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Contents Preface Chapter 1 How the Brain Gives Rise to the Mind 1. A Brief History: How We Got Here 1.1. In the Beginning: The Contents of Consciousness 1.2. Psychology in the World 1.3. Behaviorism: Reaction against the Unobservable 1.4. The Cognitive Revolution 2. Understanding the Mind: The Form of Theories of Cognition 2.1. Mind and Brain 2.2. Mental Representation 2.3. Mental Processing 2.4. Why the Brain? DEBATE: What Is the Nature of Visual Mental Imagery? 3. The Cognitive Brain 3.1. Neurons: The Building Blocks of the Brain 3.2. Structure of the Nervous System 3.3. Subcortical Areas 4. Studying Cognition 4.1. Converging Evidence for Dissociations and Associations 4.2. Behavioral Methods 4.3. Correlational Neural Methods: The Importance of Localization 4.4. Causal Neural Methods 4.5. Modeling 4.6. Neural-Network Models 5. Overview of the Book Revisit and Reflect Chapter 2 Perception 1. What It Means to Perceive 2. How It Works: The Case of Visual Perception 2.1. The Structure of the Visual System 2.2. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processing 2.3. Learning to See 3. Building from the Bottom Up: From Features to Objects 3.1. Processing Features, the Building Blocks of Perception 3.2. Putting It Together: What Counts, What Doesn't 4. Achieving Visual Recognition: Have I Seen You Before? 4.1. A Brain That Cannot Recognize 4.2. Models of Recognition A CLOSER LOOK: Visual Feature Detectors in the Brain DEBATE: A Set of Blocks or Cat's Cradle: Modular or Distributed Representations? 5. Interpreting from the Top Down: What You Know Guides What You See 5.1. Using Context 5.2. Models of Top-Down Processing 6. In Models and Brains: The Interactive Nature of Perception 6.1. Refining Recognition 6.2. Resolving Ambiguity 6.3. Seeing the "What" and the "Where" Revisit and Reflect Chapter 3 Attention 1. The Nature and Roles of Attention 1.1. Failures of Selection DEBATE: Cars and Conversation 1.2. Successes of Selection 2. Explaining Attention: Behaviorally Based Theories 2.1. Early versus Late Attentional Selection 2.2. Spotlight Theory 2.3. Feature Integration Theory and Guided Search 3. Looking to the Brain 3.1. Electrophysiology and Human Attention 3.2. Functional Neuroimaging and TMS 4. Competition: A Single Explanatory Framework for Attention? A CLOSER LOOK: Competition and Selection Revisit and Reflect Chapter 4 Representation and Knowledge in Long-Term Memory 1. Roles of Knowledge in Cognition 2. Representations and Their Formats 2.1. Memories and Representations 2.2. Four Possible Formats for Representations A CLOSER LOOK: Behavioral Evidence for Mental Imagery DEBATE: Do Amodal Representations Exist? 2.3. Multiple Representational Formats in Perception and Simulation 3. From Representation to Category Knowledge 3.1. The Inferential Power of Category Knowledge 3.2. The Multimodal Nature of Category Knowledge 3.3. Multimodal Mechanisms and Category Knowledge: Behavioral Evidence 3.4. Multimodal Mechanisms and Category Knowledge: Neural Evidence 4. Structures in Category Knowledge 4.1. Exemplars and Rules 4.2. Prototypes and Typicality 4.3. Background Knowledge 4.4. Dynamic Representation 5. Category Domains and Organization 5.1. Distinguishing Domains of Category Knowledge in the Brain 5.2. Taxonomies and the Search for a "Basic Level" Revisit and Reflect Chapter 5 Encoding and Retrieval from Long-Term Memory 1. The Nature of Long-Term Memory 1.1. The Forms of Long-Term Memory 1.2. The Power of Memory: The Story of H.M. 1.3. Multiple Systems