Table of contents for Tort law and practice / Dominick Vetri ... [et al.].

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SUMMARY TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Table of Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . xxxiii
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . xxxvii
Bookguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . xli
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . li
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION TO TORT LAW . . . . . . 1
 1.01 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 2
 1.02 THE COFFEE AND CULPABILITY PROBLEM . . . . . . . 3
 1.03 A BRIEF HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF
TORT LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 10
 1.04 THE FUNCTIONS AND GOALS OF TORT LAW . . . . . . 12
 1.05 THE CULPABILITY SPECTRUM IN TORTS . . . . . . . . 14
 1.06 ACCIDENTS IN THE UNITED STATES . . . . . . . . . . .
17
 1.07 THE TORT LAW LITIGATION PROCESS . . . . . . . . . .
23
CHAPTER 2 - NEGLIGENCE LAW: BREACH OF
DUTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
 2.01 OVERVIEW OF NEGLIGENCE LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42
 2.02 ANALYSIS OF THE ELEMENTS OF A NEGLIGENCE
CASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 50
 2.03 THE REASONABLE CARE STANDARD: FORESIGHT OF
RISK AND UNREASONABLE CONDUCT . . . . . . . . . . 67
 2.04 THE REASONABLE PERSON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 68
 2.05 DEVELOPING THE REASONABLE CARE
STANDARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 92
 2.06 ALTERNATIVES TO THE REASONABLE CARE
STANDARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 123
 2.07 PROOF OF NEGLIGENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 157
 2.08 THE STANDARD OF CARE IN PROFESSIONAL
MALPRACTICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 189
 2.09 PUTTING BREACH OF DUTY ANALYSIS
TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 211
v
Page
CHAPTER 3 - DUTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 223
 3.01 GENERAL DUTY OF REASONABLE CARE . . . . . . . . . 225
 3.02 LIMITED DUTY RULES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 237
 3.03 PUTTING DUTY ANALYSIS TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . .
406
CHAPTER 4 - CAUSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 413
 4.01 THE CONCEPTUAL BASIS OF CAUSATION . . . . . . . . 414
 4.02 LOSS OF CHANCE OF RECOVERY . . . . . . . . . . . . .
448
 4.03 PROVING WHO CAUSED THE HARM . . . . . . . . . . . .
463
 4.04 USING SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL EVIDENCE TO
PROVE CAUSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 486
 4.05 PUTTING CAUSATION TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . .
505
 4.06 VICARIOUS LIABILITY AND EMPLOYER
RESPONSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 506
CHAPTER 5 - SCOPE OF LIABILITY
(PROXIMATE CAUSE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
 5.01 THE CONCEPTUAL BASIS OF
SCOPE OF LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 525
 5.02 EXCEPTIONS TO THE FORESIGHT RULE . . . . . . . . .
546
 5.03 SHIFTING RESPONSIBILITY ISSUE . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 564
 5.04 APPLICATION OF FORESIGHT RULE . . . . . . . . . . . .
575
 5.05 PUTTING SCOPE OF LIABILITY ANALYSIS
TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 586
CHAPTER 6 - DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 589
 6.01 EARNING LOSSES AND MEDICAL EXPENSES . . . . . . 590
 6.02 PAIN, SUFFERING, AND EMOTIONAL DISTRESS . . . . 599
 6.03 LOSS OF ENJOYMENT OF LIFE DAMAGES . . . . . . . . 609
 6.04 COLLATERAL COMPENSATION SOURCES IN DAMAGES
LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 622
 6.05 PERIODIC PAYMENTS AND STRUCTURED
SETTLEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 628
 6.06 ATTORNEY CONTINGENT FEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 634
vi SUMMARY TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
 6.07 PUTTING DAMAGES ANALYSIS TOGETHER . . . . . . . 644
 6.08 WRONGFUL DEATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 648
 6.09 PUNITIVE DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 669
 6.10 INSURANCE ISSUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 680
CHAPTER 7 - DEFENSES AND IMMUNITIES . . . . . . . . 697
 7.01 CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
698
 7.02 ASSUMPTION OF RISK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 699
 7.03 COMPARATIVE FAULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 716
 7.04 STATUTES OF LIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 750
 7.05 CHARITABLE IMMUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 767
 7.06 SPOUSAL IMMUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 768
 7.07 PARENTAL IMMUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 769
 7.08 GOVERNMENTAL IMMUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 774
CHAPTER 8 - INTENTIONAL TORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783
