Table of contents for Life: the science of biology / David Sadava ... [et al.].

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Table of Contents
1 Studying Life
1.1 What Is Biology?
1.2 How Is All Life on Earth Related?
1.3 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?
1.4 How Does Biology Influence Public Policy?
2 The Chemistry of Life
2.1 What Are the Chemical Elements That Make Up Living Organisms?
2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?
2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?
2.4 What Properties of Water Make It So Important in Biology?
3 Macromolecules and the Origin of Life
3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
3.5 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
3.6 How Did Life on Earth Begin?
4 Cells: The Working Units of Life
4.1 What Features of Cells Make Them the Fundamental Unit of Life?
4.2 What Are the Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells?
4.3 What Are the Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells?
4.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?
4.5 How Did Eukaryotic Cells Originate?
5 The Dynamic Cell Membrane
5.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
5.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?
5.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?
5.4 How Do Substances Cross Membranes Against a Concentration Gradient?
5.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?
5.6 What Are Some Other Functions of Membranes?
6 Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism
6.1 What Physical Principles Underlie Biological Energy Transformations?
6.2 What Is the Role of ATP in Biochemical Energetics?
6.3 What Are Enzymes?
6.4 How Do Enzymes Work?
6.5 How Are Enzyme Activities Regulated?
7 Pathways That Harvest Chemical Energy
7.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?
7.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Metabolism?
7.3 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?
7.4 How Does the Oxidation of Glucose Form ATP?
7.5 Why Does Cellular Respiration Yield So Much More Energy Than Fermentation?
7.6 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Controlled?
8 Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight
8.1 What Is Photosynthesis?
8.2 How Does Photosynthesis Convert Light Energy into Chemical Energy?
8.3 How Is Chemical Energy Used to Synthesize Carbohydrates?
8.4 How Do Plants Adapt to the Inefficiencies of Photosynthesis?
8.5 How Is Photosynthesis Connected to Other Metabolic Pathways in Plants?
9 Chromosomes, the Cell Cycle, and Cell Division
9.1 How Do Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Divide?
9.2 How Is Eukaryotic Cell Division Controlled?
9.3 What Happens during Mitosis?
9.4 What Is the Role of Cell Division in Sexual Life Cycles?
9.5 What Happens When a Cell Undergoes Meiosis?
9.6 How Do Cells Die?
10 Genetics: Mendel and Beyond
10.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance?
10.2 How Do Alleles Interact?
10.3 How Do Genes Interact?
10.4 What Is the Relationship between Genes and Chromosomes?
10.5 What Are the Effects of Genes Outside the Nucleus?
11 DNA and Its Role in Heredity
11.1 What Is the Evidence that the Gene Is DNA?
11.2 What Is the Structure of DNA?
11.3 How Is DNA Replicated?
11.4 How Are Errors in DNA Repaired?
11.5 What Are Some Applications of Our Knowledge of DNA Structure and Replication?
12 From DNA to Protein: Genotype to Phenotype
12.1 What Is the Evidence that Genes Code for Proteins?
12.2 How Does Information Flow from Genes to Proteins?
12.3 How Is the Information Content in DNA Transcribed to Produce RNA?
12.4 How Is RNA Translated into Proteins?
12.5 What Happens to Polypeptides after Translation?
12.6 What Are Mutations?
13 The Genetics of Viruses and Prokaryotes
13.1 How Do Viruses Reproduce and Transmit Genes?
13.2 How Is Gene Expression Regulated in Viruses?
13.3 How Do Prokaryotes Exchange Genes?
13.4 How Is Gene Expression Regulated in Prokaryotes?
13.5 What Have We Learned from the Sequencing of Prokaryotic Genomes?
14 The Eukaryotic Genome and Its Expression
14.1 What Are the Characteristics of the Eukaryotic Genome?
14.2 What Are the Characteristics of Eukaryotic Genes?
14.3 How Are Eukaryotic Gene Transcripts Processed?
14.4 How Is Eukaryotic Gene Transcription Regulated?
14.5 How Is Eukaryotic Gene Expression Regulated After Transcription?
14.6 How Is Gene Expression Controlled During and After Translation?
15 Cell Signaling and Communication
15.1 What Are Signals, and How Do Cells Respond to Them?
15.2 How Do Signal Receptors Initiate a Cellular Response?
15.3 How Is a Response to a Signal Transduced through the Cell?
15.4 How Do Cells Change in Response to Signals?
15.5 How Do Cells Communicate Directly?
16 Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology
16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed?