for Long-Term Learning and Remembering 2. Encoding: How Episodic Memories Are Formed 2.1. The Importance of Attention A CLOSER LOOK: Transfer Appropriate Processing 2.2. Levels of Processing and Elaborative Encoding 2.3. Enhancers of Encoding: Generation and Spacing 2.4. Episodic Encoding, Binding, and the Medial Temporal Lobe 2.5. Consolidation: The Fixing of Memory 3. Retrieval: How We Recall the Past from Episodic Memory 3.1. Pattern Completion and Recapitulation 3.2. Episodic Retrieval and the Frontal Lobes 3.3. Cues for Retrieval 3.4. The Second Time Around: Recognizing Stimuli by Recollection and Familiarity DEBATE: "Remembering," "Knowing," and the Medial Temporal Lobes 3.5. Misremembering the Past 4. The Encoding Was Successful, But I Still Can't Remember 4.1. Ebbinghaus's Forgetting Function 4.2. Forgetting and Competition 5. Nondeclarative Memory Systems 5.1. Priming 5.2. Beyond Priming: Other Forms of Nondeclarative Memory Revisit and Reflect Chapter 6 Working Memory 1. Using Working Memory 1.1. A Computer Metaphor 1.2. Implications of the Nature of Working Memory 2. From Primary Memory to Working Memory: A Brief History 2.1. William James: Primary Memory, Secondary Memory, and Consciousness 2.2. Early Studies: The Characteristics of Short-Term Memory 2.3. The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model: The Relationship of Short-Term and Long-Term Memory 2.4. The Baddeley-Hitch Model: Working Memory 3. Understanding the Working Memory Model 3.1. The Phonological Loop: When It Works and When It Doesn't 3.2. The Visuospatial Scratchpad 3.3. The Central Executive 3.4. Are There Really Two Distinct Storage Systems? 4. How Working Memory Works 4.1. Mechanisms of Active Maintenance DEBATE BOX: How Are Working Memory Functions Organized in the Brain? 4.2. The Role of the Prefrontal Cortex: Storage or Control? A CLOSER LOOK: Mechanisms of Working Memory Storage in the Monkey Brain 5. Current Directions 5.1. The Episodic Buffer 5.2. Person-to-Person Variation 5.3. The Role of Dopamine Revisit and Reflect Chapter 7 Executive Processes 1. The Frontal Lobe Connection 2. Frontal Damage and the Frontal Hypothesis DEBATE: How Many Executive Processes Does It Take . . .? 3. Executive Attention 3.1. A Neural-Network Model of Conflict in Processing 3.2. Executive Attention and Categorization A CLOSER LOOK: Prefrontal Damage, Reasoning, and Category Decisions 3.3. The Role of Consciousness 4. Switching Attention 4.1. The Costs of Switching 4.2. A Framework for Understanding Task Switching 4.3. The Neural-Switcher Hypothesis 4.4. What Gets Switched? 5. Inhibition of Response 5.1. Representative Cases of Response Inhibition 5.2. Development of Response Inhibition 6. Sequencing 6.1. Mechanisms for Sequencing 6.2. Sequencing Connected Items 7. Monitoring 7.1. Monitoring Working Memory 7.2. Monitoring for Errors Revisit and Reflect Chapter 8 Emotion and Cognition 1. The Connection 2. Defining Emotion 2.1. Basic Emotions 2.2. Dimensional Approaches 3. Manipulating and Measuring Emotion 3.1. Manipulation by Mood Induction 3.2. Manipulation by Evocative Stimuli 3.3. Measuring Emotion Directly 3.4. Measuring Emotion Indirectly 4. Emotional Learning: Acquiring Evaluations 4.1. Classical Conditioning 4.2. Instrumental Conditioning: Learning by Reward or Punishment 4.3. Instructional and Observational Learning A CLOSER LOOK: Expressing Imaginary Fears 4.4. Mere Exposure 5. Emotion and Declarative Memory 5.1. Arousal and Memory 5.2. Stress and Memory 5.3. Mood and Memory 5.4. Memory for Emotional Public Events 