 8.01 OVERVIEW OF INTENTIONAL TORTS . . . . . . . . . . .
783
 8.02 ASSAULT, BATTERY, AND INTENTIONAL INFLICTION
OF EMOTIONAL DISTRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
784
 8.03 THE MEANING OF INTENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 793
 8.04 OFFENSIVE BATTERY AND ASSAULT . . . . . . . . . . .
808
 8.05 INTENTIONAL INFLICTION OF
EMOTIONAL DISTRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
816
 8.06 FALSE IMPRISONMENT AND MALICIOUS
PROSECUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 824
 8.07 TRESPASS TO CHATTELS AND CONVERSION . . . . . . 832
 8.08 DEFENSES AND PRIVILEGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 844
 8.09 PUTTING INTENTIONAL TORT ANALYSIS
TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 876
 8.10 OPPRESSIVE CONDUCT AND SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . .
878
CHAPTER 9 - TRESPASS TO LAND, NUISANCE AND
ABNORMALLY DANGEROUS
ACTIVITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 899
 9.01 TRESPASS TO LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 899
SUMMARY TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
Page
 9.02 NUISANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 903
 9.03 ABNORMALLY DANGEROUS ACTIVITY . . . . . . . . . . 930
CHAPTER 10 - PRODUCTS LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . 947
 10.01 THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRICT PRODUCTS
LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 948
 10.02 THE PRIMA FACIE CASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 965
 10.03 DEFENSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 1079
 10.04 FEDERAL STATUTORY REFORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1086
 10.05 PUTTING PRODUCTS LIABILITY ANALYSIS
TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1087
CHAPTER 11 - DEFAMATION LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1091
 11.01 OVERVIEW OF COMMON LAW DEFAMATION AND
DEFENSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1092
 11.02 THE "CONSTITUTIONALIZATION" OF DEFAMATION
LAW: FIRST AMENDMENT PRIVILEGES . . . . . . . . . 1118
 11.03 CONSTITUTIONAL PRIVILEGES: PUBLIC OFFICIALS
AND PUBLIC FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1123
 11.04 CONSTITUTIONAL PRIVILEGES:
PRIVATE PERSONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1142
 11.05 DETERMINING STATUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1168
 11.06 OPINION REVISITED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 1183
 11.07 PUTTING DEFAMATION ANALYSIS TOGETHER . . . . 1191
 11.08 PROPOSALS FOR REFORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1196
CHAPTER 12 - PRIVACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1199
 12.01 INTRODUCTION TO PRIVACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1199
 12.02 INTRUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 1210
 12.03 PUBLIC DISCLOSURE OF PRIVATE FACTS . . . . . . .
1226
 12.04 FALSE LIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 1246
 12.05 APPROPRIATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 1259
 12.06 RIGHT OF PUBLICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 1270
 12.07 PUTTING PRIVACY & PUBLICITY ANALYSIS
TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1288
Table of Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . TC-1
viii SUMMARY TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . I-1
SUMMARY TABLE OF CONTENTS ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Summary Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . v
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Table of Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . xxxiii
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . xxxvii
Bookguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . xli
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . li
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION TO TORT LAW . . . . . . 1
 1.01 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 2
 1.02 THE COFFEE AND CULPABILITY PROBLEM . . . . . . . 3
[A] THE WILLFUL MISCONDUCT
HYPOTHETICAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
[B] THE ACTUAL MCDONALD'S NEGLIGENCE
CASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
[C] THE NO FAULT (STRICT LIABILITY)
HYPOTHETICAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
[1] STRICT LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
[2] SOCIAL INSURANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
 1.03 A BRIEF HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF
TORT LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 10
 1.04 THE FUNCTIONS AND GOALS OF TORT LAW . . . . . . 12
[A] COMPENSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
[B] DETERRENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
[C] AVOIDANCE OF UNDUE BURDENS
ON ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
[D] LEGAL ADMINISTRATION EFFECTIVENESS
AND EFFICIENCY IN THE ACCIDENT LAW
PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
[E] FAIRNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 13
 1.05 THE CULPABILITY SPECTRUM IN TORTS . . . . . . . . 14
[A] INTENDED HARM: INTENTIONAL TORTS . . . . . 14
[B] UNINTENDED HARM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
[1] NEGLIGENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
[2] RECKLESSNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
[3] STRICT LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
xi
Page
 1.06 ACCIDENTS IN THE UNITED STATES . . . . . . . . . . .
17
[A] INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
[B] ACCIDENTAL DEATHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
[C] ACCIDENTAL INJURIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
[D] ACCIDENT COSTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
[E] TORT CLAIMS AND DAMAGE AWARDS . . . . . . 21
 1.07 THE TORT LAW LITIGATION PROCESS . . . . . . . . . .
23
[A] LAWYER CONSULTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
[1] INTERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
[2] FEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
[3] PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION . . . . . . . . . 25
[4] THE DEFENSE LAWYER'S PERSPECTIVE . . . 25
[B] PLEADINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 26
[1] COMPLAINT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
[2] MOTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
[3] ANSWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
[C] PRE-TRIAL PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
[1] INVESTIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
[2] DISCOVERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
[3] MOTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
[4] SETTLEMENT NEGOTIATIONS AND
MEDIATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
[5] PRE-TRIAL CONFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
[D] TRIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 32
[1] TRIAL - PART 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
[2] TRIAL - PART 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
[E] APPEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 35
CHAPTER 2 - NEGLIGENCE LAW: BREACH
OF DUTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
 2.01 OVERVIEW OF NEGLIGENCE LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42
[A] OUTLINE OF THE ELEMENTS OF A
NEGLIGENCE CASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
[B] DESCRIPTION OF THE ELEMENTS OF A
NEGLIGENCE CASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
[1] DUTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43
[2] BREACH OF DUTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
xii TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
[3] CAUSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
[4] SCOPE OF LIABILITY (PROXIMATE
CAUSE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
[5] DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
[C] DEFENSES TO A NEGLIGENCE CLAIM . . . . . . 47
[D] OUTLINE OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE CONTRIBUTORY
NEGLIGENCE DEFENSE . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
[E] CENTRAL ISSUES TO CONSIDER: RULES
AND PROOF TO SATISFY RULES . . . . . . . . . . 49
 2.02 ANALYSIS OF THE ELEMENTS OF A NEGLIGENCE
CASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 50
[A] ANALYSIS OF A NEGLIGENCE CASE . . . . . . . . 50
Rudolph v. Arizona B.A.S.S. Federation . . . . . . . . . 50
[B] JUDGE AND JURY FUNCTION IN A
NEGLIGENCE CASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Judge and Jury Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61
[C] OVERVIEW OF PERSONAL INJURY
DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
[D] PUTTING THE ANALYSIS OF A
NEGLIGENCE CASE ALL TOGETHER . . . . . . . 67
 2.03 THE REASONABLE CARE STANDARD: FORESIGHT OF
RISK AND UNREASONABLE CONDUCT . . . . . . . . . . 67
 2.04 THE REASONABLE PERSON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 68
[A] GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Vaughan v. Menlove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
69
Reed v. Tacoma Ry. & Power Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Lussan v. Grain Dealers Mutual Insurance
Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 70
Holmes on the Reasonable Person . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
[B] REASONABLE MEN AND WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . 74
Edwards v. Johnson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74
[C] EMERGENCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77
Foster v. Strutz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 77
[D] PHYSICALLY DIFFERENT
CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
[E] MENTALLY DISABLED INDIVIDUALS . . . . . . . 81
Bashi v. Wodarz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 81
Cooper v. County of Florence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
84
[F] CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 86
TABLE OF CONTENTS xiii
Page
Robinson v. Lindsay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 87
Ethics Note-Advocate's Role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
91
Superior Skill Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
92
 2.05 DEVELOPING THE REASONABLE CARE
STANDARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 92
[A] BALANCING RISK VERSUS UNTAKEN
PRECAUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
United States v. Carroll Towing Co. . . . . . . . . . . . .
