Table of contents for Fundamentals of chemistry / David E. Goldberg.

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To the Student xxiii
Learning System xxv
CHAPTER 1 
Basic Concepts	1	
 1.1	Classification of Matter	2
 1.2	Properties	6
 1.3	Matter and Energy	10
 1.4	Chemical Symbols	11
 1.5	The Periodic Table	12
 1.6	Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories	17
Summary 19
Problems 20
CHAPTER 2
Measurement	25
 2.1	Factor Label Method	27
 2.2	The Metric System	32
Length or Distance 37
Mass 38
Volume 39
 2.3	Exponential Numbers	42
Changing the Form of Exponential Numbers 44
Multiplication and Division of Exponential Numbers 45
Addition and Subtraction of Exponential Numbers 48
Raising an Exponential Number to a Power 49
 2.4	Significant Digits	50
Significant Digits in Calculated Results 55
Rounding Off 57
 2.5	Density	60
 2.6	Temperature Scales	63
Summary 65
Problems 67
CHAPTER 3
Atoms and Atomic Masses	75
 3.1	Laws of Chemical Combination	76
 3.2	Dalton?s Atomic Theory	79
 3.3	Subatomic Particles	81
 3.4	Atomic Mass	84
 3.5	Development of the Periodic Table	88
Summary 90
Problems 91
CHAPTER 4
Electronic Configuration of the Atom	97
 4.1	A Brief Exploration of Light	98
 4.2	Bohr Theory	100
 4.3	Quantum Numbers	103
 4.4	Relative Energies of Electrons	105
 4.5	Shells, Subshells, and Orbitals	109
 4.6	Shapes of Orbitals	112
 4.7	Energy Level Diagrams	113
 4.8	Periodic Variation of Electronic Configuration	115
Summary 119
Problems 121
CHAPTER 5
Chemical Bonding	126
 5.1	Chemical Formulas	127
Molecules of Elements 127
Formula Units 130
 5.2	Ionic Bonding	132
Detailed Electronic Configurations of Anions 135
Detailed Electronic Configurations of Cations 135
 5.3	Lewis Electron Dot Diagrams	137
 5.4	Formulas for Ionic Compounds	137
 5.5	Covalent Bonding	141
Systematic Method for Drawing Electron Dot Diagrams 144
Polyatomic Ions 147
Nonoctet Structures 150
Summary 152
Problems 153
CHAPTER 6
Nomenclature	159
 6.1	Binary Nonmetal-Nonmetal Compounds	160
 6.2	Naming Ionic Compounds	162
Naming Cations 162
Naming Anions 166
Naming and Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds 168
 6.3	Naming Acids and Acid Salts	170
Naming Acids 171
Naming Acid Salts 172
 6.4	Hydrates175
Summary 175
Problems 177
CHAPTER 7
Formula Calculations	183
 7.1	Formula Masses	184
 7.2	Percent Composition	186
 7.3	The Mole	187
 7.4	Empirical Formulas	191
 7.5	Molecular Formulas	196
Summary 198
Problems 200
CHAPTER 8
Chemical Reactions	206
 8.1	The Chemical Equation	207
 8.2	Balancing Equations	209
 8.3	Predicting the Products of Chemical Reactions	213
Combination Reactions 214
Decomposition Reactions 215
Single Substitution Reactions 217
Double Substitution Reactions 219
Combustion Reactions 223
 8.4	Acids and Bases225
Properties of Acids and Bases 225
Acidic and Basic Anhydrides 228
Acid Salts 230
Carbonates and Acid Carbonates 231
Summary 234
Problems 235
CHAPTER 9
Net Ionic Equations240
 9.1	Properties of Ionic Compounds in Aqueous Solution	241
 9.2	Writing Net Ionic Equations 	243
Summary 250
Problems 250
CHAPTER 10
Stoichiometry	254
10.1	Mole Calculations for Chemical Reactions	255
Using Factors to Solve Mole-Mole Problems 256
Tabulation Method 258
10.2	Mass Calculations for Chemical Reactions	259
10.3	Calculations Involving Other Quantities	263
10.4	Problems Involving Limiting Quantities	267
10.5	Theoretical Yield and Percent Yield	275
10.6	Calculations with Net Ionic Equations	277
Summary 278
Problems 279
CHAPTER 11
Molarity	287
11.1	Definition and Uses of Molarity	288
11.2	Molarities of Ions	296
11.3	Titration	300
Summary 305
Problems 307
CHAPTER 12
Gases	311
12.1	Gas Pressure	312
12.2	Boyle?s Law	314
12.3	Charles? Law	318
12.4	The Combined Gas Law	321
12.5	The Ideal Gas Law	323
12.6	Molar Masses and Molecular Formulas	326
12.7	Gases in Chemical Reactions	329
