Table of contents for Concepts in biology / Eldon D. Enger, Frederick C. Ross, David B. Bailey.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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Contents
Preface ix
Guided Tour xii
Table of Boxes xiv
PART ONE
Introduction 1
What Is Biology? 1
1.1 The Significance of Biology in Your Life 2
1.2 Science and the Scientific Method 2
Observation 3
Questioning and Exploration 4
Constructing Hypotheses 4
Testing Hypotheses 6
The Development of Theories and Laws 7
Communication 8
1.3 Science, Nonscience, and Pseudoscience 8
Fundamental Attitudes in Science 8
From Discovery to Application 8
Science and Nonscience 8
Pseudoscience 9
Limitations of Science 10
1.4 The Science of Biology 11
Characteristics of Life 11
Levels of Organization 13
The Significance of Biology 14
Consequences of Not Understanding Biological Principles 16
Future Directions in Biology 18
Summary* 20
Thinking Critically* 20
Concept Map Terminology* 20
Key Terms* 20
e-Learning Connections* 21
PART TWO
Cells 
Anatomy and Action 22
2-Simple Things of Life 22
2.1 The Basics: Matter and Energy 23
2.2 Structure of the Atom 25
2.3 Chemical Reactions: Compounds and Chemical Change 27
Electron Distribution 27
A Model of the Atom 28
Ions 29
2.4 Chemical Bonds 30
Ionic Bonds 30
Acids, Bases, and Salts 31
Covalent Bonds 32
Hydrogen Bonds 33
3-Organic Chemistry 
The Chemistry of Life 36
3.1 Molecules Containing Carbon 37
3.2 Carbon: The Central Atom 37
3.3 The Carbon Skeleton and Functional Groups 39
3.4 Common Organic Molecules 39
Carbohydrates 40
Lipids 41
True (Neutral) Fats 43
Phospholipids 44
Steroids 45
Proteins 45
Nucleic Acids 49
4-Cell Structure and Function 58
4.1 The Cell Theory 59
4.2 Cell Membranes 61
4.3 Getting Through Membranes 62
Diffusion 62
Dialysis and Osmosis 65
Controlled Methods of Transporting Molecules 67
4.4 Cell Size 68
4.5 Organelles Composed of Membranes 68
The Endoplasmic Reticulum 69
The Golgi Apparatus 70
The Nuclear Membrane 72
Energy Converters 72
4.6 Nonmembranous Organelles 73
Ribosomes 74
Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate Filaments 74
Centrioles 75
Cilia and Flagella 76
Inclusions 76
4.7 Nuclear Components 77
4.8 Major Cell Types 78
The Prokaryotic Cell Structure 78
The Eukaryotic Cell Structure 80
5-Enzymes 84
5.1 Reactions, Catalysts, and Enzymes 85
5.2 How Enzymes Speed Chemical Reaction Rates 85
5.3 Environmental Effects on Enzyme Action 88
5.4 Cellular-Controlling Processes and Enzymes 90
6-Biochemical Pathways 94
6.1 Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis 95
Generating Energy in a Useful Form: ATP 95
6.2 Understanding Energy Transformation Reactions 98
Oxidation-Reduction and Cellular Respiration 98
6.3 Aerobic Cellular Respiration 99
Basic Description 99
Intermediate Description 99
Detailed Description 101
6.4 Alternatives: Anaerobic Cellular Respiration 107
6.5 Metabolism of Other Molecules 109
Fat Respiration 109
Protein Respiration 109
6.6 Photosynthesis 110
Basic Description 110
Intermediate Description 110
Detailed Description 113
6.7 Plant Metabolism 115
7-DNA and RNA
The Molecular Basis of Heredity 119
7.1 The Main Idea: The Central Dogma 120
7.2 The Structure of DNA and RNA 120
7.3 DNA Replication 122
7.4 DNA Transcription 124
Prokaryotic Transcription 127
Eukaryotic Transcription 129
7.5 Translation, or Protein Synthesis 129
7.6 Alterations of DNA 135