92
Untaken Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 100
McCarty v. Pheasant Run, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
102
Indiana Consol. Ins. Co. v. Mathew . . . . . . . . . . . .
107
Pease v. Sinclair Refining Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
107
The Dangerous Bus Stop Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Corporate Use of Risk/Benefit Analysis . . . . . . . . . .
109
The Missing Rearview Mirror Problem . . . . . . . . . . 111
[B] ROLE OF CUSTOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Hagerman Construction, Inc. v. Copeland . . . . . . . . 112
Trimarco v. Klein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 113
The T.J. Hooper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 119
The Careless Driver Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
121
 2.06 ALTERNATIVES TO THE REASONABLE CARE
STANDARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 123
[A] SPECIFIC JUDICIAL STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . 123
Baltimore & Ohio R.R. Co. v. Goodman . . . . . . . . . 123
Pokora v. Wabash Ry. Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
124
Mickel v. Haines Enterprises, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
126
[B] SAFETY STATUTES AND REGULATIONS AS
STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
129
Ferrell v. Baxter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 130
Wright v. Brown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 140
[1] RELATIONSHIP OF STATUTORY
STANDARDS TO THE REASONABLE
CARE STANDARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
[2] THE ROLE OF EXCUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
The Headlights Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Note on Interpreting Statutes . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Q & A on Statutes in Negligence Actions . . . . . . 149
Framework for Using Statutes in Negligence
Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
151
[3] NEGLIGENCE PER SE VS. CHILD
STANDARD OF CARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
xiv TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Bauman v. Crawford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Childproof Cap Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Keys in Ignition Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
 2.07 PROOF OF NEGLIGENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 157
[A] CIRCUMSTANTIAL PROOF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Clark v. Kmart Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
157
Circumstantial Evidence in Negligence . . . . . . . . . .
160
The Law of Torts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 160
Ethics Note-Advocate's Role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
163
[B] RES IPSA LOQUITUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
164
Byrne v. Boadle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 164
Eaton v. Eaton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 166
Harder v. Clinton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 168
[1] THE DEFENDANT'S RESPONSIBILITY . . . . . 175
Escola v. Coca Cola Bottling Co. of Fresno . . . . . 175
Giles v. City of New Haven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Ybarra v. Spangard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
[C] NOTE ON JOINT AND SEVERAL LIABILITY . . . 184
The Falling Steer Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
187
The Rolling Car Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
188
 2.08 THE STANDARD OF CARE IN PROFESSIONAL
MALPRACTICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 189
[A] NEGLIGENT MEDICAL PERFORMANCE . . . . . . 190
Vergara v. Doan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 190
[1] MEDICAL MALPRACTICE AND RES IPSA
LOQUITUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Mireles v. Broderick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
[B] THE DOCTRINE OF INFORMED CONSENT . . . . 200
Phillips v. Hull . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 200
Note on the Incidence of Medical Error . . . . . . . . . .
207
Medical Malpractice Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
208
[C] LEGAL MALPRACTICE AND THE LIABILITY OF
OTHER PROFESSIONALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
 2.09 PUTTING BREACH OF DUTY ANALYSIS
TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 211
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Page
Coffee at McDonald's Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 211
How a Jury Decided That a Coffee Spill Is Worth $2.9
Million . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 211
The Glass Patio Door Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 218
Electro Shock Therapy Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 219
Ethics Note-Advocate's Role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 220
CHAPTER 3 - DUTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 223
 3.01 GENERAL DUTY OF REASONABLE CARE . . . . . . . . . 225
Macpherson v. Buick Motor Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 225
Buick Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 234
Note on the Common Law Tradition . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
235
The Bramble Bush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 235
 3.02 LIMITED DUTY RULES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 237
[A] LIMITED DUTY: OWNERS AND OCCUPIERS
OF LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
238
American Industries Life
Insurance Co. v. Ruvalcaba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
238
Note on Child Visitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 247
Rowland v. Christian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
248
Duty Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 255
Note on Reception of English Common Law Into
the American States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 259
The Seashell Motel Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
260
Ice Caves Mountain Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
261
[B] LIMITED DUTY: RECREATIONAL SPORTS . . . . . 262
Lestina v. West Bend Mutual Insurance Co. . . . . . . . 262
[C] LIMITED DUTY: DUTY TO ACT
AFFIRMATIVELY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
[1] DUTY TO ACT, ASSIST OR RESCUE . . . . . . 270
Farwell v. Keaton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
272
Yania v. Bigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Note on No Duty to Assist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Duty to Act Reform Statute Drafting
Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
288
[2] LIMITED DUTY: CONTROLLING CONDUCT
OF OTHERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
[a] Duty to Warn or Provide Information . . . . . 289
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Dunkle v. Food Service East . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Randi W. v. Murdoc Joint Unified School
District . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Note on Abuse Reporting Statutes as a Source
of Duty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Note on Implied Rights of Action Under
Statutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
[b] Duty to Provide Reasonable Security . . . . . 303
Delta Tau Delta v. Johnson . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Kentucky Fried Chicken of California v.