12.8	Volume Ratios in Chemical Reactions	332
12.9	Dalton?s Law of Partial Pressures	334
12.10	Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases	337
Summary 340
Problems 341
CHAPTER 13
Atomic and Molecular Properties	347
13.1	Atomic and Ionic Sizes	348
13.2	Ionization Energy and Electron Affinity	351
13.3	Electronegativity and Bond Polarity	354
13.4	Molecular Shape	355
13.5	Polar and Nonpolar Molecules	359
13.6	Intermolecular Forces	361
Dipolar Attractions 361
van der Waals Forces 362
Hydrogen Bonding 362
Summary 365
Problems 367
CHAPTER 14
Solids and Liquids, Energies of Physical and Chemical Changes	370
14.1	Nature of the Solid and Liquid States	371
The Solid State 371
The Liquid State 375
14.2	Changes of Phase	376
14.3	Measurement of Energy Changes	378
Specific Heat Calculations 378
Change of Phase Calculations 381
14.4	Enthalpy Changes in Chemical Reactions	384
Enthalpy Change 385
Enthalpy of Formation 386
Hess?s Law 388
Summary 391
Problems 393
CHAPTER 15
Solutions	399
15.1	The Solution Process	400
15.2	Saturated, Unsaturated, and Supersaturated Solutions	402
15.3	Percent by Mass	404
15.4	Molality	406
15.5	Mole Fraction	409
15.6	Colligative Properties	410
Vapor-Pressure Lowering 411
Freezing-Point Depression 413
Boiling-Point Elevation 415
Osmotic Pressure 416
Summary 418
Problems 419
CHAPTER 16
Oxidation Numbers	424
16.1	Assigning Oxidation Numbers	425
16.2	Using Oxidation Numbers in Naming Compounds	430
16.3	Periodic Variation of Oxidation Numbers	430
Predicting Oxidation Numbers 431
Writing Formulas for Covalent Compounds 433
16.4	Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations	433
16.5	Electrochemistry	439
Voltaic Cells 439
Electrolysis 441
16.6	Equivalents and Normality	443
Normality 444
Equivalent Mass 446
Summary 448
Problems 449
CHAPTER 17
Chemical Equilibrium	454
17.1	Rates of Reaction	455
17.2	The Condition of Equilibrium	456
17.3	LeCh¿telier?s Principle	459
17.4	Equilibrium Constants	462
Finding Values of Equilibrium Constants 464
Calculations Using the Values of Equilibrium Constants 466
Summary 470
Problems 471
CHAPTER 18
Acid-Base Theory	476
18.1	The Bronsted Theory	477
Acid and Base Strength 479
Acidic or Basic Nature of Salt Solutions 480
Acids and Bases Without Water 481
18.2	Ionization Constants	482
18.3	Autoionization of Water	484
18.4	Buffer Solutions	488
Summary 493
Problems 494
CHAPTER 19
Organic Chemistry	499
19.1	Hydrocarbons	500
The Alkanes 502
The Alkenes 505
The Alkynes 507
The Aromatic Hydrocarbons 507
19.2	Isomerism509
19.3	Some Other Classes of Organic Compounds	512
Organic Halides 513
Alcohols and Ethers 514
Aldehydes and Ketones 516
Organic Acids and Esters 517
Amines and Amides 519
19.4	Polymers	520
19.5	Foods	523
Fats 523
Carbohydrates 524
Summary 526
Problems 527
CHAPTER 20
Nuclear 
Reactions	532
20.1	Natural Radioactivity	533
Radioactive Series 536
Tracers 539
20.2	Half-Life	540
20.3	Nuclear Fission	549
Chain Reactions 550
Energetics of Nuclear Reactions 551
20.4	Nuclear Fusion	553
Summary 555
Problems 556
Appendix 1: Scientific Calculations	561
A.1 Scientific Algebra and Geometry	561 
 Designation of Variables	561 
 Units	564 
 Percentage	566 
 Quadratic Equations	567 
 Conversion to Integral Ratios	568 
 Scientific Geometry	569
A.2 The Scientific Calculator	570 
 Precedence Rules	570 
 Division	571 
 The Change Sign Key	572 
 Exponential Numbers	572 
 The Reciprocal Key	572 
 Logarithms and Antilogarithms	573 
 Significant Figures	573
Problems	575
Appendix 2: Tables of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Prefixes and Suffixes	579
Appendix 3: Table of Basic Mathematical Equations	582
Appendix 4: Answers to Practice Problems	583
Appendix 5: Answers to Selected End-of-Chapter Problems	596
Glossary	645
Photo Credits	657
Index	659

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Chemistry.