7.7 Manipulating DNA to Our Advantage 136
Genetic Engineering 138
PART THREE
Cell Division and Heredity 141
8-Mitosis
The Cell-Copying Process 141
8.1 The Importance of Cell Division 142
8.2 The Cell Cycle 142
8.3 The Stages of Mitosis 142
Prophase 143
Metaphase 144
Anaphase 144
Telophase 145
8.4 Plant and Animal Cell Differences 146
8.5 Differentiation 146
8.6 Abnormal Cell Division 148
9-Meiosis
Sex-Cell Formation 153
9.1 Sexual Reproduction 154
9.2 The Mechanics of Meiosis: Meiosis I 156
Prophase I 156
Metaphase I 157
Anaphase I 157
Telophase I 158
9.3 The Mechanics of Meiosis: Meiosis II 158
Prophase II 159
Metaphase II 159
Anaphase II 159
Telophase II 159
9.4 Sources of Variation 160
Mutation 160
Crossing-Over 160
Segregation 162
Independent Assortment 164
Fertilization 164
9.5 Nondisjunction and Chromosomal Abnormalities 165
9.6 Chromosomes and Sex Determination 167
9.7 A Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis 167
10-Mendelian Genetics 171
10.1 Genetics, Meiosis, and Cells 172
10.2 Single-Gene Inheritance Patterns 172
Dominant and Recessive Alleles 173
Codominance 173
X-Linked Genes 175
10.3 Mendel's Laws of Heredity 176
10.4 Probability Versus Possibility 177
10.5 Steps in Solving Heredity Problems: Single-Factor Crosses 177
10.6 The Double-Factor Cross 179
10.7 Alternative Inheritance Situations 180
Multiple Alleles and Genetic Heterogeneity 180
Polygenic Inheritance 181
Pleiotropy 182
10.8 Environmental Influences on Gene Expression 182
PART FOUR
Evolution and Ecology 186
11-Diversity Within Species 186
11.1 Populations and Species 187
11.2 The Species Problem 187
11.3 The Gene Pool Concept 189
11.4 Describing Genetic Diversity 190
11.5 Why Genetically Distinct Populations Exist 191
11.6 How Genetic Diversity Comes About 192
Mutations 193
Sexual Reproduction 193
Migration 193
The Importance of Population Size 193
11.7 Genetic Variety in Domesticated Plants and Animals 193
11.8 Human Population Genetics 196
11.9 Ethics and Human Genetics 197
12-Natural Selection and Evolution 201
12.1 The Role of Natural Selection in Evolution 202
12.2 What Influences Natural Selection? 202
Mutations Produce New Genes 202
Sexual Reproduction Produces New Combinations of Genes 204
The Role of Gene Expression 204
The Importance of Excess Reproduction 205
12.3 Common Misunderstandings About Natural Selection 206
12.4 Processes That Drive Natural Selection 207
Differential Survival 207
Differential Reproductive Rates 208
Differential Mate Selection 208
12.5 Gene-Frequency Studies and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 209
Determining Genotype Frequencies 210
Why Hardy-Weinberg Conditions Rarely Exist 210
Using the Hardy-Weinberg Concept to Show Allele-Frequency Change 212
12.6 A Summary of the Causes of Evolutionary Change 213
13-Speciation and Evolutionary Change 217
13.1 Species: A Working Definition 218
13.2 How New Species Originate 219
Geographic Isolation 219
Speciation Without Geographic Isolation 221
Polyploidy: Instant Speciation 222
13.3 Maintaining Genetic Isolation 222
13.4 The Development of Evolutionary Thought 223
13.5 Evolutionary Patterns Above the Species Level 224
13.6 Rates of Evolution 229
13.7 The Tentative Nature of the Evolutionary History of Organisms 229
13.8 Human Evolution 230
The First Hominids-The Australopiths 232
Later Hominids-The Genus Homo 232
The Origin of Homo Sapiens 233
14-Ecosystem Organization and Energy Flow 236