Superior Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
[c] Duty to Protect Against Gun Violence . . . . 310
Hamilton v. Beretta U.S.A. Corp. . . . . . . . . 310
Note on Duty of Alcohol Providers . . . . . . . 313
[d] Public Agency Duty to Protect Citizens . . . . 314
Kircher v. City of Jamestown . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Note on the Limited Public Duty Rule and
Domestic Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Constitutional Challenges to Governmental
Inaction on Domestic Violence . . . . . . . . . . 324
Note on the American System of
Precedent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Note on Common Law Authority to Overrule
Precedent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
The Wild Fraternity Party Problem . . . . . . . 331
The Designated Driver Problem . . . . . . . . . 332
Who Shot Arnold Schuster? Problem . . . . . . 333
The Involuntary Police Decoy Problem . . . . . 333
Ethics Note-Advocate's Role . . . . . . . . . . . 334
[D] LIMITED DUTY: EMOTIONAL HARM WITHOUT
PHYSICAL INJURY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
[1] BYSTANDER EMOTIONAL HARM . . . . . . . . 338
Clohessy v. Bachelor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
[2] INDEPENDENT DUTY (DIRECT
VICTIMS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Burgess v. Superior Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Boyles v. Kerr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
360
[3] TOWARDS A MORE ELEGANT
SOLUTION: FORESEEABLE
RISKS OF EMOTIONAL HARM . . . . . . . . . . 363
Camper v. Minor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
[4] FEAR OF FUTURE DISEASE . . . . . . . . . . . 369
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Page
Potter v. Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. . . . . . . . 369
Fear of AIDS Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Fear Resulting From Misdiagnosis Problem . . . . 382
The Second Mother's Emotional Distress
Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
383
Prescription Malpractice Problem . . . . . . . . . . 383
[E] LIMITED DUTY: ECONOMIC LOSS WITHOUT
PHYSICAL INJURY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
People Express Airlines, Inc. v. Consolidated
Rail Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 385
[F] LIMITED DUTY: CONSORTIUM LOSSES . . . . . . 392
Reagan v. Vaughn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
396
[G] LIMITED DUTY: PRE-NATAL TORTS . . . . . . . . 396
Note on the Source of Common Law . . . . . . . . . . . 402
 3.03 PUTTING DUTY ANALYSIS TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . .
406
[A] DUTY ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK . . . . . . . . . . . 406
[B] PRACTICE PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Pumping Gas to Drunks Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Physician Liability to Third Parties Problem . . . . . . 410
Criminal Attack on Delivery Person Problem . . . . . . 411
The Fierce Doberman Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
411
CHAPTER 4 - CAUSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 413
 4.01 THE CONCEPTUAL BASIS OF CAUSATION . . . . . . . . 414
[A] BUT FOR CAUSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Sowles v. Moore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 414
New York Central R.R. Co. v. Grimstad . . . . . . . . . 415
[B] THE SUBSTANTIAL FACTOR TEST . . . . . . . . . 416
Corey v. Havener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 417
Mitchell v. Gonzales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 417
Smith v. J.C. Penney Co., Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
419
[C] PROOF OF CAUSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
[1] CUMULATING PROOF TO IDENTIFY
THE CAUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Ingersoll v. Liberty Bank of Buffalo . . . . . . . . . 421
Proving Causation Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Morris on Torts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
425
[2] UNTAKEN PRECAUTIONS: PROVING
THE COUNTERFACTUAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
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Phillips v. Perils of Pauline Food
Production, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
430
Zuchowicz v. United States 433
Ruminations in Cause-In-Fact 437
[3] MULTIPLE PARTIES: APPOINTMENT OF
DAMAGES OR JOINT LIABILITY . . . . . . . . 439
Fugere v. Pierce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
439
Q & A on Cause-In-Fact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Bad Brakes Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Gallstone Diagnosis Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Candlewatt Power Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Ethics Note: Lying in Negotiations . . . . . . . . . 447
 4.02 LOSS OF CHANCE OF RECOVERY . . . . . . . . . . . . .
448
Herskovits v. Group Health Cooperative of Puget
Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 448
United States v. Cumberbatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 456
Note on Statutes as Sources of Law . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 461
 4.03 PROVING WHO CAUSED THE HARM . . . . . . . . . . . .
463
[A] ALTERNATIVE LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
Summers v. Tice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 464
Barron v. Martin-Marietta Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
466
[B] MARKET SHARE LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Hymnowitz v. Eli Lilly Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
471
Brenner v. American Cyanimid Company . . . . . . . . 479
Note on Lead Paint Poisoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
484
 4.04 USING SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL EVIDENCE TO
PROVE CAUSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 486
Note on Scientific Evidence to Prove Causation . . . . . . .
487
Note on Epidemiological Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 489
Merrel Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. v. Havner . . . . . . . . .
490
Grassis v. Johns-Manville Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 491
Note on the Daubert Trilogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 492
Globetti v. Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp. . . . . . . . . . .
493
Glastetter v. Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp. . . . . . . . .