16.2 What Is Recombinant DNA?
16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells?
16.4 What Are the Sources of DNA Used in Cloning?
16.5 What Other Tools Are Used to Manipulate DNA?
16.6 What Is Biotechnology?
17 Molecular Biology and Medicine
17.1 How Do Defective Proteins Lead to Diseases?
17.2 What Kinds of DNA Changes Lead to Diseases?
17.3 How Does Genetic Screening Detect Diseases?
17.4 What Is Cancer?
17.5 How Are Genetic Diseases Treated?
17.6 What Have We Learned from the Human Genome Project?
18 Natural Defenses against Disease
18.1 What Are the Major Defense Systems of Animals?
18.2 What Are the Characteristics of the Nonspecific Defenses?
18.3 How Does Specific Immunity Develop?
18.4 What Is the Humoral Immune Response?
18.5 What Is the Cellular Immune Response?
18.6 How Do Animals Make So Many Different Antibodies?
18.7 What Happens When the Immune System Malfunctions?
19 Differential Gene Expression in Development
19.1 What Are the Processes of Development?
19.2 Is Cell Differentiation Irreversible?
19.3 What Is the Role of Gene Expression in Cell Differentiation?
19.4 How Is Cell Fate Determined?
19.5 How Does Gene Expression Determine Pattern Formation?
20 Development and Evolutionary Change
20.1 How Does a Molecular Tool Kit Govern Development?
20.2 How Can Mutations with Large Effects Change Only One Part of the Body?
20.3 How Can Differences among Species Evolve?
20.4 How Does the Environment Modulate Development?
20.5 How Do Developmental Genes Constrain Evolution?
21 The History of Life on Earth
21.1 How Do Scientists Date Ancient Events?
21.2 How Have Earth?s Continents and Climates Changed over Time?
21.3 What Are the Major Events in Life?s History?
21.4 Why Do Evolutionary Rates Differ among Groups of Organisms?
22 The Mechanisms of Evolution
22.1 What Facts Form the Base of Our Understanding of Evolution?
22.2 What Are the Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change?
22.3 What Evolutionary Mechanisms Result in Adaptation?
22.4 How Is Genetic Variation Maintained within Populations?
22.5 What Are the Constraints on Evolution?
22.6 How Have Humans Influenced Evolution?
23 Species and Their Formation
23.1 What Are Species?
23.2 How Do New Species Arise?
23.3 What Happens when Newly Formed Species Come Together?
23.4 Why Do Rates of Speciation Vary?
23.5 Why Do Adaptive Radiations Occur?
24 The Evolution of Genes and Genomes
24.1 What Can Genomes Reveal about Evolution?
24.2 What Are the Mechanisms of Molecular Evolution?
24.3 What Are Some Applications of Molecular Evolution?
25 Reconstructing and Using Phylogenies
25.1 What Is Phylogeny?
25.2 How Are Phylogenetic Trees Constructed?
25.3 How Do Biologists Use Phylogenetic Trees?
25.4 How Does Phylogeny Relate to Classification?
26 Bacteria and Archaea: The Prokaryotic Domains
26.1 How Did the Living World Begin to Diversify?
26.2 Where Are Prokaryotes Found?
26.3 What Are Some Keys to the Success of Prokaryotes?
26.4 How Can We Determine Prokaryote Phylogeny?
26.5 What Are the Major Known Groups of Prokaryotes?