14.1 Ecology and Environment 237
14.2 The Organization of Ecological Systems 238
14.3 The Great Pyramids: Energy, Numbers, Biomass 238
The Pyramid of Energy 238
The Pyramid of Numbers 241
The Pyramid of Biomass 244
14.4 Community Interactions 244
14.5 Types of Communities 247
Temperate Deciduous Forest 248
Grassland 248
Savanna 249
Desert 250
Boreal Coniferous Forest 250
Temperate Rainforest 251
Tundra 251
Tropical Rainforest 252
The Relationship Between Elevation and Climate 252
14.6 Succession 252
14.7 Human Use of Ecosystems 255
15-Community Interactions 260
15.1 Community, Habitat, and Niche 261
15.2 Kinds of Organism Interactions 261
Predation 261
Parasitism 263
Commensalism 264
Mutualism 265
Competition 266
15.3 The Cycling of Materials in Ecosystems 267
The Carbon Cycle 267
The Hydrologic Cycle 267
The Nitrogen Cycle 268
The Phosphorus Cycle 270
15.4 The Impact of Human Actions on Communities 272
Introduced Species 272
Predator Control 272
Habitat Destruction 273
Pesticide Use 273
Biomagnification 274
16-Population Ecology 279
16.1 Population Characteristics 280
16.2 Reproductive Capacity 282
16.3 The Population Growth Curve 283
16.4 Population-Size Limitations 284
16.5 Categories of Limiting Factors 285
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Limiting Factors 287
Density-Dependent and Density-Independent Limiting Factors 287
16.6 Limiting Factors to Human Population Growth 288
Available Raw Materials 289
Availability of Energy 289
Production of Wastes 290
Interactions with Other Organisms 290
Control of Human Population Is a Social Problem 290
17-Behavioral Ecology 295
17.1 The Adaptive Nature of Behavior 296
17.2 Interpreting Behavior 296
17.3 The Problem of Anthropomorphism 297
17.4 Instinct and Learning 298
Instinctive Behavior 298
Learned Behavior 300
17.5 Kinds of Learning 300
Habituation 300
Association 300
Exploratory Learning 302
Imprinting 302
Insight 303
17.6 Instinct and Learning in the Same Animal 303
17.7 What About Human Behavior? 303
17.8 Selected Topics in Behavioral Ecology 306
Reproductive Behavior 306
Territorial Behavior 308
Dominance Hierarchy 309
Avoiding Periods of Scarcity 310
Navigation and Migration 310
Biological Clocks 311
Social Behavior 311
PART FIVE
Physiological Processes 315
18-Materials Exchange in the Body 315
18.1 Exchanging Materials: Basic Principles 316
18.2 Circulation 318
The Nature of Blood 318
The Immune System 318
The Heart 320
Arteries and Veins 321
Capillaries 323
18.3 Gas Exchange 324
Respiratory Anatomy 324
Breathing System Regulation 325
Lung Function 326
18.4 Obtaining Nutrients 328
Mechanical and Chemical Processing 328
Nutrient Uptake 331
Chemical Alteration: The Role of the Liver 331
18.5 Waste Disposal 333
Kidney Structure 333
Kidney Function 333
19-Nutrition Food and Diet 338
19.1 Living Things as Chemical Factories: Matter and Energy Manipulators 339
19.2 Kilocalories, Basal Metabolism, and Weight Control 339
19.3 The Chemical Composition of Your Diet 342
Carbohydrates 342
Lipids 342
Proteins 344
Vitamins 344
Minerals 346
Water 346
19.4 Amounts and Sources of Nutrients 347
19.5 The Food Guide Pyramid with Five Food Groups 348
Grain Products Group 349
Fruits Group 349
Vegetables Group 350
Dairy Products Group 350
Meat, Poultry, Fish, and Dry Beans Group 351
19.6 Eating Disorders 351
Obesity 351
Bulimia 352
Anorexia Nervosa 353
19.7 Deficiency Diseases 353
19.8 Nutrition Through the Life Cycle 354
