Table of contents for Marketing : real people, real choices / Michael R. Solomon, Greg W. Marshall, Elnora W. Stuart.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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CONTENTS
Preface xxiii
PART I	MAKING MARKETING VALUE DECISIONS 2
CHAPTER 1	WELCOME TO THE WORLD OF MARKETING: CREATING AND DELIVERING VALUE 3
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Bill Bieberbach, a Decision Maker at Ron Jon SurfShop Inc. 3
Welcome to a Branded World 4
Welcome to Brand You
The Who and Where of Marketing 5
Marketing's Role in the Firm 5
Where Do YouFit in? Careers in Marketing
THE VALUE OF MARKETING 6
Marketing Is About Meeting Needs 6
Marketing Is About Creating Utility 7
Marketing Is About Exchange Relationships 8
When did Marketing Begin? The Evolution of a Concept 8
The Production Era
The Selling Era
The Consumer Era
The New Era: Make Money and Act Ethically
Measuring Value
WhatCan Be Marketed?
Consumer Goods and Services 9
Business-to-Business Goods and Services 10
Not-for-Profit Marketing 10
Idea, Place, and People Marketing 11
THE MARKETING OF VALUE 11
Value from the Customer's Perspective 12
Value from the Seller's Perspective 12
Value from Society's Perspective 16
The Dark Side of Marketing
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for
Monster.com 16
MARKETING AS A PROCESS 17
Marketing Planning 17
Marketing's Tools: The Marketing Mix 18
Real People, Real Choices: Marketing Metrics:How Ron Jon Surf Shops Measures Success 25
Chapter Summary 26
Key Terms 27
Chapter Review 28
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 29
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Virgin Galactic 30
CHAPTER 2	STRATEGIC PLANNING AND THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT: THE ADVANTAGE IS UNDENIABLE 33
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Steve Battista, a Decision Maker at Under Armour, Inc. 33
BUSINESS PLANNING: SEEING THE BIG PICTURE 34
THE THREE LEVELS OF BUSINESS PLANNING 35
STRATEGIC PLANNING: DRIVING A FIRM'S SUCCESS 37
Step 1: Define the Mission 37
Step 2: Evaluate the Internal and External Environment 38
Step 3: Set Organizational or SBU Objectives 38
Step 4: Establish the Business Portfolio 39
Step 5: Develop Growth Strategies 42
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for Under Armour 44
FUNCTIONAL PLANNING: FROM STRATEGIC PLANNING TO MARKETING PLANNING 44
Step 1: Perform a Situation Analysis 45
Step 2: Set Marketing Objectives 45
Step 3: Develop Marketing Strategies 45
Step 4: Implement Marketing Strategies 47
Step 5: Monitor and Control Marketing Strategies 47
OPERATIONAL PLANNING: DAY-TO-DAY EXECUTION OF MARKETING PLANS 48
ANALYZING THE ENVIRONMENT 48
INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT 49
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT 50
The Economic Environment 50
The Competitive Environment 50
The Technological Environment 52
The Legal Environment 52
The Sociocultural Environment 55
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at Under Armour 56
Chapter Summary 57
Key Terms 58
Chapter Review 58
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 60
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at McDonald's 60
CHAPTER 3	THINK GLOBALLY/ACT LOCALLY 63
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Rick Roth, a Decision Maker at SweatX 63
WELCOME TO THE NEW ERA OF MARKETING 65
DOING IT RIGHT: ETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN THE MARKETPLACE 65
The High Costs of Unethical Marketplace Behavior 66
Consumerism: Fighting Back 66
Ethics in the Marketing Mix 68
DOING IT RIGHT: A FOCUS ON SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY 69
Serving the Environment 70
Serving Society: Cause Marketing 70
Serving the Community: Promoting Cultural Diversity 71
PLAYING ON A GLOBAL STAGE 72
World Trade 72
Borders, Roadblocks, and Communities 75
Economic Communities 76
THE GLOBAL MARKETING ENVIRONMENT 76
The Economic Environment 76
The Political and Legal Environment 79
The Cultural Environment 81
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for SweatX 83
HOW "GLOBAL" SHOULD A GLOBAL MARKETING STRATEGY BE? 85
Company-Level Decisions: Choosing a Market Entry Strategy 85
PRODUCT-LEVEL DECISIONS: CHOOSING A MARKETING MIX STRATEGY 87
Standardization Versus Localization 87
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at SweatX 91
Chapter Summary 92
Key Terms 93
Chapter Review 94
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 95