. 499
The Diet Drug Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 504
 4.05 PUTTING CAUSATION TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . .
505
The Newspaper Wire Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
505
 4.06 VICARIOUS LIABILITY AND EMPLOYER
RESPONSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 506
[A] INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
506
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Page
[B] VICARIOUS LIABILITY CONTEXTS . . . . . . . . . 507
[1] EMPLOYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
[2] PARTNERSHIPS AND JOINT VENTURES . . . 508
[3] INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS . . . . . . . . . 509
[4] FICTIONAL VICARIOUS LIABILITY . . . . . . . 509
[5] FRANCHISE RELATIONSHIPS . . . . . . . . . . 510
[6] VICARIOUS LIABILITY IN CONTRIBUTORY
NEGLIGENCE CONTEXTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
[C] SCOPE OF EMPLOYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
[1] THE COMMUTING TO WORK RULE . . . . . . 511
Anderson v. Gobea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
[2] THE FROLIC AND DETOUR RULE . . . . . . . 512
Pyne v. Witmer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
Riviello v. Waldron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
514
[3] DUAL PURPOSE RULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
Wilson v. Joma, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
Olson v. Connerly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
517
[4] EMERGENCY EMPLOYEE RULE . . . . . . . . 519
Marter v. Scott . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
519
[D] VICARIOUS LIABILITY PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . 520
CHAPTER 5 - SCOPE OF LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
 5.01 THE CONCEPTUAL BASIS OF
SCOPE OF LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 525
[A] DIRECT CONSEQUENCES TEST . . . . . . . . . . . 525
In re Arbitration Between Polemis & Partner and
Furness, Withy & Co., Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
525
[B] FORESEEABLE CONSEQUENCES TEST . . . . . . 528
Palsgraf v. Long Island R.R. Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
528
Bomb Blast Injures 13 in Station Crowd . . . . . . . . . 533
McClenahan v. Cooley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
536
Note on Lawyer Advocacy on Scope of Liability Issues
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
540
Morris on Torts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 540
[C] POLICY CONSIDERATIONS IN SCOPE
OF LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
542
[1] GENERALLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
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[2] THE CONCEPTUAL TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
[3] THE PRACTICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
Peripatetic Rat Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
 5.02 EXCEPTIONS TO THE FORESIGHT RULE . . . . . . . . .
546
[A] THE EGGSHELL SKULL RULE AND THE MEDICAL
MALPRACTICE COMPLICATIONS RULE . . . . . . 546
Association for Retarded
Citizens-Volusia v. Fletcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 546
Pace v. Ohio Department of Transportation . . . . . . . 549
[B] RESCUER RULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
553
Sears v. Morrison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 553
Oscar Klein Plumbing and Heating v. Boyd . . . . . . . 555
[C] CRIMINAL CONDUCT OF A THIRD PERSON . . . 556
Price v. Blaine Kern Artista, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
556
[D] SUICIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 560
Stafford v. Neurological Medicine, Inc. . . . . . . . . . .
560
 5.03 SHIFTING RESPONSIBILITY ISSUE . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 564
McLaughlin v. Mine Safety Appliances Co. . . . . . . . . . .
564
Bigbee v. Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Co. . . . . . . .
. 571
 5.04 APPLICATION OF FORESIGHT RULE . . . . . . . . . . . .
575
Scope of Liability Q & A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 575
Framework for Analyzing Scope of Liability . . . . . . . . .
577
Allen v. Shiroma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 580
Issue on Appeal Drafting Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 584
Sampling of Cases on Scope of Liability . . . . . . . . . .
. 585
 5.05 PUTTING SCOPE OF LIABILITY ANALYSIS
TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 586
Oil Spill Tragedy Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 586
The Buffalo River Flood Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 586
Exam Drafting Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 587
CHAPTER 6 - DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 589
 6.01 EARNING LOSSES AND MEDICAL EXPENSES . . . . . . 590
Calculating Damages Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 590
Note on the Use of Economics Experts . . . . . . . . . . . .
597
 6.02 PAIN, SUFFERING, AND EMOTIONAL DISTRESS . . . . 599
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Page
Williams v. City of New York . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 600
Piehnik v. Graff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 601
Note on Pain, Suffering, and Emotional Distress . . . . . .
602
Note on Defense Approach to Damages Issues . . . . . . . .
605
Refuting Damages in a Personal Injury Case Bolster the
Defense by Developing a Strong Economic Team . . . . . . 605
 6.03 LOSS OF ENJOYMENT OF LIFE DAMAGES . . . . . . . . 609
Eyoma v. Falco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 609
Mercado v. Ahmed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 611
Chancey v. Shirah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 614
Frankel v. United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 615
Tabor v. Carey & Leach Bus Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 615
McAlister v. Carl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 615
Early v. United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 615
Lebrecht v. Bethlehem Steel Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 615
Wry v. Dial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 615
Potts v. Guthrie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 615
Carminati v. Philadelphia Transp. Co. . . . . . . . . . . .
. 615
Rhone v. Fisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 615
Settlement Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 620
 6.04 COLLATERAL COMPENSATION SOURCES IN
DAMAGES LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 622
Washington v. Barnes Hospital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 622
 6.05 PERIODIC PAYMENTS AND STRUCTURED
SETTLEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 628
Periodic Payment of Damages for Personal Injury . . . . .
629
Note on Structured Settlements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 633
 6.06 ATTORNEY CONTINGENT FEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 634
The Validity and Propriety of
Contingent Fee Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 636
Thinking About Contingency Fees . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 640
Contingency Fees: The Individual's Key to the
Courthouse Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 641
Ethics Note-Expert Witness Contingency Fees . . . . . . .
643
 6.07 PUTTING DAMAGES ANALYSIS TOGETHER . . . . . . . 644
Criminal Attack on Delivery Person Problem . . . . . . . .
