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Table of Contents Tables Figures Preface and Acknowledgements Chapter One: Introduction and Overview Knowledge, Learning, and Policy Change Different types of learning Policy failure and learning A Model of Event-Related Policy Change Learning and Lessons in This Study Methods The Case Studies Conclusion Chapter Two: September 11, Learning, and Policy Change What Is Homeland Security? Events and Reports: The Emergence of the Homeland Security Problem The Gilmore commission The Hart-Rudman commission The September 11 Attacks as Focusing Events September 11, Policy Failure, Learning, and Change Shifting constructions of the terrorist threat Post September 11 legislation as evidence of instrumental learning The role of the September 11 commission in instrumental learning Conclusions: Learning after September 11 Chapter Three: Learning from Aviation Security Disasters Historical Trends in Aviation Security Agenda change and Security Incidents News coverage of aviation security The substance of the media agenda Voices and topics in Congress Ideas in Congress: Did dominant issues match the¿real¿ problem? The breadth of the agenda: Do focusing events focus attention? Policy change, learning, and implementation Presidential commissions on aviation security The GAO reports on aviation security Summarizing post-september 11 learning Implementation Problems in Aviation Security Conclusions Chapter Four: Learning From Earthquakes and Hurricanes Why Natural Hazards Matter Disaster Mitigation as a Primary Goal of Disaster policy Earthquakes and Hurricanes on National and Local Agendas Group activity and congressional committees The substance of the debate Legislation and Regulation Learning from Disasters at the State and Local Level Earthquake policy in California Earthquake policy in Washington State Hurricane policy in Florida and North Carolina Summarizing state-level learning Conclusions Chapter Five: Summary and Conclusions Learning and the Policy Process Revisiting the Propositions A small number of events will gain the largest amount of attention Focusing events trigger group mobilization The relationship between events, ideas, and policy change. Assessing the Elements of the Model Factors hat promote and inhibit learning Factors that promote learning Impediments to learning Focusing Events and the Accumulation of Knowledge Policy Implementation and Lessons The Persistence of Learning and the Unlearning Of Lessons Conclusion References Notes Tables Table 11: Types of Learning, Who Learns, and what is Learned Table 12: Typical evidence of learning in the policy process Table 21:, Definition of Categories of Policies in the Homeland Security Domain Table 22: Recommendations of the Hart-Rudman, Gilmore and September 11 Commissions Table 23: Public Laws Related to Terrorism, September 2001 to December 2004 Table 31: Key features of aviation security incidents Table 32: Key Issues in Aviation Security since 1985 Table 33: Voices represented in the New York Times, by group type and agenda status of events, 1985-2002. Table 34: Federal government representatives the New York Times, by agency and agenda status of events, 1985-2002. Table 35: Topics of stories on aviation security, 1985-2002 Table 36: Testimony on Aviation Security, by Witness Affiliation, 1985-2002 Table 37: Testimony on Aviation Security, by Federal Government Witness Affiliation, 1985-2002 Table 38: Topics in Congressional Hearings on Aviation Security, 1985-2002 Table 39: Ideas Contained in Congressional Testimony and Legislation on Aviation Security, 1988-2002 Table 310: Evidence of Learning in Aviation Security Table 41: Selected Legislation on Natural Hazards, 1950-2004 Table 42: Substance of Stories in Earthquakes and Hurricanes in the New York Times, 1990 to 2002 Table 43: Local Newspaper Coverage of Selected Natural Hazards Table 44: Earthquakes and Hurricanes: Congressional Testimony, by Group Type and Event Status, 1990 to 2002 Table 45: Witnesses on Earthquakes and Hurricanes, by agenda status of events and by issue, 1990-2002 Table 46: Congressional Record Entries on Earthquakes and Hurricanes, by agenda status of events and by issue, 1990-2002 Table 47: Policy Types in Congressional Record and in Proposed Legislation Table 48: Substance of Disaster Legislation on Earthquakes and Hurricanes, 1990-2002 Table 49: Key actions in earthquake policy, California and the United States, 1933-2000 Table 410: Magnitude 6.0 or greater earthquakes, Washington State since 1900 Figures Figure 11: Crises and Disasters Figure 12: A Model of Event-Related Policy Learning Figure 21: Stories on "Terrorism" in the New York Times, by Desk, 1990-2004, with Congressional Testimony on Terrorism Figure 31: The Aviation Security Agenda, 1985-2002
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Political planning -- United States.
Emergency management -- Government policy -- United States -- Case studies.
Disaster relief -- Government policy -- United States -- Case studies.
Natural disasters -- Government policy -- United States -- Case studies.
Aeronautics -- Safety measures -- Government policy -- United States -- Case studies.