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Wal-Mart 96
PART II	UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' VALUE NEEDS 98
CHAPTER 4	MARKETING INFORMATION AND RESEARCH: ANALYZING THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT OFFLINE AND ONLINE 99
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Cathy Burrows, A Decision Maker at RBC Centura Bank 99
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER 100
THE MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM 101
Internal Company Data 101
Marketing Intelligence 102
Marketing Research 103
Acquired Databases 104
MARKETING DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS 105
SEARCHING FOR GOLD: DATA MINING 106
STEPS IN THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS 107
Step 1: Define the Research Problem 107
Step 2: Determine the Research Design 109
Step 3: Choose the Method for Collecting Primary Data 115
Step 4: Design the Sample 119
Step 5: Collect the Data 121
Step 6: Analyze and Interpret the Data 123
Step 7: Prepare the Research Report 124
ONLINE RESEARCH 125
Online Tracking 125
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for RBC Centura Bank 126
Online Testing, Questionnaires, and Focus Groups 127
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at RBC Centura Bank 128
Chapter Summary 129
Key Terms 130
Chapter Review 130
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 132
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Acxiom 133
CHAPTER 5	CONSUMER BEHAVIOR: HOW AND WHY PEOPLE BUY 135
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Daniel Grossman, a Decision Maker at Wild Planet 135
DECISIONS, DECISIONS 136
STEPS IN THE CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS 137
Step 1: Problem Recognition 139
Step 2: Information Search 140
Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives 140
Step 4: Product Choice 141
Step 5: Postpurchase Evaluation 142
INTERNAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER DECISIONS 144
Perception 144
Motivation 145
Learning 146
Attitudes 147
Personality 148
Age-Group 149
Lifestyles 150
SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER DECISIONS 151
The Physical Environment 151
Time 152
SOCIAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER DECISIONS 152
Culture 152
Subcultures 154
Social Class 154
Group Memberships 155
Real People, Across the Hall: Advice for Wild Planet 156
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for Wild Planet 157
Opinion Leaders 158
Sex Roles 158
CONSUMER-TO-CONSUMER E-COMMERCE 158
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at Wild Planet 160
Chapter Summary 161
Key Terms 162
Chapter Review 163
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 164
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Volkswagen 164
CHAPTER 6	BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS MARKETS: HOW AND WHY ORGANIZATIONS BUY 167
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Steve McCracken, a Decision Maker at DuPont 167
BUSINESS MARKETS: BUYING AND SELLING WHEN STAKES ARE HIGH 168
CHARACTERISTICS THAT MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN BUSINESS MARKETS 169
Multiple Buyers 170
Number of Customers 170
Size of Purchases 170
Geographic Concentration 170
BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS DEMAND 172
Derived Demand 172
Inelastic Demand 172
Fluctuating Demand 173
Joint Demand 173
TYPES OF BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS MARKETS 173
Producers 174
Resellers 174
Organizations 174
North American Industry Classification System 175
THE NATURE OF BUSINESS BUYING 176
The Buying Situation 177
The Professional Buyer 178
The Buying Center 178
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for DuPont 179
THE BUSINESS BUYING DECISION PROCESS 181
Step 1: Problem Recognition 181
Step 2: Information Search 181
Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives 183
Step 4: Product and Supplier Selection 183
Step 5: Postpurchase Evaluation 184
BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS E-COMMERCE 185
Intranets, Extranets, and Private Exchanges 185
Security Issues 187
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at DuPont 188
Chapter Summary 189
Key Terms 190
Chapter Review 190
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 192
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Airbus 192
CHAPTER 7	SHARPENING THE FOCUS:TARGET MARKETING STRATEGIES AND CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT 195
