Table of contents for Engineering chemistry / A. Pahari and B. Chauhan.

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Chapters Pages 
1. 
Spectroscopic Methods of Analysis 1-48
1.1 
Introduction 1
1.2 
Electromagnetic Spectrum . 1
1.3 
Lambert-Beer or Beer's Law 3
1.4 
UV Spectroscopy . 5
1.4.1 
Introduction 5
1.4.2 
Electronic Transitions 6
1.4.3 
Chromophores and Auxochromes 7
1.4.4 
Woodward-Fieser Rules for Conjugated Dienes and Trienes . 9
1.4.5 
Woodward and Fieser Rules for Alicyclic Dienes and Polyenes . 9
1.4.6 
Woodward-Fieser Rules for Cyclic -, --Unsaturated Ketones . 10
1.4.7 
UV Spectra of Aromatic Compounds 11
1.4.8 
Applications of UV Spectroscopy . 13
1.4.9 
Solved Problems on UV Spectroscopy . 13
1.5 
Infrared Spectroscopy 15
1.5.1 
Introduction 15
1.5.2 
Vibrational Modes of Polyatomic Molecules . 15
1.5.3 
Instrumentation 17
1.5.4 
Group Frequencies and Analysis . 18
1.5.5 
Applications of IR Spectroscopy 23
1.5.6 
Solved Problems in IR Spectroscopy . 24
1.6 
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy . 29
1.6.1 
Rules for Nuclei Showing NMR Spectroscopy 29
1.6.2 
Principle of H1 NMR Spectroscopy 29
1.6.3 
NMR Spectrometer . 30
1.6.4 
Study of NMR Spectra 31
1.6.5 
Solved Problems on NMR Spectroscopy . 35
1.7 
Mass Spectroscopy 37
1.7.1 
Principle 37
1.7.2 
The Mass Spectrum (The Base Peak) . 38
1.7.3 
Instrumentation 39
1.7.4 
Application of Mass Spectroscopy . 40
1.7.5 
Solved Problems on Mass Spectroscopy 41
1.8 
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) 43
1.8.1 
Principle 43
1.8.2 
Construction and Working . 43
1.8.3 
Applications . 44
Question Bank . 44
2. 
Polymer Chemistry . 49-94
2.1 
Introduction 49
2.2 
Classification of Polymers 49
2.3 
Characteristics and Properties of Polymers . 52
2.3.1 
Degree of Polymerisation (DP) . 52
2.3.2 
Polymer Functionality 52
2.3.3 
Molecular Weight of Polymers . 53
2.3.4 
Crystallinity and Properties of Polymers . 55
2.3.5 
Structure and Properties of Polymers 58
2.3.6 
Polymer Degradation . 58
2.4 
Copolymerization 59
2.5 
Addition Polymerization 61
2.5.1 
Free Radical and Ionic Polymerization . 62
2.5.2 
Ionic Polymerisation . 63
2.5.3 
Commercially Important Addition Polymers . 66
2.5.4 
Rubber . 68
2.5.4.1 
Natural Rubber 68
2.5.4.2 
Vulcanised Rubber . 69
2.5.4.3 
Synthetic Rubbers (Elastomers) . 71
2.5.5 
Zeigler-Nata Catalysts . 72
2.6 
Condensation Polymerization 74
2.6.1 
Commercially Important Condensation Polymers . 75
2.7 
Conducting Polymers . 78
2.7.1 
Classification . 78
2.7.2 
Structure of Conducting Polymers 79
2.7.3 
Polypyrrole 80
2.7.4 
Polythiophenes 80
2.7.5 
Applications of Conducting Polymers . 82
2.8 
Biopolymers . 82
2.8.1 
The Carbohydrate Group . 82
2.8.2 
The Protein Group 83
2.8.3 
The Polynucleotides or Nucleic Acids . 86
2.8.4 
Applications or Importance of Biopolymers . 88
Solved Problems 89
Question Bank . 91
3. 
General Organic Chemistry 95-114
3.1 
Introduction 95
3.2 
Electronic Displacements in Organic Molecules 95
3.2.1 
Inductive Effect . 95
3.2.2 
Electromeric Effect . 98
3.2.3 
Mesomeric Effect 98
3.2.4 
Hyperconjugative Effect . 100
3.3 
Bond Fission in Organic Molecules . 102
3.4 
Reaction Intermediates 102
3.4.1 
Free Radicals . 102
3.4.2 
Carbocations or Carbonium Ions . 104
3.4.3 
Carbanions 105
3.5 
Types of Reagents . 107
3.5.1 
Nucleophiles 107
3.5.2 
Electrophiles . 107
3.6 
Types of Organic Reactions 107
3.6.1 
Substitution Reactions . 107
3.6.2 
Addition Reactions 110
3.6.3 
Elimination Reactions 111
Question Bank . 113
4. 
