Table of contents for Construction dewatering and groundwater control : new methods and applications / J. Patrick Powers ... [et al.].

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Table of Contents 
Groundwater in Construction
1.1	Groundwater in the Hydrologic Cycle
1.2	Origins of Dewatering
1.3	Development of Modern Dewatering Technology
THE GEOLOGY OF SOILS
2.1 	Geologic Time Frame
2.2 	Formation of Soils
2.3 	Mineral Composition of Soils
2.4 	Rivers
2.5 	Lakes
2.6 	Estuaries
2.7 	Beaches
2.8 	Wind Deposits
2.9 	Glaciers?The Pleistocene Epoch
2.10 	Rock
2.11?Limestone and Coral
2.12 	Tectonic Movements
2.13 	Man-Made Ground
Soils and Water
3.1	Soil Structure
3.2	Gradation of Soils
3.3	Porosity, Void Ratio and Water Content
3.4	Relative Density, Specific Gravity, and Unit Weight
3.5	Capillarity and Unsaturated Flow
3.6	Specific Yield and Specific Retention
3.7	Hydraulic Conductivity
3.8	Plasticity and Cohesion of Silts and Clays 
3.9	Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM D-2487)
3.10	Soil Descriptions
3.11	Visual and Manual Classification of Soils
3.12	Seepage Forces and Soil Stress
3.13	Gravity Drainage of Granular Soils
3.14	Drainage of Silts and Clays: Pore Pressure Control
3.15 	Settlement as a Result of Dewatering
3.16 	Preconsolidation
3.17 Other Side Effects of Dewatering
Hydrology of The Ideal Aquifer
4.1	Definition of the Ideal Aquifer
4.2	Transmissivity T
4.3	Storage Coefficient Cs and Specific Yield 
4.4	Pumping from a Confined Aquifer
4.5	Recovery Calculations
4.6	The Unconfined or Water Table Aquifer
Characteristics of Natural Aquifers
5.1?Anisotropy: Stratified Soils
5.2?Horizontal Variability
5.3?Recharge Boundaries: Radius of Influence R0
5.4?Barrier Boundaries
5.5 Delayed Release from Storage
Dewatering Design Using Analytical Methods
6.1	Radial Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer
6.2	Radial Flow to a Well in a Water Table Aquifer
6.3	Radial Flow to a Well in a Mixed Aquifer
6.4	Flow to a Drainage Trench from a Line Source
6.5	The System as a Well: Equivalent Radius rs
6.6	Radius of Influence Ro
6.7	Hydraulic Conductivity K and Transmissivity T
6.8	Initial Head H and Final Head h
6.9	Partial Penetration
6.10	Storage Depletion
6.11	Specific Capacity of the Aquifer
6.12	Cumulative Drawdowns or Superposition
6.13	Capacity of the Well Qw
6.14	Flow Net Analysis and the Method of Fragments 
6.15	Concentric Dewatering Systems
6.16 Vertical Flow
6.17 Gravel Tremie
Groundwater Modeling using Numerical Methods
7.1 Models in Dewatering Practice
7.2 When to Consider a Numerical Model 
7.3 Principal Steps in Model Design and Application
7.4 The Conceptual Model: Defining the Problem to be Modeled 
7.5 Selecting the Program
7.6 Introduction to MODFLOW
7.7 Verification
7.8 Calibration
7.9 Prediction and Parametric Analyses
7.10 Some Practical Modeling Problems
7.11 2-D Model: Well System in a Water Table Aquifer
7.12 Calibrating the Model 
7.13 3-D Model: Partial Penetration
7.14 3-D Model: Vertical Flow
7.15 3-D Model: Transient Analysis of a Progressive Trench Excavation
7.16 3-D Model: Feasibility of Tunneling in a Stratified Aquifer with Proximate Recharge
Monitoring