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Que Gaskins, a Decision Maker at Reebok 195
SELECTING AND ENTERING A MARKET 197
STEP 1: SEGMENTATION 197
Ways to Segment Consumer Markets 197
Segmenting Business-to-Business Markets 208
STEP 2: TARGETING 208
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for Reebok 209
Evaluating Market Segments 209
Developing Segment Profiles 210
Choosing a Targeting Strategy 210
STEP 3: POSITIONING 212
Developing a Positioning Strategy 212
Bringing a Product to Life: The Brand Personality 213
CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT: TOWARD A SEGMENT OF ONE 215
CRM: A New Perspective on an Old Problem 217
Characteristics of CRM 219
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at Reebok 220
Chapter Summary 222
Key Terms 223
Chapter Review 223
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 224
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at JetBlue 225
PART III	CREATING THE VALUE PROPOSITION 226
CHAPTER 8	CREATING THE PRODUCT 227
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Eleni Rossides, a Decision Maker at Black & Decker 227
BUILD A BETTER MOUSETRAP 228
LAYERS OF THE PRODUCT CONCEPT 230
The Core Product 230
The Actual Product 232
The Augmented Product 232
CLASSIFYING PRODUCTS 232
Consumer Product Classes Defined by How Long a Product Lasts 234
Consumer Product Classes Defined by How Consumers Buy the Product 234
IT'S "NEW AND IMPROVED!" UNDERSTANDING INNOVATIONS 237
The Importance of Understanding Innovations 238
Types of Innovations 238
DEVELOPING NEW PRODUCTS 241
Phase 1: Idea Generation 242
Phase 2: Product Concept Development and Screening 242
Phase 3: Marketing Strategy Development 243
Phase 4: Business Analysis 243
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for Black & Decker 244
Phase 5: Technical Development 244
Phase 6: Test Marketing 246
Phase 7: Commercialization 246
ADOPTION AND DIFFUSION PROCESS 247
Stages in a Customer's Adoption of a New Product 248
The Diffusion of Innovations 251
Organizational Differences Affect Adoption 253
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at Black & Decker 254
Chapter Summary 255
Key Terms 256
Chapter Review 257
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 258
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at VOSS Water 258
CHAPTER 9	MANAGING THE PRODUCT 261
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Mario A. Polit, a Decision Maker at Nissan North America, Inc. 261
PRODUCT PLANNING: TAKING THE NEXT STEP 262
USING PRODUCT OBJECTIVES TO DECIDE ON A PRODUCT STRATEGY 263
Objectives and Strategies for Individual Products 264
Objectives and Strategies for Multiple Products 265
Quality as a Product Objective 268
MARKETING THROUGHOUT THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE 272
The Introduction Stage 272
The Growth Stage 274
The Maturity Stage 274
The Decline Stage 274
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for Nissan North America, Inc. 275
CREATING PRODUCT IDENTITY: BRANDING DECISIONS 275
What's in a Name (or a Symbol)? 276
The Importance of Branding 277
Branding Strategies 279
CREATING PRODUCT IDENTITY: PACKAGING AND LABELING DECISIONS 282
Packaging Functions 282
Designing Effective Packaging 282
Labeling Regulations 284
ORGANIZING FOR EFFECTIVE PRODUCT MANAGEMENT 284
Management of Existing Products 284
Organizing for New-Product Development 285
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at Nissan North America, Inc. 286
Chapter Summary 287
Key Terms 288
Chapter Review 288
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 290
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Samsung 290
CHAPTER 10	SERVICES AND OTHER INTANGIBLES:MARKETING THE PRODUCT THAT ISN'T THERE 293
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Robyn Eichenholz, a Decision Maker at One of Universal's Theme Parks in Orlando 293
MARKETING WHAT ISN'T THERE 294
DOES MARKETING WORK FOR INTANGIBLES? 295
WHAT IS A SERVICE? 296
Characteristics of Services 297
Classification of Services 300
The Goods/Services Continuum 300
Core and Augmented Services 302
Services on the Internet 303
The Service Encounter 305
PROVIDING QUALITY SERVICE 306
Dimensions of Service Quality 307
Measuring Service Quality 308
STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING AND MANAGING SERVICES 309
THE FUTURE OF SERVICES 310
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for One of Universal's Theme Parks in Orlando 311