Organic Name Reactions . 115-135
4.1 
Beckmann Rearrangement 115
4.2 
Hoffmann Reaction or Rearrangement . 118
4.3 
Cannizaro Reaction 120
4.4 
Aldol Condensation . 122
4.5 
Friedal Craft Reactions 125
4.6 
Diels-Alder Reaction . 128
4.7 
Reimer-Tiemann Reaction . 130
4.8 
Skraup's Synthesis . 132
Question Bank . 134
 5. 
Stereoisomerism 136-164
5.1 
Introduction 136
5.2 
Enantiomerism or Optical Isomerism . 137
5.2.1 
Optical Activity . 137
5.2.2 
Optical Activity and Chirality . 138
5.2.3 
Chirality and Elements of Symmetry . 139
5.2.4 
Cause of Optical Activity . 140
5.2.5 
Examples of Optical Isomerism . 141
5.2.6 
Properties of Enantiomers . 144
5.2.7 
The Racemic Modification 145
5.2.8 
R and S System of Nomenclature 146
5.3 
Geometrical Isomerism 151
5.3.1 
Modern Interpretation of Geometrical Isomerism . 151
5.3.2 
Examples of Geometrical Isomerism 153
5.3.3 
E and Z System of Nomenclature 153
5.4 
Conformational Analysis 156
5.4.1 
Conformations of Ethane . 157
5.4.2 
Conformations of n-Butane 158
5.4.3 
Conformations of Cyclohexane 160
5.5 
Optical Activity Without Chirality 161
Question Bank . 163
6.
 Electrochemistry and Ionic Equilibrium . 165-200
6.1 
Introduction 165
6.2 
Electrochemical Cells or Galvanic Cells . 165
6.2.1 
Galvanic Cell . 165
6.2.2 
Half Cell Reactions and Electrodes . 168
6.2.3 
Representation of a Cell or Cell Diagram . 169
6.2.4 
EMF of the Cell or Cell Potential 170
6.3 
Electrode Potential (Reduction Potential) 171
6.3.1 
Measurement of Electrode Potential 172
6.4 
Electrochemical Series . 174
6.4.1 
Importance of Electrochemical Series 175
6.5 
Types of Cells 181
6.5.1 
Chemical Cells 181
6.5.2 
Concentration Cells 182
6.6 
Cell Potential Measurement and Thermodynamic Functions 185
6.6.1 
Relation between ÆG¡ and the Cell Potential 185
6.6.2 
Entropy of the Reaction . 186
6.6.3 
Enthalpy of the Reaction . 186
6.7 
EMF of the Cell and Equilibrium Constant of a Cell Reaction . 187
6.8 
The Nernst Equation 188
Solved Problems 190
Question Bank . 198
7. 
Chemical Kinetics . 201-249
7.1 
Rate of a Chemical Reaction 201
7.2 
Average and Instantaneous Rate of a Reaction . 201
7.3 
Rate Law and Rate Constant . 202
7.4 
Order of a Reaction . 203
7.5 
Zero Order Reactions 204
7.6 
Molecularity of a Reaction . 205
7.7 
Pseudo-Unimolecular Reaction . 207
7.8 
Integrated Rate Equations 207
7.8.1 
First Order Rate Equation . 207
7.8.2 
Second Order Rate Equation . 209
7.9 
Chracteristics of 1st and 2nd Order Reactions 211
7.9.1 
Half-Life of a Reaction . 211
7.9.2 
Units of Rate Constant . 213
7.10 
Determination of Order of Reaction 213
7.11 
Effect of Temperature on Rate of Reaction 216
7.12 
Theories of Reaction Rate 219
7.13 
Complex Reactions . 221
7.13.1 
Reversible or Opposing Reactions . 221
7.13.2 
Parallel or Side Reactions 226
Solved Problems 229
Question Bank . 248
8.
 Phase Equilibrium-The Phase Rule 250-260
8.1 
Introduction 250
8.2 
Phase 250
8.3 
Component 250
8.4 
Degree of Freedom 251
8.5 
The Phase Rule . 252
8.5.1 
Derivation of the Phase Rule . 252
8.5.2 
One Component System . 253
8.5.3 
Advantages of the Phase Rule . 256
8.5.4 
Limitations of the Phase Rule . 257
Solved Problems 257
Question Bank . 259
9.
