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Contents Acknowledgments ix Introduction xi What Matters xi What Follows xiv Exchange Rates xix Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Definitions xx About the Authors xxv 1 Critical Development in Asia 1 The Best of Times, the Worst of Times 1 Infrastructure Lifetimes and Hard Choices 22 2 Renewable Energy as the Global Warming Solution 35 Renewable Energy Options and Alternatives 35 The Renewable Technologies for Developing Nations 37 Comparative Environmental Emissions 46 Decentralization of Electric Generation 54 Distributed Generation Reliability 55 3 Overview: What Works for Renewable Power Implementation in Developing Nations 67 Thailand Program Summary 74 Indonesia Program Summary 76 India Program Summary 78 Sri Lanka Program Summary 80 Vietnam Program Summary 82 4 Thailand: Creative Competitive Markets in the Heart of the Tiger 85 Program Overview 85 Program Design and Implementation 86 Power Purchase Agreements 91 5 Indonesia: Carrots Rather than Clubs; Incentives for Peak Performance 99 Program Overview 99 Program Design and Implementation 100 Power Purchase Agreements 107 6 India: State Power in a Federalist System 119 Program Overview 119 Andhra Pradesh 125 Tamil Nadu 134 7 Sri Lanka: 21st-Century Conversion of Ancient Renewable Technologies 145 Program Overview 145 Program Design and Implementation 146 8 Vietnam: Capital Markets and Renewable Energy in a People's Republic 159 Program Overview 159 Supply Resources and Demand 159 Institutional Differences in the Vietnamese System 161 Program Design and Implementation 164 Power Purchase Agreements 175 9 Lessons Learned in Asia for a Successful SPP Program: Template and Techniques 185 Common Threads and Differences 185 Key Issues in Renewable SPP Program Design 187 Recommended Best Practices and Program Template 194 10 Financing the Transition 201 Transitions to Restructured Markets 201 The Magnitude of Required Electric-Sector Investment 202 Funding Sources 205 Electric-Sector Investment Criteria 206 Phases of Financial Risk 208 Types of International Project Risk 210 Shifting and Bearing Risk in the Power Sector 213 Risk Mitigation 215 Government Role and Reform for Small Power Producer Programs 218 Reform of the Existing Legal Framework 221 International Credit Agencies and Their Financing Functions 223 Other International Credit Agencies and Sources 231 Risks of Renewable Energy Development 233 11 Key Provisions in Power Purchase Agreements 247 Overview 247 Contract Formation and Contract Validity 251 Modification of the Contract 257 Dispute Resolution 261 Breach of the Contract 262 Liability 269 Lenders' Rights 270 12 The Law and Principles Governing International Power 275 Securing Power Contract Enforcement 275 Form, Formation, and Modification of Power Sale Contracts 281 Interpretation of the Deal 288 The Obligation to Honor the Power Purchase Agreement 292 Conclusion 296 13 The Eye of the Needle: International Environmental Assessments and Reviews for Power Projects 311 Types of Projects Covered 314 Project Screening 315 Responsibility for Environmental Assessment Preparation 317 Initiation of the Environmental Assessment Process 319 Project Scoping 320 Type of Impacts Considered in the Review 322 Consideration of Project Alternatives 325 Mitigation Discussion or Adoption of Mitigation 326 Timing of EIA Document Preparation 327 Environmental Assessment Review and Public Participation 329 Final Decisions to Proceed with Energy Projects 330 Postapproval Monitoring and Auditing 331 Conclusion 333 Index 343
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Energy policy -- Developing countries.
Energy industries -- Developing countries.
Electric power production -- Environmental aspects -- Developing countries.
Global warming -- Government policy -- Developing countries.