26.6 How Do Prokaryotes Affect Their Environments?
27 The Origin and Diversification of the Eukaryotes
27.1 How Do Microbial Eukaryotes Affect the World Around Them?
27.2 How Did the Eukaryotic Cell Arise?
27.3 How Did the Microbial Eukaryotes Diversify?
27.4 How Do Microbial Eukaryotes Reproduce?
27.5 What Are the Major Groups of Eukaryotes?
28 Plants without Seeds: From Sea to Land
28.1 How Did the Land Plants Arise?
28.2 How Did Plants Colonize and Thrive on Land?
28.3 What Features Distinguish the Vascular Plants?
28.4 What Are the Major Clades of Seedless Plants?
29 The Evolution of Seed Plants
29.1 How Did Seed Plants Become Today?s Dominant Vegetation?
29.2 What Are the Major Groups of Gymnosperms?
29.3 What Features Distinguish the Angiosperms?
29.4 How Did the Angiosperms Originate and Diversify?
29.5 How Do Plants Support Our World?
30 Fungi: Recyclers, Pathogens, Parasites, and Plant Partners
30.1 How Do Fungi Thrive in Virtually Every Environment?
30.2 How Are Fungi Beneficial to Other Organisms?
30.3 How Do Fungal Life Cycles Differ from One Another?
30.4 How Do We Tell the Fungal Groups Apart?
31 Animal Origins and the Evolution of Body Plans
31.1 What Evidence Indicates the Animals Are Monophyletic?
31.2 What Are the Features of Animal Body Plans?
31.3 How Do Animals Get Their Food?
31.4 How Do Animal Life Cycles Differ?
31.5 What Are the Major Groups of Animals?
32 Protostome Animals
32.1 What Is a Protostome?
32.2 What Are the Major Groups of Lophotrochozoans?
32.3 What Are the Major Groups of Ecdysozoans?
32.4 Why Do Arthropods Dominate Earth?s Fauna?
32.5 What Are the Major Themes in Protostome Evolution?
33 Deuterostome Animals
33.1 What is a Deuterostome?
33.2 What Are the Major Groups of Echinoderms and Hemichordates?
33.3 What New Features Evolved in the Chordates?
33.4 How Did Vertebrates Colonize the Land?
33.5 What Traits Characterize the Primates?
34 The Plant Body
34.1 How Is the Plant Body Organized?
34.2 How Are Plant Cells Unique?
34.3 How Do Meristems Build the Plant Body?
34.4 How Does Leaf Anatomy Support Photosynthesis?
35 Transport in Plants
35.1 How Do Plant Cells Take Up Water and Solutes?
35.2 How Are Water and Minerals Transported in the Xylem?
35.3 How Do Stomata Control the Loss of Water and the Uptake of CO2?
35.4 How Are Substances Translocated in the Phloem?
36 Plant Nutrition
36.1 How Do Plants Acquire Nutrients?
36.2 What Mineral Nutrients Do Plants Require?
36.3 What Are the Roles of Soil?
36.4 How Does Nitrogen Get From Air to Plant Cells?
36.5 Do Soil, Air, and Sunlight Meet the Needs of All Plants?
37 Regulation of Plant Growth
37.1 How Does Plant Development Proceed?
37.2 What Do Gibberellins Do?
37.3 What Does Auxin Do?
37.4 What Do Cytokinins, Ethylene, Abscisic Acid, and Brassinosteroids Do?
37.5 How Do Photoreceptors Participate in Plant Growth Regulation?
38 Reproduction in Flowering Plants 
38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?
38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?
38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?