MARKETING PEOPLE, PLACES, AND IDEAS 312
Marketing People 312
Marketing Places 314
Marketing Ideas 315
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at One of Universal's Theme Parks in Orlando 315
Chapter Summary 317
Key Terms 317
Chapter Review 318
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 319
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at XM Satellite Radio 319
CHAPTER 11	PRICING THE PRODUCT 323
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Danielle Blugrind, a Decision Maker at Taco Bell 323
"YES, BUT WHAT DOES IT COST?" 324
Monetary and Nonmonetary Prices 325
DEVELOPING PRICING OBJECTIVES 325
Sales or Market Share Objectives 326
Profit Objectives 326
Competitive Effect Objectives 326
Customer Satisfaction Objectives 327
Image Enhancement Objectives 327
ESTIMATING DEMAND: HOW DEMAND INFLUENCES PRICING 328
Demand Curves 328
The Price Elasticity of Demand 330
DETERMINING COSTS 333
Types of Costs 333
Break-Even Analysis 335
Marginal Analysis 337
EVALUATING THE PRICING ENVIRONMENT 338
The Economy 338
The Competition 338
Consumer Trends 339
CHOOSING A PRICE STRATEGY 339
Pricing Strategies Based on Cost 340
Pricing Strategies Based on Demand 341
Pricing Strategies Based on the Competition 343
Pricing Strategies Based on Customers' Needs 343
New-Product Pricing 344
DEVELOPING PRICING TACTICS 345
Pricing for Individual Products 345
Pricing for Multiple Products 345
Distribution-Based Pricing 346
Discounting for Members of the Channel 347
PRICING WITH ELECTRONIC COMMERCE 348
Dynamic Pricing Strategies 348
Auctions 348
Pricing Advantages for Online Shoppers 349
PSYCHOLOGICAL ISSUES IN PRICING 349
Buyers' Pricing Expectation 349
Psychological Pricing Strategies 350
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for Taco Bell 351
LEGAL AND ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN PRICING 352
Deceptive Pricing Practices 352
Unfair Sales Acts 352
Illegal Business-to-Business Price Discrimination 353
Price Fixing 353
Predatory Pricing 353
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at Taco Bell 354
Chapter Summary 355
Key Terms 356
Chapter Review 356
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 358
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at the New York Mets 358
PART IV	COMMUNICATING THE VALUE PROPOSITION 361
CHAPTER 12	CONNECTING WITH THE CUSTOMER:INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS AND INTERACTIVE MARKETING 361
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Matt Ferguson, a Decision Maker at PriceMcNabb, Inc. 361
TAILORING MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS TO CUSTOMERS 362
THE COMMUNICATIONS MODEL 364
Encoding by the Source (the Marketer) 364
The Message 365
The Medium 365
Decoding by the Receiver 365
Noise 366
Feedback 366
MARKETING COMMUNICATION STRATEGY AND THE PROMOTION MIX 367
Personal Appeals 368
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for Price McNabb, Inc. 369
Mass Appeals 369
New Appeals 370
INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS 372
Characteristics of IMC 372
DEVELOPING THE IMC PLAN 375
Step 1: Identify the Target Audiences 375
Step 2: Establish the Communications Objectives 375
Step 3: Determine and Allocate the Marketing Communication Budget 377
Step 4: Design the Promotion Mix 380
Step 5: Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Communications Program 381
INTERACTIVE MARKETING 381
Customizing the Message 382
Levels of Interactive Response 383
Database Marketing 384
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at PriceMcNabb 386
Chapter Summary 387
Key Terms 389
Chapter Review 389
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 390
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Apple Computer, Inc. 391
CHAPTER 13	ADVERTISING AND PUBLIC RELATIONS 393
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Jerry Epstein, a Decision Maker at the Zeno Group 393
ADVERTISING: THE IMAGE OF MARKETING 394
IT'S AN AD AD AD AD WORLD 395
Types of Advertising 395
Who Creates Advertising? 396
DEVELOPING THE ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN 397
Step 1: Identify the Target Audiences 398
Step 2: Establish Message and Budget Objectives 398
Step 3: Design the Ads 399
Step 4: Pretest What the Ads Will Say 401
Step 5: Choose the Media and Media Schedule 401
Step 6: Evaluate the Advertising 408
PUBLIC RELATIONS 408
Objectives of Public Relations 410
Planning a Public Relations Campaign 411
Public Relations Activities 411