644
Negotiation Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 645
 6.08 WRONGFUL DEATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 648
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Estate of Pushruk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 649
Horsford v. Horsford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 654
Wrongful Death Reform Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 660
Sykes v. Propane Power Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 661
Domestic Partner Wrongful Death Problem . . . . . . . . .
669
 6.09 PUNITIVE DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 669
Grimshaw v. Ford Motor Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 669
Young v. Crookham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 674
 6.10 INSURANCE ISSUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 680
Note on Liability Insurance Policies . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 680
Auto Liability Insurance Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 681
Ethics Note-Representation in Insurance Cases . . . . . .
683
Manchester Insurance & Indemnity Co. v. Grundy . . . . . 683
Best Place, Inc. v. Penn America Insurance Co. . . . . . . .
689
Ethics Note-Conflict of Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 695
CHAPTER 7 - DEFENSES AND IMMUNITIES . . . . . . . . 697
 7.01 CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
698
 7.02 ASSUMPTION OF RISK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 699
[A] EXPRESS ASSUMPTION OF RISK . . . . . . . . . . 699
[B] IMPLIED ASSUMPTION OF RISK . . . . . . . . . . 700
Murray v. Ramada Inns, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
701
Note on Implied Assumption of Risk . . . . . . . . . . . 707
[1] LIMITED DUTY SITUATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 707
[2] CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE
SITUATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708
[3] RECONCILING THE OVERLAP . . . . . . . . . . 709
[C] REVIEW PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714
The Ultralight Aircraft Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
714
Whitewater Trip Waiver Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715
 7.03 COMPARATIVE FAULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 716
[A] THE BASIC POLICY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
716
Hoffman v. Jones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 716
[B] FACTORS IN ASSIGNING PERCENTAGES
OF FAULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
722
Wassell v. Adams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 722
[C] SHOULD INTENTIONAL WRONGDOING BE
COMPARED WITH NEGLIGENCE? . . . . . . . . . . 728
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Page
Hutcherson v. City of Phoenix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
728
Merrill Crossings Assoc. v. McDonald . . . . . . . . . . .
731
[D] ANALYSIS UNDER DIFFERENT COMPARATIVE
FAULT SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735
[1] COMPARATIVE FAULT PROBLEMS - SIMPLE
TWO PARTY CASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739
[2] SET-OFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
742
[3] COMPARATIVE FAULT PROBLEMS -
MULTIPLE PARTIES & MULTIPLE
CLAIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 743
[a] Multiple Parties and Claims . . . . . . . . . . 743
[b] The Absent Defendant (The Empty Chair) . . 747
[c] Settling Defendants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749
[d] Instructing the Jury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750
 7.04 STATUTES OF LIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 750
Gaston v. Parsons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 753
 7.05 CHARITABLE IMMUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 767
 7.06 SPOUSAL IMMUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 768
The Changing Law Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 768
 7.07 PARENTAL IMMUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 769
Parent-Child Immunity Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
773
 7.08 GOVERNMENTAL IMMUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 774
Harry Stoller and Co., Inc. v. City of Lowell . . . . . . .
. . 775
Discretionary Function Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 780
Ethics Note-Conflict of Interest II . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 781
CHAPTER 8 - INTENTIONAL TORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783
 8.01 OVERVIEW OF INTENTIONAL TORTS . . . . . . . . . . .
783
 8.02 ASSAULT, BATTERY, AND INTENTIONAL INFLICTION
OF EMOTIONAL DISTRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
784
Dickens v. Puryear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 786
 8.03 THE MEANING OF INTENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 793
White v. Muniz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 793
Villa v. Derouen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 799
Brown v. Diversified Hospitality Group . . . . . . . . . . .
. 803
Hall v. McBryde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 807
 8.04 OFFENSIVE BATTERY AND ASSAULT . . . . . . . . . . .
808
xxiv TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Leichtman v. WLW Jacor Communications, Inc. . . . . . . .
808
Vetter v. Morgan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 810
Battery Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 811
Assault Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 814
 8.05 INTENTIONAL INFLICTION OF EMOTIONAL
DISTRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 816
Twyman v. Twyman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 817
Intentional Infliction of Emotional Harm Problems . . . . .
822
 8.06 FALSE IMPRISONMENT AND MALICIOUS
PROSECUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 824
Samuel v. Rose's Stores, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 824
Scofield v. Critical Air Medicine, Inc. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 827
False Imprisonment Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 830
 8.07 TRESPASS TO CHATTELS AND CONVERSION . . . . . . 832
Unites States v. Arora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 832
Spleenless in Seattle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 837
Paccar Financial Corp. v. Howard . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 838
 8.08 DEFENSES AND PRIVILEGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 844
[A] CONSENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 844
Hogan v. Tavzel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 844
Hellriegel v. Tholl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 846
Reavis v. Slominski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 848
Consent Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
855
[B] SELF DEFENSE AND DEFENSE OF OTHERS . . . 856
Bradley v. Hunter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 857
Juarez-Martinez v. Deans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
859
Self Defense and Defense of Others Problems . . . . . . 863
[C] DEFENSE OF PROPERTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865
Katko v. Briney . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 865
[D] NECESSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 870
Eilers v. Coy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 870
Rossi v. Delduca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 872
Vincent v. Lake Erie Transp. Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
873
 8.09 PUTTING INTENTIONAL TORT ANALYSIS
TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 876
 8.10 OPPRESSIVE CONDUCT AND SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . .
878
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Page
McDaniel v. Gile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 878
Alcorn v. Anbro Engineering, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 882
Swenson v. Northern Crop Insurance, Inc. . . . . . . . . . .