8.1	Subsurface Information
8.2	Ordinary Piezometers and True Piezometers
8.3	Piezometer Construction
8.4	Verification of Piezometer Performance
8.5	Obtaining Data from Piezometers
8.6	Pore Pressure Piezometers in Fine-grained Soils
8.7	Direct Push Technologies for Piezometer Installation
Pumping Tests
9.1	When a Pumping test Is Advisable
9.2	Planning the Test
9.3	Design of the Pumping Well
9.4	Piezometer Array
9.5	Duration of Pumpdown and Recovery
9.6	Pumping Rate
9.7	Monitoring the Test	
9.8	Analysis of Pumping Test Data
9.9	Tidal Corrections
9.10	Well Loss
9.11	Step Drawdown Tests
9.12 Testing of Low Yield Wells	
9.13 Delayed Storage Release: Boulton Analysis
Surface Hydrology
10.1	Lakes and Reservoirs
10.2	Bays and Ocean Beaches
10.3	Rivers
10.4	Precipitation
10.5	Disposal of Dewatering Discharge
10.6	Water from Existing Structures
Geotechnical Investigation of Dewatering Problems 
11.1 Investigation Approach and Objectives
11.2 Preliminary Studies and Investigations 
11.3 Borings and Test Pits
11.4 In Situ Test Methods
11.5 Piezometers and Observation Wells
11.6 Borehole Seepage Tests for Evaluation of Hydraulic Conductivity
11.7 Laboratory Analysis of Samples
11.8 Chemical Tests of Groundwater
11.9 Geophysical Methods
11.10 Pumping Tests
11.11 Permanent Effect of Structures on the Groundwater Body 
11.12 Investigation of Potential Side Effects of Dewatering
11.13 Presentation in the Bidding Documents 
Pump Theory
12.1	Types of Pumps Used in Dewatering
12.2	Total Dynamic Head
12.3	Pump Performance Curves
12.4	Affinity Laws
12.5	Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head
12.6	Engine Power
12.7	Electric Power
12.8	Vacuum Pumps
12.9	Air Lift Pumping
12.10	Testing of Pumps
Groundwater Chemistry, Bacteriology, and Fouling of Dewatering Systems 
 13.1	Types of Corrosion
13.2	Corrosive Groundwater Conditions
13.3	Dewatering in Corrosive Groundwater Conditions
13.4	Incrustation
13.5	Mineral Incrustation
13.6	Biological Incrustation
13.7	Dewatering Systems and Incrustation
13.8	Field Evaluation of Well Fouling
13.9	Rehabilitation and Maintenance for Incrustation
13.10 Analysis of Groundwater
Contaminated Groundwater
14.1	Contaminants Frequently Encountered
14.2	Design Options at a Contaminated Site
14.3	Estimating Water Quantity to Be Treated
14.4	Other Considerations in Treatment Design 
14.5	Elements of Groundwater Treatment 
14.6	Recovery of Contaminated Water with Dewatering Techniques
14.7	Dynamic Barriers
14.8	Wellpoint Systems and Multi-Phase Contaminants
14.9 Reinjection
14.10 Health and Safety
14.11 Regulating Authorities
Piping Systems
15.1	Dewatering Pipe and Fittings
15.2	Losses in Discharge Piping
15.3	Losses in Wellpoint Header Lines
15.4	Losses in Ejector Headers
15.5	Water Hammer
Choosing a Method of Groundwater Control
16.1 	To Pump or not to Pump
16.2 Open Pumping versus Pre-drainage
16.3 Methods of Pre-drainage
16.4 Methods of Cut-off and Exclusion
16.5 Methods in Combination 
Sumps, Drains, and Open Pumping
17.1	Soil and Water Conditions
17.2	Boils and Blows
17.3	Construction of Sumps
17.4	Ditches and Drains
17.5	Gravel Bedding
17.6	Slope Stabilization with Sandbags, Gravel and Geotextiles