39 Plant Responses to Environmental Challenges
39.1 How Do Plants Deal With Pathogens?
39.2 How Do Plants Deal with Herbivores?
39.3 How Do Plants Deal with Climate Extremes?
39.4 How Do Plants Deal with Salt and Heavy Metals?
40 Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation
40.1 Why Must Animals Regulate Their Internal Environments?
40.2 How Does Temperature Affect Living Systems?
40.3 How Do Animals Alter Their Heat Exchange with the Environment?
40.4 How Do Mammals Regulate Their Body Temperatures?
41 Animal Hormones
41.1 What Are Hormones and How Do They Work?
41.2 How Do the Nervous and Endocrine Systems Interact?
41.3 What Are the Major Mammalian Endocrine Glands and Hormones?
41.4 How Do We Study Mechanisms of Hormone Action?
42 Animal Reproduction
42.1 How Do Animals Reproduce without Sex?
42.2 How Do Animals Reproduce Sexually?
42.3 How Do the Human Male and Female Reproductive Systems Work?
42.4 How Can Fertility Be Controlled and Sexual Health Maintained?
43 Animal Development
43.1 How Does Fertilization Activate Development?
43.2 How Does the Blastula Generate Multiple Tissue Layers?
43.3 How Do Organs and Organ Systems Develop? 
43.4 What Is the Origin of the Placenta?
43.5 What Are the Stages of Human Development?
44 Neurons and Nervous Systems 
44.1 What Cells Are Unique to the Nervous System?
44.2 How Do Neurons Generate and Conduct Signals?
44.3 How Do Neurons Communicate with Other Cells?
45 Sensory Systems
45.1 How Do Sensory Cells Convert Stimuli into Action Potentials?
45.2 How Do Sensory Systems Detect Chemical Stimuli?
45.3 How Do Sensory Systems Detect Mechanical Forces?
45.4 How Do Sensory Systems Detect Light?
46 The Mammalian Nervous System: Structure and Higher Functions
46.1 How Is the Mammalian Nervous System Organized?
46.2 How Is Information Processed by Neuronal Networks?
46.3 Can Higher Functions Be Understood in Cellular Terms?
47 Effectors: How Animals Get Things Done
47.1 How Do Muscles Contract?
47.2 What Determines Muscle Strength and Endurance?
47.3 What Role Do Skeletal Systems Play in Movement?
47.4 What Are Some Other Kinds of Effectors?
48 Gas Exchange in Animals 
48.1 What Physical Factors Govern Respiratory Gas Exchange?
48.2 What Adaptations Maximize Respiratory Gas Exchange?
48.3 How Do Human Lungs Work?
48.4 How Does Blood Transport Respiratory Gases?
48.5 How is Breathing Regulated?
49 Circulatory Systems 
49.1 Why Do Animals Need a Circulatory System?
49.2 How Have Vertebrate Circulatory Systems Evolved?
49.3 How Does the Mammalian Heart Function?
49.4 What Are the Properties of Blood and Blood Vessels?
49.5 How Is the Circulatory System Controlled and Regulated?
50 Nutrition, Digestion, and Absorption 
50.1 What Do Animals Require from Food?
50.2 How Do Animals Ingest and Digest Food?
50.3 How Does the Vertebrate Gastrointestinal System Function?
50.4 How Is the Flow of Nutrients Controlled and Regulated?
50.5 How Do Animals Deal with Ingested Toxins?
51 Salt and Water Balance and Nitrogen Excretion 
51.1 What Roles Do Excretory Organs Play in Maintaining Homeostasis?
51.2 How Do Animals Excrete Toxic Wastes from Nitrogen Metabolism?
51.3 How Do Invertebrate Excretory Systems Work?
51.4 How Do Vertebrates Maintain Salt and Water Balance?
51.5 How Does the Mammalian Kidney Produce Concentrated Urine?
51.6 What Mechanisms Regulate Kidney Function?
PART IX Ecology
52 Ecology and the Distribution of Life
52.1 What Is Ecology?
52.2 How Are Climates Distributed on Earth?
52.3 What Is a Biome?
52.4 What Is a Biogeographic Region?
52.5 How Is Life Distributed in Aquatic Environments?
53 Behavior and Behavioral Ecology
53.1 What Questions Do Biologists Ask about Behavior?
53.2 How Do Genes and Environment Interact to Shape Behavior?
53.3 How Do Behavioral Responses to the Environment Influence Fitness?
53.4 How Do Animals Communicate with One Another?
53.5 How Do Animal Societies Evolve?
53.6 How Does Behavior Influence Populations and Communities?
54 Population Ecology
54.1 How Do Ecologists Study Populations?
54.2 How Do Ecological Conditions Affect Life Histories?
54.3 What Factors Influence Population Densities?
54.4 How Do Spatially Variable Environments Influence Population Dynamics?
54.5 How Can We Manage Populations?
55 Community Ecology
55.1 What Are Ecological Communities?
55.2 What Processes Influence Community Structure?
55.3 How Do Species Interactions Cause Trophic Cascades?
55.4 How Do Disturbances Affect Ecological Communities?
55.5 What Determines Species Richness in Ecological Communities?
56 Ecosystems and Global Ecology
56.1 What Are the Compartments of the Global Ecosystem?
56.2 How Does Energy Flow Through the Global Ecosystem?
56.3 How Do Materials Cycle Through the Global Ecosystem?
56.4 What Services Do Ecosystems Provide?
56.5 What Options Exist to Manage Ecosystems Sustainably?
Chapter 57 Conservation Biology
57.1 What Is Conservation Biology?
57.2. How Do Biologists Predict Changes in Biodiversity?
57.3 What Factors Threaten Species Survival?
57.4 What Strategies Do Conservation Biologists Use?

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