  78
Advantages and Disadvantages of Standardized Tests  80
Advantages of Standardized Tests  80
Disadvantages of Standardized Tests  81
Misapplication of Test Results  82
Summary  83
Review Questions  84
Suggested Activities  84
Key Terms  85
References  85
<PART NUM="3" ID="PT.00.003">Part III    Classroom Assessments
<CHAP NUM="5" ID="CH.03.005">5	Classroom Assessments: Observation	87
Uses of Teacher Assessment Strategies  88
Placement Evaluation  89
Diagnostic and Evaluation and Instructional Planning  89
Formative and Summative Evaluation  89
Advantages of Using Classsroom Assessments  90
Disadvantages of Using Classroom Assessments  92
Purposes of Observation  93
Understanding Children¿s Behavior  94
Evaluating Children¿s Development  94
Assessing Progress in Learning  95
Assessing Multiple Intelligences  96
Types of Observation  97
Anecdotal Record  97
Running Record  98
Specimen Record  102
Time Sampling  103
Event Sampling  104
Checklists and Rating Scales  105
Audiotapes and Videotapes  105
Observing Development  105
Physical Development  107
Social and Emotional Development  108
Cognitive Development  109
Language Development  110
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Observation for Evaluation  111
Observation Guidelines  112
Determining the Observation Site  112
Observer Behaviors During the Observation Visit  113
Ethics During the Observation Visit  113
Avoiding Personal Bias  114
Summary  115
Review Questions  115
Suggested Activity  116
Key Terms  116
References  116
<CHAP NUM="6" ID="CH.03.006">6	Classroom Assessments: Checklists, Rating Scales, and Rubrics	119
Checklists  120
Purposes of Checklists  120
Using Checklists with Infants, Toddlers and Preschool Children  120
Using Checklists with School-Age Children  121
Using Checklists to Assess Children with Delays in Development  121
How Checklists Are Designed and Used  122
Checklists as a Guide to Understand Development  124
Checklists as a Guide to Develop Curriculum  124
Checklists as a Guide to Assess Learning and Development  127
Evaluating and Assessing with Checklists  127
Evaluating Checklist Objectives by Observation  127
Evaluating Checklist Objectives with Learning Activities  128
Evaluating Checklist Objectives with Specific Tasks  128
Steps in Checklist Design  129
Identification of the Skills to Be Included  129
Separate Listing of Target Behaviors  130
Sequential Organization of the Checklist  130
Recordkeeping  130
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Checklists  131
Advantages of Using Checklists  131
Disadvantages of Using Checklists  131
Rating Scales  133
Types of Rating Scales  133
Uses of Rating Scales  134
Advantages and Disadvantages of Rating Scales  138
Advantages of Using Rating Scales  138
Disadvantages of Using Rating Scales  140
Rubrics  141
Types of Rubrics  141
How Rubrics Are Designed and Used  145
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Rubrics  146
Advantages of Using Rubrics  146
Disadvantages of Using Rubrics  147
Developing Quality Checklists, Rating Scales, and Rubrics  148
Checklists  148
Rating Scales  148
Rubrics  148
Consistency in Conducting and Scoring Assessments  149
Summary  149
Review Questions  150
Suggested Activities  151
Key Terms  151
References  151
<CHAP NUM="7" ID="CH.03.007">7	Classroom Assessments: Teacher-Designed Strategies	153
Purposes of Teacher-Designed Assessments and Tests  154
Types of Tests Used with Preschool and Primary-Grade Children  155
How Tests Are Designed and Used  161
Steps in Test Design  162
Designing Learning Experiences  172
Designing Correctives and Enrichment Activities  173
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Teacher-Designed Assessments  173
Developing Quality Teacher-Designed Assessments  176
Concrete Tasks for Preschool  176
Tests for Primary-Grade Children  177
Summary  177
Review Questions  178
Suggested Activities  178
Key Terms  178
References  179
<CHAP NUM="8" ID="CH.03.008">8	Classroom Assessments: Performance-Based Strategies	180
	Standards and Performance-Based Assessment
Authentic Learning and Authentic Assessment  182
Purposes for Performance-Based Assessment  183
Types of Performance-Based Assessment  183
Interviews  184
Contracts  184
Directed Assignments  185
Games  186
Work Samples  187
Projects  188
Portfolios  188
Understanding the Interrelated Nature of Performance Assessments  189
The Role of the Teacher  189
Classification and Organization of Performance Assessments  191
The Role of Observation  191
The Role of Documentation
The Role of Rubrics  193
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Performance-Based Assessment  194
Advantages of Using Performance-Based Assessment  194
Disadvantages of Using Performance-Based Assessments  195
Developing Quality Performance Assessments  197
Summary  198
Review Questions  199
Suggested Activities  199
Key Terms  199
References  200
<PART NUM="4" ID="PT.00.004">Part IV    Using Assessment Systems
<CHAP NUM="9" ID="CH.04.009">9	Assessment Systems: Portfolio Assessment	202
Understanding the Need for Alternative Assessment and Reporting Systems  203
Using Alternative Assessments Appropriately  203
Limitations of Letter Grades and Report Cards  204
Portfolio Assessment  205
Purposes for Portfolio Assessment  205
Organizing Portfolios  207
Types of Portfolios  207
Organizing Portfolios Using a Developmental Approach  209
Organizing Portfolios Using a Subject Area Approach  210
Setting Up Portfolios  212
Steps in Getting Started  212
Collecting and Organizing Work  215
Selecting Portfolio Assessments  215
Analyzing Portfolio Assessments  218
Strategies for Developing Successful Portfolios  219
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Portfolios to Report Student Progress223
Developing Quality Portfolio Assessments  224
Strategies for Report Student Progress
	Using Narrative Reports to Report Student Progress
	Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Narrative Reports to Report Student Progress
Model Assessment and Reporting Systems
	Project Spectrum
	The Work Sampling System
	The Child Observation Record
Summary  224
Review Questions  225
Suggested Activity  225
References  226
<CHAP NUM="10" ID="CH.04.010">10	Assessment Systems: Communicating with Parents	227
Developing Parent¿School Partnerships  228
Roles for Parents in the Child¿s Development and Learning  228
Establishing Relationships with Parents
Assessment Roles of Parents of Children with Disabilities  229
Involving All Parents in the Assessment Process  230
Communicating with Parents About Children¿s Progress  237
Planning for Parent Conferences  237
Parent Conferences  238
Summary: Looking to the Future  240
Review Questions  241
Suggested Activity  241
References  241
Glossary  243
Index  251

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Educational tests and measurements -- United States.
Psychological tests for children -- United States.
Ability in children -- United States -- Testing.
Early childhood education -- United States -- Evaluation.