17.7	Use of Geotextiles
17.8	Soldier Piles and Lagging: Standup Time
17.9	Long-Term Effect of Buried Drains
17.10 Leaking Utilities
17.11 Diagonal Wellpoints
17.12 Horizontal Wellpoints
Deep Well Systems 
18.1 	Testing during Well Construction 
18.2 	Well Installation and Construction Methods
18.3 	Wellscreen and Casing 
18.4 	Filter Packs 
18.5 	Development of Wells 
18.6 	Well Construction Details 
18.7 	Pressure Relief Wells, Vacuum Wells 
18.8 	Wells that Pump Sand 
18.9 	Systems of Low-Capacity Wells 
Wellpoint Systems
19.1	Suction Lifts
19.2	Single and Multi-stage Systems
19.3	Wellpoint Design
19.4	Wellpoint Spacing
19.5	Wellpoint Depth
19.6	Installation of Wellpoints
19.7	Filter Sands
19.8	Wellpoint Pumps, Header and Discharge Piping
19.9	Tuning Wellpoint Systems
19.10	Air/Water Separation
19.11	Automatic Mops
19.12	Vertical Wellpoint Pumps
19.13	Wellpoints for Stabilization of Fine-Grained Soils
Ejector Systems and Other Methods
20.1	Two-Pipe and Single-Pipe Ejectors
20.2	Ejector Pumping Stations
20.3	Ejector Efficiency
20.4	Design of Nozzles and Venturis
20.5	Ejector Risers and Swings
20.6	Ejector Headers
20.7	Ejector Installation
20.8	Ejectors and Groundwater Quality
20.9	Ejectors and Soil Stabilization
20.10	Drilled Horizontal Wells
20.11 Trencher Drains
Groundwater Cut-off Structures
21.1	Cut-off Terminology and Efficiency
21.2	Steel Sheet Piling
21.3	Slurry Trenches
21.4	Slurry Diaphragm Walls
21.5	Secant Piles
21.6	Deep Soil Mixing
21.7	Tremie Seals
Ground Freezing 
24.1	General Principles
24.2	Freezing Equipment and Methods
24.3	Design
24.4	Freezing Applications
24.5	Effect of Groundwater Movement
24.6 Ground Movement Potential as a Result of artificial Freezing
Artificial Recharge
25.1	Applications of Artificial Recharge
25.2	Design Objectives
25.3	Potential Problems with Recharge Water and Plugging of Wells
25.4	Sources of Recharge Water
25.5	Treatment of Recharge Water 
25.6	Construction of Recharge Systems
25.7	Operation and Maintenance of Recharge Systems 
25.8	Permits for Recharge Operations
Electrical Design for Dewatering Systems
26.1	Electrical Motors
26.2	Motor Controls
26.3	Power Factor
26.4	Standby Generators
26.5	Switchgear and Distribution Systems
26.6	Grounding of Electrical Circuits
26.7	Cost of Electrical Energy
Long-Term Dewatering Systems
27.1	Types of Long-Term Systems
27.2	Pumps
27.3	Wellscreens and Wellpoint Screens
27.4	Pipe and Fittings
27.5	Groundwater Chemistry and Bacteriology
27.6	Access for Maintenance
27.7	Instrumentation and Controls
Dewatering Costs
28.1	Format of the Estimate
28.2	Basic Cost Data
28.3	Mobilization
28.4	Installation and Removal
28.5	Operation and Maintenance
28.6	Summary
28.7	Specialty Dewatering Subcontractor Quotations
Dewatering Specifications, Allocation of Risk, Dispute Avoidance and Resolution of Disputes
29.1	Performance Specifications
29.2	Owner-Designed Dewatering Systems
29.3	Specified Minimum Systems
29.4	Dewatering Submittals
29.5	Third Party Damage Caused by Dewatering
29.6	Differing Site Conditions
29.7	Disputes Review Board
Appendix A
Appendix B

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Drainage.
Building sites.
Groundwater flow.
Soil mechanics.