Infancy 354
Childhood 354
Adolescence 355
Adulthood 355
Nutritional Needs Associated with Pregnancy and Lactation 356
Old Age 356
19.9 Nutrition for Fitness and Sports 356
20-The Body's Control Mechanisms 361
20.1 Integration of Input 362
The Structure of the Nervous System 363
The Nature of the Nerve Impulse 363
Activities at the Synapse 365
The Organization of the Central Nervous System 365
Endocrine System Function 367
20.2 Sensory Input 373
Chemical Detection 373
Light Detection 374
Sound Detection 374
Touch 376
20.3 Output Coordination 376
Muscles 376
Glands 380
Growth Responses 380
21-Human Reproduction, Sex, and Sexuality 383
 21.1 Sexuality from Different Points of View 384
 21.2 Chromosomal Determination of Sex 384
 21.3 Male and Female Fetal Development 387
 21.4 Sexual Maturation of Young Adults 387
The Maturation of Females 387
The Maturation of Males 389
 21.5 Spermatogenesis 389
 21.6 Oogenesis 392
 21.7 Hormonal Control of Fertility 394
 21.8 Fertilization and Pregnancy 394
Twins 397
Birth 397
 21.9 Contraception 398
21.10 Abortion 401
21.11 Sexual Function in the Elderly 402
PART SIX
The Origin and Classification of Life 405
22-The Origin of Life and Evolution of Cells 405
22.1 Spontaneous Generation Versus Biogenesis 406
22.2 Current Thinking About the Origin of Life 407
22.3 The "Big Bang" and the Origin of the Earth 408
22.4 Steps Needed to Produce Life from Inorganic Materials 411
Formation of the First Organic Molecules 411
Isolating Organic Molecules-Coacervates and Microspheres 412
Meeting Metabolic Needs-Heterotrophs or Autotrophs 413
Reproduction and the Origin of Genetic Material 414
22.5 Major Evolutionary Changes in the Nature of Living Things 414
The Development of an Oxidizing Atmosphere 415
The Establishment of Three Major Domains of Life 415
The Origin of Eukaryotic Cells 416
22.6 Evolutionary Time Line 418
23-The Classification and Evolution of Organisms 424
23.1 The Classification of Organisms 425
23.2 Domains Archaea and Eubacteria 432
Archaea 432
Eubacteria 432
23.3 Domain Eucarya 434
Kingdom Protista 434
Kingdom Fungi 435
Kingdom Plantae 435
Kingdom Animalia 435
23.4 Acellular Infectious Particles 436
Viruses 436
Viroids: Infectious RNA 439
Prions: Infectious Proteins 440
24-Microorganisms 
Bacteria, Protista, and Fungi 443
24.1 Microorganisms 444
24.2 Bacteria 444
24.3 Kingdom Protista 448
Plantlike Protists 448
Animal-like Protists 451
Funguslike Protists 452
24.4 Multicellularity in the Protista 454
24.5 Kingdom Fungi 454
Lichens 458
25-Plantae 461
25.1 What Is a Plant? 462
25.2 Alternation of Generations 462
25.3 Ancestral Plants: The Bryophytes 463
25.4 Adaptations to Land 464
Vascular Tissue: What It Takes to Live on Land 465
Roots 465
Stems 466
Leaves 467
25.5 Transitional Plants: Non-Seed-Producing Vascular Plants 468
25.6 Advanced Plants: Seed-Producing Vascular Plants 470
Gymnosperms 470
Angiosperms 471
25.7 Response to the Environment: Tropisms 476
26-Animalia 481
 26.1 What Is an Animal? 482
 26.2 Temperature Regulation 484
 26.3 Body Plans 484
 26.4 Skeletons 485
 26.5 Animal Evolution 486
 26.6 Primitive Marine Animals 488
 26.7 A Parasitic Way of Life 488
 26.8 Advanced Benthic Marine Animals 490
 26.9 Pelagic Marine Animals: Fish 494
26.10 The Movement to Land 495
Glossary 507
Credits 520
Index 523
*These elements appear in every chapter.	

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Biology.