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CONTENTS Foreword Preface The New Therapeutic Scene Acknowledgments Abbreviations and Acronyms Author¿s Note Chapter 1. Introduction: A Cautionary Tale from Hollywood¿¿The Road to . . . Lead Poisoning and Leukemia¿ PART I: Basic Scientific Principles of Using Natural Products to Maintain and Improve Health Chapter 2. Do We Really Want Scientific Medicine, or Do We Want Magic? Magic or Medicine? Supernatural or Scientific? Fundamental Scientific Concepts: What Is ¿Scientific¿? Clinical Research Aspects Scientific Validation of Efficacy: The ¿Gold Standard¿ The Use of Placebo Control Groups in Human Research Meta-Analyses of Clinical Pharmacologic Interventions: Useful but Not Perfect Biases of Health-Related Professionals Conflict of Interest Pharmaceutical Producers Live in Glass Houses The Problem of Delayed Effects: Examples of Long-Term Toxicity Issues Chapter 3. The Uncertainty Principle in Medicine When the Gold Standard Can¿t Be Met The Problem of Validating Delayed Effects of Long-Term 34 Therapy The Significance of It All 39 Uncertainty of Answer for ¿What Is a Dietary Supplement?¿ 40 Chapter 4. Who¿s A Quack?: Conflict on the Current 49 Health Care Scene What Approaches Are Legitimate? If It Quacks Like a Duck, What Is It? Conventional Medicine and Therapies Unconventional Medicine and Therapies Why Complementary and Alternative Medicine Now? Another Viewpoint: Afternoon of Alternative Medicine Dietary Supplement Regulation The Consequences of DSHEA The ¿Freedom¿ to Pursue Better Health: At What Cost? Chapter 5. Historical Natural Remedies 71 71 How Did We Get to Where We Are Now? Botanical Marvels: ¿Miracle Drugs¿ from Long Ago Development of Scientific Medicine PART II: Major Myths and Misconceptions Chapter 6. Botanical Supplements Act As Foods, 85 Not As Drugs Pain Relievers as Foods? What Does Nutritional Science Say? Chapter 7. Botanical Supplements Are Natural, 93 So They Must Be Safe Toxicity Problems of Modern Pharmaceuticals Ignorance Is Dangerous¿Not Blissful! Traditional ¿Herbal Remedy¿ May Contain Animal Surprises Familiarity Should Not Breed Contempt Conclusion Chapter 8. The FDA Would Not Allow Supplements 109 If They Were Not Safe 109 Caveat Emptor (Let the Buyer Beware)! Ma Huang Is No Kindly ¿Mother Nature¿ Calls for Action to Ban Ephedra Products Increase Contrast with a Less Notorious Agent Chapter 9. Botanicals Can Be Used Safely with Rx 125 Drugs¿No Problem Altered Drug Responses If Taken with St. John¿s Wort Serotonin Syndrome and St. John¿s Wort Risk of Bleeding from Use of Botanicals Before Surgery Other Interaction Examples Chapter 10. You May Trust Supplement Labels, As You 137 Do Pharmaceuticals Herbals May Not Be Held Up to Analysis: Unreliable Label Data Helping the Supplements Along¿Illegally Ephedrine Makes a Product ¿Non-Natural¿? Unreliability of Some Nutritionals¿ Labels Final Comment Chapter 11. If a Little Bit Is Good for You, a Lot Will 151 Be Better! Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Root Extract Magnesium Bran Breakfast Fruit and Fruit Juices: Helpful but Not Harmless Another Hazard from ¿Good¿ Juice Turned ¿Bad¿ PART III: Major Questions About Possible Marvels Chapter 12. Buddy, Can You Spare a Liver? CAM: 161 Hope, Help, or Hazard? A New Plague: Hepatitis C Virus The Drinker¿s Deadly Destiny: Alcoholic Cirrhosis A Recurring Tragedy: Amanita Mushroom Poisoning Unwise Self-Prescribed ¿Liver Cleansing¿ More About SAME and the Liver Botanicals Containing Hepatotoxic Constituents Conclusion Chapter 13. Are Hormonal Supplements ¿Fountain of Youth¿ Formulas? 181 Basic Concepts 184 Endocrinology and Aging 187 Gonadal Hormone Replacement Therapies for Women 189 What About Androgen Replacement for Men? 193 DHEA: A ¿Fountain of Youth¿ Hormone¿? Melatonin: Another Claimed ¿Fountain of Youth¿ Hormone 197 Conclusions Chapter 14. Are Antioxidant Supplements ¿Fountain of Youth¿ Formulas? Basic Science Antioxidants and Cancer Antioxidants and Dementias A Metabolite Useful for Failing Memory Antioxidants versus Kidney Disease Antioxidants for ¿Mystery Maladies¿ Functional Foods That May Indeed Oppose Aging Good Eating for a Good Intake of Antioxidants Nonsupplemental Approaches to Oppose Aging Conclusion Chapter 15. The Soya Saga: Are Soy Products Safe and Effective? Are There Health Problems with Soy Foods? Biological Quality of Soy Protein Soy As a Protein Concentrate Source The Phytoestrogen Aspect Nonestrogenic Adverse Responses to Soy Soy in the Diet As a Phytoestrogen Conclusion Chapter 16. Do Supplements Support Superior Sex? Basic Science Impotence and the Viagra Era Impotence and the Placebo Effect The Viagra-Substitute Era Erotic Enhancement for Women Fatal Pursuit of Eros (Death by Aphrodisiac) 181 Chapter 17. Fats: Who Are the ¿Bad Guys¿ and Who 261 Are the ¿Good Guys?