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Table of Contents Groundwater in Construction 1.1 Groundwater in the Hydrologic Cycle 1.2 Origins of Dewatering 1.3 Development of Modern Dewatering Technology THE GEOLOGY OF SOILS 2.1 Geologic Time Frame 2.2 Formation of Soils 2.3 Mineral Composition of Soils 2.4 Rivers 2.5 Lakes 2.6 Estuaries 2.7 Beaches 2.8 Wind Deposits 2.9 Glaciers?The Pleistocene Epoch 2.10 Rock 2.11?Limestone and Coral 2.12 Tectonic Movements 2.13 Man-Made Ground Soils and Water 3.1 Soil Structure 3.2 Gradation of Soils 3.3 Porosity, Void Ratio and Water Content 3.4 Relative Density, Specific Gravity, and Unit Weight 3.5 Capillarity and Unsaturated Flow 3.6 Specific Yield and Specific Retention 3.7 Hydraulic Conductivity 3.8 Plasticity and Cohesion of Silts and Clays 3.9 Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM D-2487) 3.10 Soil Descriptions 3.11 Visual and Manual Classification of Soils 3.12 Seepage Forces and Soil Stress 3.13 Gravity Drainage of Granular Soils 3.14 Drainage of Silts and Clays: Pore Pressure Control 3.15 Settlement as a Result of Dewatering 3.16 Preconsolidation 3.17 Other Side Effects of Dewatering Hydrology of The Ideal Aquifer 4.1 Definition of the Ideal Aquifer 4.2 Transmissivity T 4.3 Storage Coefficient Cs and Specific Yield 4.4 Pumping from a Confined Aquifer 4.5 Recovery Calculations 4.6 The Unconfined or Water Table Aquifer Characteristics of Natural Aquifers 5.1?Anisotropy: Stratified Soils 5.2?Horizontal Variability 5.3?Recharge Boundaries: Radius of Influence R0 5.4?Barrier Boundaries 5.5 Delayed Release from Storage Dewatering Design Using Analytical Methods 6.1 Radial Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer 6.2 Radial Flow to a Well in a Water Table Aquifer 6.3 Radial Flow to a Well in a Mixed Aquifer 6.4 Flow to a Drainage Trench from a Line Source 6.5 The System as a Well: Equivalent Radius rs 6.6 Radius of Influence Ro 6.7 Hydraulic Conductivity K and Transmissivity T 6.8 Initial Head H and Final Head h 6.9 Partial Penetration 6.10 Storage Depletion 6.11 Specific Capacity of the Aquifer 6.12 Cumulative Drawdowns or Superposition 6.13 Capacity of the Well Qw 6.14 Flow Net Analysis and the Method of Fragments 6.15 Concentric Dewatering Systems 6.16 Vertical Flow 6.17 Gravel Tremie Groundwater Modeling using Numerical Methods 7.1 Models in Dewatering Practice 7.2 When to Consider a Numerical Model 7.3 Principal Steps in Model Design and Application 7.4 The Conceptual Model: Defining the Problem to be Modeled 7.5 Selecting the Program 7.6 Introduction to MODFLOW 7.7 Verification 7.8 Calibration 7.9 Prediction and Parametric Analyses 7.10 Some Practical Modeling Problems 7.11 2-D Model: Well System in a Water Table Aquifer 7.12 Calibrating the Model 7.13 3-D Model: Partial Penetration 7.14 3-D Model: Vertical Flow 7.15 3-D Model: Transient Analysis of a Progressive Trench Excavation 7.16 3-D Model: Feasibility of Tunneling in a Stratified Aquifer with Proximate Recharge Monitoring 8.1 Subsurface Information 8.2 Ordinary Piezometers and True Piezometers 8.3 Piezometer Construction 8.4 Verification of Piezometer Performance 8.5 Obtaining Data from Piezometers 8.6 Pore Pressure Piezometers in Fine-grained Soils 8.7 Direct Push Technologies for Piezometer Installation Pumping Tests 9.1 When a Pumping test Is Advisable 9.2 Planning the Test 9.3 Design of the Pumping Well 9.4 Piezometer Array 9.5 Duration of Pumpdown and Recovery 9.6 Pumping Rate 9.7 Monitoring the Test 9.8 Analysis of Pumping Test Data 9.9 Tidal Corrections 9.10 Well Loss 9.11 Step Drawdown Tests 9.12 Testing of Low Yield Wells 9.13 Delayed Storage Release: Boulton Analysis Surface Hydrology 10.1 Lakes and Reservoirs 10.2 Bays and Ocean Beaches 10.3 Rivers 10.4 Precipitation 10.5 Disposal of Dewatering Discharge 10.6 Water from Existing Structures Geotechnical Investigation of Dewatering Problems 11.1 Investigation Approach and Objectives 11.2 Preliminary Studies and Investigations 11.3 Borings and Test Pits 11.4 In Situ Test Methods 11.5 Piezometers and Observation Wells 11.6 Borehole Seepage Tests for Evaluation of Hydraulic Conductivity 11.7 Laboratory Analysis of Samples 11.8 Chemical Tests of Groundwater 11.9 Geophysical Methods 11.10 Pumping Tests 11.11 Permanent Effect of Structures on the Groundwater Body 11.12 Investigation of Potential Side Effects of Dewatering 11.13 Presentation in the Bidding Documents Pump Theory 12.1 Types of Pumps Used in Dewatering 12.2 Total Dynamic Head 12.3 Pump Performance Curves 12.4 Affinity Laws 12.5 Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head 12.6 Engine Power 