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Contents Preface xi Acknowledgments xv About the Author xviii PART I: AN OVERVIEW 1. INTRODUCTION 3 PART II: SOME IMAGES OF ORGANIZATION 2. MECHANIZATION TAKES COMMAND: ORGANIZATIONS AS MACHINES 11 Machines, Mechanical Thinking, and the Rise of Bureaucratic Organization 13 The origins of Mechanistic Organization 15 Classical Management Theory: Designing Bureaucratic Organizations 18 Scientific Management 22 Strengths and Limitations of the Machine Metaphor 26 3. NATURE INTERVENESS: ORGANIZATIONS AS ORGANISMS 33 Discovering Organizational Needs 34 Recognizing the Importance of Environment: Organizations as Open Systems 38 Contingency Theory: Adapting Organization to Environment 42 The Variety of the Species 49 Contingency Theory: Promoting organizational Health and Development 54 Natural Selection: The Population-Ecology View of Organizations 59 Organizational Ecology: The Creation of Shared Futures 62 Strengths and Limitations of the Organismic Metaphor 64 4. LEARNING AND SELF-ORGANIZATION: ORGANIZATIONS AS BRAINS 71 Images of the Brain 72 Organizations as Information Processing Brains 76 Creating Learning Organizations 81 Cybernetics, Learning, and Learning to Learn 81 Can Organizations Learn to Learn? 84 Guidelines for ?Learning Organizations? 87 Organizations as the Holographic Brains 97 Principles of Holographic Design 99 Strengths and Limitations of the Brain Metaphor 112 5. CREATING SOCIAL REALTY: ORGANIZATIONS AS CULTURES 115 Culture and Organization 116 Organization as a Cultural Phenomenon 116 Organization and Cultural Context 118 Corporate Cultures and Subcultures 125 Creating Organizational Reality 134 Culture: Rule Following or Enactment? 134 Organization: The Enactment of a Shared Reality 137 Strengths and Limitations of the Culture Metaphor 140 6. INTERESTS, CONFLICT, AND POWER: ORGANIZATIONS AS POLITICAL SYSTEMS 149 Organizations as Systems of Government 151 Organizations as Systems of Political Activity 156 Analyzing Interests 157 Understanding Conflict 163 Exploring Power 166 Managing Pluralist Organizations 194 Strengths and Limitations of the Political Metaphor 202 7. EXPLORING PLATO?S CAVE: ORGANIZATIONS AS PSYCHIC PRISONS 207 The trap of Favored Ways of Thinking 208 Organization and the Unconscious 212 Organization and Repressed Sexuality 212 Organization and the Patriarchal Family 218 Organization, Death, and Immortality 219 Organization and Anxiety 221 Organization, Dolls, and Teddy Bears 227 Organization, Shadow, and Archetype 230 The unconscious: A Creative and Destructive Force 234 Strengths and Limitations of the Psychic Prison Metaphor 235 8. UNFOLDING LOGICS OF CHANGE: ORGANIZATION AS FLUX AND TRANSFORMATION 241 Autopoiesis: Rethinking Relations With the Environment 243 Enactment as a form of Narcissism: Organizations Interact with Projections of Themselves 246 Identity and Closure: Egocentricism Versus Systemic Wisdom 248 Shifting ?Attractors?: The Logic of Chaos and Complexity 251 Managing in the Midst of Complexity 255 Loops Not Lines: The Logic of Mutual Causality 263 Contradiction and Crisis: The Logic of Dialectical Change 273 Dialectical Analysis: How Opposing Forces Drive change 275 The Dialectics of Management 280 Strengths and Limitations of the Flux and Transformation Metaphor 287 9. THE UGLY FACE: ORGANIZATIONS AS INSTRUMENTS OF DOMINATION 291 Organization as Domination 293 How Organizations Use and Exploit their Employees 297 Organization, Class, and Control 298 Work Hazards, Occupational Disease, and Industrial Accidents 304 Workaholism and Social and Mental Stress 213 Organizational Politics and the Radicalized Organization 313 Multinationals and the World Economy 315 The multinationals as World Powers 319 Multinationals: A Record of Exploitation? 322 Strengths and Limitations of the Domination Metaphor 330 PART III: IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE 10. THE CHALLENGE OF METAPHOR 337 Metaphors Create Ways of Seeing and Shaping Organizational Life 338 Seeing, Thinking, and Acting in New Ways 341 11. READING AND SHAPING ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE 345 The Multicom Case 346 Interpreting Multicom 349 Developing a Detailed Reading and ?Storyline? 351 Multicom from Another View 358 ?Reading? and Emergent Intelligence 361 12. POSTSCRIPT 363 Bibliographic Notes 423 1: Introduction 367 2: The Machine Metaphor 369 3: The Organismic Metaphor 374 4: The Brain Metaphor 379 5: The Culture Metaphor 386 6: The Political Metaphor 390 7: The Psychic Prison Metaphor 395 8: The Flux and Transformation Metaphor 401 9: The Domination Metaphor 410 10: The Challenge of Metaphor 417 11: Reading and Shaping Organizational Life 418 12: Postscript 421 Bibliography 423 Index 000
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