884
Logan v. Sears, Roebuck & Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 886
Hate Speech and Free Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 888
Simpson v. Burrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 890
Spousal Abuse Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 895
CHAPTER 9 - TRESPASS TO LAND, NUISANCE AND
ABNORMALLY DANGEROUS
ACTIVITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 899
 9.01 TRESPASS TO LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 899
Creel v. Crim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 900
 9.02 NUISANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 903
[A] PRIVATE NUISANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903
Prah v. Maretti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 903
Boomer v. Atlantic Cement Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
909
[B] OVERLAP OF TRESPASS & PRIVATE
NUISANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
916
Bradley v. American Smelting and
Refining Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
916
[C] PUBLIC NUISANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
922
Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to
Animals v. Bravo Enterprises, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
922
 9.03 ABNORMALLY DANGEROUS ACTIVITY . . . . . . . . . . 930
An Overview of Strict Liability . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 930
Klein v. Pyrodyne Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 933
Transporting Gasoline Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 944
CHAPTER 10 - PRODUCTS LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . 947
 10.01 THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRICT PRODUCTS
LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 948
[A] HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . 948
Potter v. Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. . . . . . . . . . . .
950
Escola v. Coca Cola Bottling Co. of Fresno . . . . . . . .
952
Henningsen v. Bloomfield Motors, Inc. . . . . . . . . . .
955
Greenman v. Yuba Power Products, Inc. . . . . . . . . . 956
[B] RESTATEMENT 2d, PRODUCTS
LIABILITY 402A (1965) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 958
xxvi TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
[C] AN OVERVIEW OF PRODUCTS LIABILITY LAW
AFTER THE ADOPTION OF 402A . . . . . . . . . 960
[1] MANUFACTURING DEFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . 961
[2] DESIGN DEFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 961
[a] Consumer Expectations Test . . . . . . . . . . 961
[b] Risk-Utility Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 962
[3] WARNING AND INSTRUCTION DEFECTS . . . 964
 10.02 THE PRIMA FACIE CASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 965
[A] DUTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 965
[B] DEFECTIVENESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
969
[1] MANUFACTURING DEFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . 969
[2] DESIGN DEFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 969
[a] Defining and Proving a Dangerously
Defective Product Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 969
Kutzler v. AMF Harley-Davidson . . . . . . . . 969
Lester v. Magic Chef, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 975
Barker v. Lull Engineering Co., Inc. . . . . . . 980
Campbell v. General Motors Corp. . . . . . . . . 982
[b] Restatement 3d on Products
Liability (1998) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986
Note on Multiple Legal Theories in Products
Liability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 993
[c] Design Defect Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994
Achilles' Heel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994
Defectiveness Restated: Exploding The "Strict"
Products Liability Myth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997
In Search of the Law of Products Liability:
The ALI Restatement Project . . . . . . . . . . . 999
Reviewing the Restatement . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000
The Products Liability Restatement in the
Courts: An Initial Assessment . . . . . . . . . . 1000
Potter v. Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. . . . . . . 1003
[3] WARNING AND INSTRUCTION DEFECTS . . . 1013
[a] Defining and Proving a Dangerously
Defective Warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1013
Nowak v. Faberge U.S.A., Inc. . . . . . . . . . . 1013
Macrie v. SDS Biotech Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . 1017
Feldman v. Lederle Laboratories . . . . . . . . . 1018
Green v. Smith & Nephew AHP, Inc. . . . . . . 1021
[b] Restatement 3d on Products
Liability (1998) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1028
TABLE OF CONTENTS xxvii
Page
[c] Warning Defect Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . 1030
Defectiveness Restated: Exploding the "Strict"
Product Liability Myth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1030
Unknowable Dangers and the Death of Strict
Products Liability: The Empire Strikes
Back . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1031
The Products Liability Restatement in the
Courts: An Initial Assessment . . . . . . . . . . 1033
[4] PROOF ISSUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1035
[a] State of the Art Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . 1035
Boatland of Houston, Inc. v. Bailey . . . . . . . 1035
[b] Subsequent Remedial Design Measures . . 1040
Krause v. American Aerolights, Inc. . . . . . . . 1040
[5] PRODUCTS LIABILITY DEFECTS
IN CONTEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1043
[a] Design Defect Analysis of Fuel Tank
Location Hazard in Pickup Trucks . . . . . 1043
Data Show GM Knew for Years of Risk in
Pickup Trucks' Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1044
GM Ordered by Jury to Pay $105.2 Million
Over Death Punitive Award Deals Blow to
Efforts to Defend `73-`87 Pickup Trucks . . . . 1046
Ethics Note-Confidentiality of
Settlements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050
[b] Design and Warning Defect Analysis of
Fire Hazard of Disposable Cigarette
Lighters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051
Todd v. Societe Bic, S.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051
[c] Multi-Language Warnings on Dangerous
Over-The-Counter Drug Products . . . . . . 1056
Ramirez v. Plough, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1056
Household Cleaner Injury Problem . . . . . . . 1064
[C] CAUSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1065
[1] GENERALLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065
[2] MARKET SHARE LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . 1065
[3] SUCCESSOR CORPORATION LIABILITY . . . . 1065
[D] SCOPE OF LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1068
[1] FORESEEABLE USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1069
Dunne v. Wal-Mart Stores, inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1069
[2] FORESEEABLE PERSONS SUBJECT TO
INJURY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1071
xxviii TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Folding Chair Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1073
[E] DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1073
[1] RECOVERY OF ECONOMIC LOSSES . . . . . . 1074
East River Steamship Corp. v. Transamerica
Delaval, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1074
[2] BYSTANDER EMOTIONAL HARM . . . . . . . . 1077
Pasquale v. Speed Products Engineering . . . . . . 1077
 10.03 DEFENSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 1079
General Motors Corporation v. Sanchez . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1079
Hughes v. Magic Chef, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1083
 10.04 FEDERAL STATUTORY REFORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1086
 10.05 PUTTING PRODUCTS LIABILITY ANALYSIS
TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1087
Drawstring Sweatshirt Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1087
Baby Cushion Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1088
Loud Heart Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1089
CHAPTER 11 - DEFAMATION LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1091
 11.01 OVERVIEW OF COMMON LAW DEFAMATION AND
DEFENSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1092
[A] DEFAMATORY STATEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1094
[1] DEFAMATORY MEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1094
[a] Opinion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096
[2] DEFAMATORY TO WHOM? . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096
[3] MANNER OF COMMUNICATION . . . . . . . . 1097
[4] INTERPRETATION OF THE STATEMENT . . . 1097
[a] Meaning and Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097
[5] PLEADING ISSUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098
[a] Use of Extrinsic Facts -
Inducement & Innuendo . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098
[B] IDENTIFYING THE PLAINTIFF -
COLLOQUIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098
[1] GROUP LIBEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1099
[C] PUBLICATION (COMMUNICATING THE
DEFAMATION) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1099
[D] FALSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1100
[E] CAUSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1101
TABLE OF CONTENTS xxix
Page
[F] HARM (DAMAGES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1101
Zeran v. Diamond Broadcasting, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . .