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for the Zeno Group 415
DIRECT MARKETING 415
Mail Order 415
Telemarketing 416
Direct-Response Advertising 417
M-COMMERCE 418
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at the Zeno Group 419
Chapter Summary 421
Key Terms 422
Chapter Review 422
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 423
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Premier Retail Networks 424
CHAPTER 14	SALES PROMOTION, PERSONAL SELLING, AND SALES MANAGEMENT 427
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Esther Ferre, a Decision Maker at IBM 427
ADVERTISING IS NOT THE ONLY GAME IN TOWN! 428
SALES PROMOTION 429
Sales Promotion Directed Toward the Trade 429
Sales Promotion Directed Toward Consumers 431
PERSONAL SELLING 435
The Role of Personal Selling 436
Technology and Personal Selling 438
Types of Sales Jobs 438
Approaches to Personal Selling 439
The Selling Process 439
SALES MANAGEMENT 444
Setting Sales Force Objectives 444
Creating a Sales Force Strategy 444
Recruiting, Training, and Rewarding the Sales Force 445
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for IBM 446
Evaluating the Sales Force 447
Real People Across the Hall: Advice for IBM 448
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at IBM 449
Chapter Summary 450
Key Terms 450
Chapter Review 451
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 452
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Amazon.com 452
PART V DELIVERING THE VALUE PROPOSITION 454
CHAPTER 15	CREATING VALUE THROUGH SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION, LOGISTICS, AND WHOLESALING 455
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Mackey McDonald, a Decision Maker at VF Corporation 455
PLACE: THE FINAL FRONTIER 456
THE VALUE CHAIN 457
LINKS IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN 458
THE IMPORTANCE OF DISTRIBUTION: YOU CAN'T SELL WHAT ISN'T THERE! 460
Functions of Distribution Channels 460
The Internet in the Distribution Channel 462
THE COMPOSITION OF CHANNELS: TYPES OF WHOLESALING INTERMEDIARIES 463
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for VF Corporation 464
Independent Intermediaries 464
Manufacturer-Owned Intermediaries 467
TYPES OF DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 468
Consumer Channels 468
Business-to-Business Channels 470
Distribution Channels for Services 471
Dual Distribution Systems 471
Hybrid Marketing Systems 471
PLANNING A CHANNEL STRATEGY 472
Step 1: Develop Distribution Objectives 473
Step 2: Evaluate Internal and External Environmental Influences 473
Step 3: Choose a Distribution Strategy 474
Step 4: Develop Distribution Tactics 477
Distribution Channels and the Marketing Mix 480
LOGISTICS: IMPLEMENTING THE SUPPLY CHAIN 480
The Lowdown on Logistics 480
Logistics Functions 481
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at VF Corporation 484
Chapter Summary 485
Key Terms 486
Chapter Review 486
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 487
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Ben & Jerry's 488
CHAPTER 16	RETAILING:BRICKS AND CLICKS 491
Real People, Real Choices: Meet Subha Ramesh, a Decision Maker at LimitedBrands 491
RETAILING: SPECIAL DELIVERY 492
RETAILING: A MIXED (SHOPPING) BAG 492
The Evolution of Retailing 493
The Evolution Continues: What's "In Store" for the Future? 495
FROM MOM-AND-POP TO SUPER WAL-MART: CLASSIFYING RETAIL STORES 498
Classifying Retailers by What They Sell 498
Classifying Retailers by Level of Service 498
Classifying Retailers by Merchandise Selection 499
NONSTORE RETAILING 503
Direct Selling 503
Automatic Vending 504
B2C E-Commerce 505
Benefits of B2C E-Commerce 507
Limitations of B2C E-Commerce 509
Real People, Other Voices: Advice for LimitedBrands 511
Real People Across the Hall: Advice for LimitedBrands 512
B2C's Effect on the Future of Retailing 513
DEVELOPING A STORE POSITIONING STRATEGY: RETAILING AS THEATER 513
Store Image 514
Building the Theater: Store Location 517
Real People, Real Choices: How It Worked Out at LimitedBrands 520
Chapter Summary 521
Key Terms 522
Chapter Review 522
Real People, Real Surfers: Exploring the Web 524
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at IKEA 524
Appendix A Under Armour in Action: Implementing a Marketing Plan 527
Appendix B Sample Marketing Plan: The S&S Smoothie Company 531
Appendix C Marketing Math 541
Notes 551
Glossary 563
Credits 576
Index 579

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Marketing -- Vocational guidance.