¿ Importance of Serum Cholesterol Levels and Dietary Fats Antioxidants, Fats, and Heart Disease Physiological and Therapeutic Roles of Omega-3 Fatty Acids 266 Chapter 18. Cancer Cures: Are They Believable? 277 278 A Brief View of Conventional Therapies for Cancer The Nature of the Challenge Current Status of Unconventional Cancer Therapies Examples of Unconventional Cancer Therapies The Toxicity Factor in Conventional Cancer Therapy Personal Choices Chapter 19. Immunoenhancing Supplements: Is There Evidence That They Are Effective? 311 Introduction Botanical Supplements and Immunonutrition Overview Conference on Immunonutrition, 1999 Can Nutrient Supplements Aid the Immune System? Micronutrients and the Immune System Prebiotics and Probiotics for Immune System Benefits Polysaccharide Products for Immunoenhancement Dietary Sources for Critical Immunonutrient Factors Chapter 20. What Is the Price of Globalism? Heavy 325 Metals, Heavy Risks! Chuifong Toukuwan Metropolitan Market for Dangerous Ethnic Remedies Conclusion PART IV: More Certain Supplement Marvels Chapter 21. Marvelous Micronutrients: The Vitamins 333 Basic Foundations The Two Subgroups of Vitamins How Much Vitamin Is Enough? Who Needs to Supplement Vitamin Intake? Vitamins for Prevention of Chronic Diseases Important Features of the Individual Vitamins Multiple-Vitamin Formulas: Benefits May Be Delayed Vitamin Toxicology Conclusions Chapter 22. Marvelous Micronutrients: Essential Minerals 361 Introduction Vital Mineral Elements Chapter 23. Marvelous Metabolites: Amino Acids, New Biochemicals, and New Health Benefits Combined Amino Acids As Supplements Essential Amino Acids Nonessential Amino Acids Nucleic Acids/Nucleotides Enzymes Miscellaneous Biochemicals Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or Ubiquinone alpha-Lipoic Acid (Thioctic Acid) The SAMe Story Chapter 24. Bioflavonoid Benefits: Chemoprevention of Cancer Chemopreventive Candidates Bioflavonoids Specific Flavonoids Resveratrol (Red Wine Extract) Onions Also Have a Smell of Success Prostate Cancer Non-Flavonoid Chemopreventive Agents Chapter 25. The Pharmacology of Ascorbate, an Overlooked ¿Tomato¿ A Little-Known Story: The Feared, Unappreciated Tomato 419 421 Basics on Ascorbic Acid 423 Ascorbate and the Cardiovascular System 426 Ascorbate Against Infection 427 Ascorbate Against Cancer 428 Ascorbate and Pancreatitis 429 Questions About Ascorbate¿s Safety 430 Conclusions Chapter 26. Marvelous Aloe Vera: Ancient Wonder Still Works Well Background The Nature and Contents of Aloe Vera Oral Aloe Vera Gel Protective Aloe Vera Polysaccharides Life-Long Oral Aloe Vera Ingestion Chapter 27. You Have Blood in Your Eyes, but They Also Need Carotenoids 441 Phototoxicity 443 Risks for Age-Related Macular Degeneration 445 Dietary Role in Eye Health and Disease 449 Nondietary Lifestyle Risk Factors for AMD or Cataract 450 Clinical Applications Concern About Adverse Effects of Some Natural Products 452 Conclusion Chapter 28. Better Fruity Than Nutty: Functional Fruits Excel Background Dr. Joseph Mercola¿s Top Fruit Choices More Details on Some Functional Fruits Conclusions PART V: Most Certain Miracles Concerning Dietary Supplements Chapter 29. The United States Has Not Had a Toxic Disaster from a Botanical Mistaken Identity Background More Cases of Mistaken Identity Chapter 30. The United States Has Suffered ¿Only¿ One Disaster via an Adulterated Supplement L-Tryptophan: A History The Sequel: 5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan Chapter 31. Miracles Promised, Not Delivered: False Hopes, Failed Hopes Some Miracle Cures Examined Self-Chosen Therapies for Diabetes PART VI: What Is in the Future for Dietary Supplements? Chapter 32. Herbal Hit Parade: Who¿s Ranking And Who¿s ¿Tanking¿? 499 Professor E. Ernst¿s Reviews of Major Botanicals A Few Other Favorably Recommended Herbs What Herbals Have Tanked? Good Advice for Persons Who Use Botanical Remedies Chapter 33. Accreditation, Validation, Standardization, 519 Assimilation, and Attrition 519 Validation of Dietary Supplements¿ Therapeutic Abilities 520 More Thoughts on Validation Accreditation: Who Is Looking After John/Jane Q. Public? 521 An Alternative Route for Alternative Remedies? Legislation Requiring Standardization Globalization Effects on the Dietary Supplement Scene Chapter 34. Would You Bet Your Life on Good Advice? 533 Adverse Reactions How Can the Buyer Beware? Can We Eat Our Way to Better Health? Personal Advice to Consumers of Dietary Supplements An Example of a Rising Nontoxic CAM Approach: ¿Laughter Is The Best Medicine¿ Where Are Medicine and Health Care Going? Final Thoughts Chapter 35. Epilogue: Spiritual Aspects of Health 545 and Healing The Nature of Us All Maintaining Health: Things We Need To Avoid Healings: From Illness to Recovery Conclusion 561 Book-Length Resources Notes Glossary References Index
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