6. Emotion and Attention-Perception 6.1. Emotion and the Capture of Attention 6.2. Facilitation of Attention-Perception DEBATE: Is the Detection of Threat Automatic? Revisit and Reflect Chapter 9 Decision Making 1. The Nature of a Decision 1.1. The Science of Decision Making 1.2 The Decision Tree 2. Rational Decision Making: The Expected Utility Model 2.1. How the Model Works 2.2. The Expected Utility Model and Behavioral Research 2.3. General Limitations of the Expected Utility Model 3. Neural Bases of Expected Utility Calculations 4. Human Decision Making and the Expected Utility Model: How Close a Fit? 4.1. Preference, Transitivity, and Procedural Invariance: Behavioral Violations 4.2. Rationality-Up to a Point 4.3. Framing Effects and Prospect Theory 4.4. The Role of Emotions in Valuation: The Allais Paradox 4.5. The Role of Emotions in Valuation: Temporal Discounting and Dynamic Inconsistency A CLOSER LOOK: Separate Systems Value Immediate versus Delayed Rewards 4.6. Judgments in the Face of Ambiguity 4.7. Judgments about Likelihood in the Face of Uncertainty 5. Complex, Uncertain Decision Making DEBATE: Are Humans Rational Animals? Revisit and Reflect Chapter 10 Problem Solving and Reasoning 1. The Nature of Problem Solving 1.1. The Structure of a Problem 1.2. Problem Space Theory 1.3 Strategies and Heuristics 1.4. The Role of Working Memory and Executive Processes 1.5. How Experts Solve Problems 2. Analogical Reasoning 2.1. Using Analogies 2.2. Theories of Analogical Reasoning 2.3. Beyond Working Memory 3. Inductive Reasoning 3.1. General Inductions 3.2. Specific Inductions 3.3. Critical Brain Networks 4. Deductive Reasoning 4.1. Categorical Syllogisms 4.2. Conditional Syllogisms 4.3. Errors in Deductive Thinking 4.4. Theories of Deductive Reasoning 4.5. Linguistic versus Spatial Basis DEBATE: Errors and Evolution A CLOSER LOOK: Logic and Belief Revisit and Reflect Chapter 11 Motor Cognition and Mental Simulation 1. The Nature of Motor Cognition 1.1. Perception-Action Cycles 1.2. The Nature of Motor Processing in the Brain 1.3. The Role of Shared Representations 2. Mental Simulation and the Motor System 2.1. Motor Priming and Mental Representation 2.2. Motor Programs 2.3. Mental Simulation of Action A CLOSER LOOK: Taking Perspective 3. Imitation 3.1. The Development of Imitation 3.2. The Cognitive Components of Imitation 3.3. Simulation Theories of Action Understanding DEBATE: How Do We Know Whose Plan It Is? 3.4. Mirror Neurons and Self-Other Mapping 4. Biological Motion 4.1. The Perception of Biological Motion 4.2. Processing Biological Motion 4.3. Motor Cognition in Motion Perception Revisit and Reflect Chapter 12 Language 1. The Nature of Language 1.1. Levels of Language Representation 1.2. Language versus Animal Communication 2. Processes of Language Comprehension 2.1. The Triangle Model of the Lexicon 2.2. Ambiguity: A Pervasive Challenge to Comprehension 2.3. Speech Perception A CLOSER LOOK: Multiple Hypotheses during Spoken Word Recognition 2.4. Representing Meaning 2.5. Sentence Comprehension 2.6. Figurative Language 2.7. Reading 8. Processes of Language Production 3.1. Grammatical Encoding 3.2. Phonological Encoding 3.3. Integrating Grammatical and Phonological Stages 4. Language, Thought, and Bilingualism 4.1. Language and Thought 4.2. Bilingualism DEBATE: Are There Sensitive Periods for the Acquisition of Language? Revisit and Reflect Glossary References Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Cognition -- Textbooks.
Cognitive psychology -- Textbooks.
Cognitive neuroscience -- Textbooks.