1102
[G] DEFENSES/PRIVILEGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1110
[1] TRUTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1110
[2] ABSOLUTE PRIVILEGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111
[3] QUALIFIED PRIVILEGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112
[a] Statements Made to Protect One's Own
Interests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112
[b] Statements Made to Protect the Interests
of the Recipient or a Third Party . . . . . . 1112
[c] Statements to Protect Common Interests . . 1112
[d] Fair Comment Privilege . . . . . . . . . . . . 1113
[e] Fair and Accurate Report Privilege
(Privilege of Neutral Reportage) . . . . . . . 1113
[4] RETRACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115
[5] STATUTES OF LIMITATION . . . . . . . . . . . 1115
[6] MITIGATION OF DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115
[H] COURTHOUSE DEFAMATION OVERVIEW
PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1116
 11.02 THE "CONSTITUTIONALIZATION" OF DEFAMATION
LAW: FIRST AMENDMENT PRIVILEGES . . . . . . . . . 1118
[A] REPUTATIONAL VALUES VERSUS FREE SPEECH
VALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1119
[1] REPUTATIONAL VALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1120
[2] FREE SPEECH VALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121
 11.03 CONSTITUTIONAL PRIVILEGES: PUBLIC OFFICIALS
AND PUBLIC FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1123
New York Times Company & Ralph Abernathy et. al. v.
Sullivan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 1123
Analysis of Public Official and Public Figure Cases . . . .
. 1136
 11.04 CONSTITUTIONAL PRIVILEGES: PRIVATE
PERSONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 1142
[A] MATTERS OF PUBLIC CONCERN . . . . . . . . . . 1142
Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1142
[B] MATTERS NOT OF PUBLIC CONCERN . . . . . . . 1153
Dun & Bradstreet, Inc. v. Greenmoss
Builders, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1153
Snead v.Redland Aggregates Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1164
 11.05 DETERMINING STATUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1168
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Wells v. Liddy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 1168
SLAPP Lawsuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1182
 11.06 OPINION REVISITED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 1183
Roffman v. Trump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1184
 11.07 PUTTING DEFAMATION ANALYSIS TOGETHER . . . . 1191
The Gossip Columnist Defamation Problem . . . . . . . . .
1191
The Kinkajous Defamation Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1192
The Former Secretary of State Problem . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1194
Animal Rights Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1195
Defamation Culpability Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1195
 11.08 PROPOSALS FOR REFORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1196
Reform Legislation Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1197
CHAPTER 12 - PRIVACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1199
 12.01 INTRODUCTION TO PRIVACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1199
[A] STATUTORY PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1200
[B] CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . 1201
[C] COMMON LAW PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1206
[D] FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND PRESS . . . . . . . . 1209
Note on Internet Resources on Privacy . . . . . . . . . .
1210
 12.02 INTRUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 1210
Nader v. General Motors Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1210
Galella v. Onassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 1219
J.H. Desnick, M.D., Eye Services, Ltd. v. American
Broadcasting Companies, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1220
 12.03 PUBLIC DISCLOSURE OF PRIVATE FACTS . . . . . . .
1226
Briscoe v. Reader's Digest Association, Inc. . . . . . . . .
. . 1229
Uranga v. Federated Publications, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1229
Sipple v. The Chronicle Publishing Co. . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1234
Note on "Outing" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 1239
 12.04 FALSE LIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 1246
Crump v. Beckley Newspapers, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1246
Spahn v. Julian Messner, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1253
Time, Inc. v. Hill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 1254
Cantrell v. Forest City Publishing Co. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1256
 12.05 APPROPRIATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 1259
TABLE OF CONTENTS xxxi
Page
Hinish v. Meier & Frank Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1259
Felsher v. University of Evansville . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 1265
 12.06 RIGHT OF PUBLICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 1270
Lugosi v. Universal Pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 1270
White v. Samsung Electronics America, Inc. . . . . . . . . .
1276
 12.07 PUTTING PRIVACY & PUBLICITY ANALYSIS
TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1288
Air Crash Interview Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1288
The Sexual Harassment Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1289
Outing the Gay Dad Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1290
The Boastful Mayor Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1290
Absolut Marilyn - Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1291
Table of Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . TC-1
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . I-1
xxxii TABLE OF CONTENTS

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Torts -- United States.