12.7 Electric Power 12.8 Vacuum Pumps 12.9 Air Lift Pumping 12.10 Testing of Pumps Groundwater Chemistry, Bacteriology, and Fouling of Dewatering Systems 13.1 Types of Corrosion 13.2 Corrosive Groundwater Conditions 13.3 Dewatering in Corrosive Groundwater Conditions 13.4 Incrustation 13.5 Mineral Incrustation 13.6 Biological Incrustation 13.7 Dewatering Systems and Incrustation 13.8 Field Evaluation of Well Fouling 13.9 Rehabilitation and Maintenance for Incrustation 13.10 Analysis of Groundwater Contaminated Groundwater 14.1 Contaminants Frequently Encountered 14.2 Design Options at a Contaminated Site 14.3 Estimating Water Quantity to Be Treated 14.4 Other Considerations in Treatment Design 14.5 Elements of Groundwater Treatment 14.6 Recovery of Contaminated Water with Dewatering Techniques 14.7 Dynamic Barriers 14.8 Wellpoint Systems and Multi-Phase Contaminants 14.9 Reinjection 14.10 Health and Safety 14.11 Regulating Authorities Piping Systems 15.1 Dewatering Pipe and Fittings 15.2 Losses in Discharge Piping 15.3 Losses in Wellpoint Header Lines 15.4 Losses in Ejector Headers 15.5 Water Hammer Choosing a Method of Groundwater Control 16.1 To Pump or not to Pump 16.2 Open Pumping versus Pre-drainage 16.3 Methods of Pre-drainage 16.4 Methods of Cut-off and Exclusion 16.5 Methods in Combination Sumps, Drains, and Open Pumping 17.1 Soil and Water Conditions 17.2 Boils and Blows 17.3 Construction of Sumps 17.4 Ditches and Drains 17.5 Gravel Bedding 17.6 Slope Stabilization with Sandbags, Gravel and Geotextiles 17.7 Use of Geotextiles 17.8 Soldier Piles and Lagging: Standup Time 17.9 Long-Term Effect of Buried Drains 17.10 Leaking Utilities 17.11 Diagonal Wellpoints 17.12 Horizontal Wellpoints Deep Well Systems 18.1 Testing during Well Construction 18.2 Well Installation and Construction Methods 18.3 Wellscreen and Casing 18.4 Filter Packs 18.5 Development of Wells 18.6 Well Construction Details 18.7 Pressure Relief Wells, Vacuum Wells 18.8 Wells that Pump Sand 18.9 Systems of Low-Capacity Wells Wellpoint Systems 19.1 Suction Lifts 19.2 Single and Multi-stage Systems 19.3 Wellpoint Design 19.4 Wellpoint Spacing 19.5 Wellpoint Depth 19.6 Installation of Wellpoints 19.7 Filter Sands 19.8 Wellpoint Pumps, Header and Discharge Piping 19.9 Tuning Wellpoint Systems 19.10 Air/Water Separation 19.11 Automatic Mops 19.12 Vertical Wellpoint Pumps 19.13 Wellpoints for Stabilization of Fine-Grained Soils Ejector Systems and Other Methods 20.1 Two-Pipe and Single-Pipe Ejectors 20.2 Ejector Pumping Stations 20.3 Ejector Efficiency 20.4 Design of Nozzles and Venturis 20.5 Ejector Risers and Swings 20.6 Ejector Headers 20.7 Ejector Installation 20.8 Ejectors and Groundwater Quality 20.9 Ejectors and Soil Stabilization 20.10 Drilled Horizontal Wells 20.11 Trencher Drains Groundwater Cut-off Structures 21.1 Cut-off Terminology and Efficiency 21.2 Steel Sheet Piling 21.3 Slurry Trenches 21.4 Slurry Diaphragm Walls 21.5 Secant Piles 21.6 Deep Soil Mixing 21.7 Tremie Seals Ground Freezing 24.1 General Principles 24.2 Freezing Equipment and Methods 24.3 Design 24.4 Freezing Applications 24.5 Effect of Groundwater Movement 24.6 Ground Movement Potential as a Result of artificial Freezing Artificial Recharge 25.1 Applications of Artificial Recharge 25.2 Design Objectives 25.3 Potential Problems with Recharge Water and Plugging of Wells 25.4 Sources of Recharge Water 25.5 Treatment of Recharge Water 25.6 Construction of Recharge Systems 25.7 Operation and Maintenance of Recharge Systems 25.8 Permits for Recharge Operations Electrical Design for Dewatering Systems 26.1 Electrical Motors 26.2 Motor Controls 26.3 Power Factor 26.4 Standby Generators 26.5 Switchgear and Distribution Systems 26.6 Grounding of Electrical Circuits 26.7 Cost of Electrical Energy Long-Term Dewatering Systems 27.1 Types of Long-Term Systems 27.2 Pumps 27.3 Wellscreens and Wellpoint Screens 27.4 Pipe and Fittings 27.5 Groundwater Chemistry and Bacteriology 27.6 Access for Maintenance 27.7 Instrumentation and Controls Dewatering Costs 28.1 Format of the Estimate 28.2 Basic Cost Data 28.3 Mobilization 28.4 Installation and Removal 28.5 Operation and Maintenance 28.6 Summary 28.7 Specialty Dewatering Subcontractor Quotations Dewatering Specifications, Allocation of Risk, Dispute Avoidance and Resolution of Disputes 29.1 Performance Specifications 29.2 Owner-Designed Dewatering Systems 29.3 Specified Minimum Systems 29.4 Dewatering Submittals 29.5 Third Party Damage Caused by Dewatering 29.6 Differing Site Conditions 29.7 Disputes Review Board Appendix A Appendix B
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