 Corrosion 261-277
9.1 
Introduction 261
9.2 
Theories of Corrosion . 261
9.2.1 
The Electrochemical or Wet or Immersed Theory . 261
9.2.2 
Chemical Corrosion or Dry Corrosion or Direct Chemical
Attack Theory . 263
9.3 
Cause of Corrosion 266
9.4 
Factors Affecting Corrosion . 266
9.4.1 
Nature of the Metal 266
9.4.2 
Nature of the Corroding Environment . 267
9.5 
Types of Corrosion 267
9.6 
Corrosion Control . 270
9.6.1 
Material Selection and Design 270
9.6.2 
Protective Coatings . 270
9.6.3 
Cathodic and Anodic Protection 272
9.6.4 
Corrosion Inhibitors . 274
9.7 
Passivity 275
9.7.1 
Oxide or Protective Layer Theory . 276
Question Bank . 276
10. 
Water and Water Treatment . 278-315
10.1 
Hardness of Water 278
10.1.1 
Types of Water Hardness . 278
10.1.2 
Units of Water Hardness . 279
10.1.3 
Effects of Water Hardness . 279
10.1.4 
Equivalents of CaCO3 Concept 279
10.2 
Characteristics Imparted by Impurities in Water . 282
10.3 
Softening of Water or Water Treatment . 283
10.3.1 
Lime-Soda (L-S) Process of Water Softening . 283
10.3.2 
Zeolite or Permutit Process of Water Softening . 286
10.3.3 
Solving Problems on Water Treatment by Lime-Soda Process 288
10.3.4 
Ion Exchange Resins for Water Softening 292
10.4 
Boiler Feed Water . 295
10.4.1 
Scale or Sludge Formation . 295
10.4.2 
Boiler Corrosion 298
10.4.3 
Priming and Foaming . 299
10.4.4 
Caustic Embrittlement . 300
10.5 
Wastewater Treatment 300
10.5.1 
Primary Treatment of Wastewater . 300
10.5.2 
Secondary or Biological Treatment of Wastewater . 301
10.5.3 
Tertiary Wastewater Treatment . 303
10.6 
Reverse Osmosis (RO) 303
10.6.1 
Reducing Contaminants Through RO . 304
10.6.2 
The Reverse Osmosis Process 304
10.6.3 
Design of an RO System . 305
10.6.4 
RO Membrane Materials 306
10.6.5 
Maintenance of an RO System 307
10.6.6 
Efficiency of RO Systems . 308
10.6.7 
Summary of RO Process . 308
Solved Problems 308
Question Bank . 313
11. 
Fuels 316-349
11.1 
Introduction 316
11.2 
Classification of Fuels 316
11.3 
Characteristics of a Good Fuel 317
11.4 
Calorific Value of a Fuel . 317
11.4.1 
Determination of Calorific Value 318
11.5 
Solid Fuels . 320
11.6 
Selection of Coal . 322
11.7 
Analysis of Coal 323
11.7.1 
Proximate Analysis . 323
11.7.2 
Ultimate Analysis of Coal 325
11.8 
Liquid Fuels 326
11.9 
Gaseous Fuels . 329
11.9.1 
Natural Gas . 329
11.9.2 
Coal Gas 330
11.9.3 
Oil Gas . 330
11.9.4 
Producer Gas . 331
11.9.5 
Water Gas 332
11.10 
Comparative Assessment of Fuels 333
11.11 
Non-Conventional Energy Sources . 334
11.12 
Solar Energy . 334
11.13 
Biomass and Biomass Energy . 336
11.14 
Biogas 337
11.15 
Combustion Reactions 338
Solved Problems 339
Question Bank . 347
12. 
Environmental Pollution . 350-367
12.1 
Introduction 350
12.2 
Origin of Pollution 351
12.3 
Pollutants 352
12.4 
Classification of Pollutants 353
12.5 
Types of Pollution . 353
12.6 
Air Pollution 354
12.6.1 
Air Pollutants and Their Classification 354
12.6.2 
Air Pollutants-Effects and Control . 354
12.7 
Acid Rain . 361
12.8 
Smog Formation . 362
12.9 
Effects of Air Pollution . 363
12.10 
Ozone Chemistry 364
12.10.1 
Formation of Ozone Layer . 365
12.10.2 
Depletion of Ozone Layer 366
12.10.3 
Consequences of Ozone Layer Depletion 366
Question Bank . 366
13. 
Advanced Theory of Chemical Bonding 368-408
13.1 
Valence Bond Theory of Bonding 368
13.1.1 
Formation of H2 Molecule 368
13.1.2 
Pauling and Slater Theory . 370
13.1.3 
Types of Overlapping . 370
13.2 
Shapes of Molecules 371
13.2.1 
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory 371
13.2.2 
Structure of Molecules . 372
13.2.3 
Limitations of VSEPR Theory . 377
13.2.4 
Calculation of Hybridisation in a Molecule 377
13.2.5 
Calculation of Percentage s-and p-Character 378
13.2.6. 
Calculation of Number of --and ¹-Bonds . 378
13.3 
Molecular Orbital Theory . 379
13.3.1 
Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) Method 380
13.4 
Shapes of Molecular Orbitals . 381
13.4.1 
Energy Level Diagram for Molecular Orbital 383
13.4.2 
Bond Order 384
13.4.3 
Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules . 385
13.4.4 
Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules . 389
13.5 
Theories of Metallic Bonding . 391
13.5.1 
Electron Sea Theory . 392
13.5.2 
Valence Bond Theory . 393
13.5.3 
Molecular Orbital or Band Theory 393
13.6 
Semiconductors . 395
13.7 
The Born-Haber Cycle 398
13.8 
Hydrogen Bonding 400
13.8.1 
Examples of Hydrogen Bonding 400
13.8.2 
Strength of Hydrogen Bond . 402
13.8.3 
Types of Hydrogen Bond 402
Question Bank . 405
14. 
Coordination Chemistry 409-431
14.1 
Introduction and Terminology . 409
14.2 
Classification of Ligands 410
14.3 
Rules for Naming of Coordination Compounds 412
14.4 
Theories of Coordination Compounds . 415
14.4.1 
Werner's Theory 415
14.4.2 
Sidwick's Theory . 417
14.4.3 
Valence Bond Theory (VBT) 419
14.4.4 
Crystal Field Theory (CFT) 422
14.4.5 
Application of CFT 428
14.4.6 
Limitations of CFT . 429
14.4.7 
Comparison between Valence Bond Theory and Crystal Field Theory . 429
Question Bank . 430
15. 
Solid State Chemistry. 432-468
15.1 
Introduction 432
15.2 
Types of Solids 432
15.3 
Crystal Structure 434
15.3.1 
External Features of Crystals . 435
15.3.2 
Crystal Symmetry . 435
15.3.3 
Symmetry Elements of a Cubic Crystal 437
15.3.4 
Crystal Lattice or Space Lattice 438
15.3.5 
Unit Cell 439
15.3.6 
Parameters of the Unit Cells/Bravais Lattice 439
15.3.7 
Atoms or Points in a Unit Cell or Lattice Points . 441
15.3.8 
Calculation of Mass of the Unit Cell . 442
15.3.9 
Analysis of a Cubic System 443
15.4 
Laws of Crystallography 446
15.5 
Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystal 450
15.6 
Bragg's Law . 450
15.6.1 
Derivation of Bragg's Law . 450
15.6.2 
Bragg's Spectrometer . 451
15.6.3 
Bragg's Law and Crystal Structure 453
15.7 
Allotropes of Carbon . 455
15.7.1 
Diamond 455
15.7.2 
Graphite 455
15.8 
Fullerenes 458
Solved Problems 460
Question Bank . 466
16. 
Experimental Chemistry . 469-542
16.1 
Volumetric Analysis . 469
16.1.1 
Terms Used in Volumetric Analysis . 469
16.1.2 
Concentration or Strength of a Solution . 469
16.1.3 
Types of Volumetric Analysis 471
16.1.4 
Theory of Volumetric Analysis and Calculations . 473
16.2 
General Instructions for Volumetry 476
16.2.1 
Weighing 476
16.2.2 
Dissolution 478
16.2.3 
Titration 478
16.2.4 
Calculation 481
16.3 
Preparation of Solutions 481
16.3.1 
Preparation of Indicator Solutions 481
16.3.2 
Buffer Solutions 483
16.3.3 
Solutions of Approximate Strength/Standard Solution . 483
16.3.4 
Drying Agents . 487
16.3.5 
Special Reagents Used in the Organic and Other Analysis 488
16.4 
Experiments in UPTU Syllabus 490
16.5 
General Viva-Voce on Volumetric Analysis 537
16.6 
Laboratory Accidents and First Aid 539
16.6.1 
Preventive Measures or Habits of Safety . 539
16.6.2 
First Aid Box . 540
16.6.3 
First Aid Measures for Laboratory Accidents 540
Appendices . 543-548
Examination Papers . 549-572
Index 573-583
 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Chemical engineering.