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CONTENTS Acknowledgments List of Photographs List of Tables, Figures, and Maps Chapter 1: Introduction: Portrait of a Commuter Nation Chapter 2: The Colonial Experience The Legacy of the Indigenous Taínos The Beginnings of Spanish Colonial Rule The African Heritage The Strategic but Neglected Spanish Colony Chapter 3: Migrations Before World War II The Pilgrims of Freedom The "Splendid Little War" Labor Migration to the United States Migration to Hawaii The Growth of the New York Community The Poverty-Stricken Island Between Reform and Revolution From the Steamship Embarcados to the Transnational Guagua Aérea Chapter 4: Postwar Migration Patterns Operation Bootstrap The Great Migration The Growing Geographic Dispersion The Urban Character of the U.S. Communities A Tale of Three Cities: New York City, Hartford, and Orlando Other Migration Destinations Conceptualizing Puerto Rican Migration Chapter 5: A Demographic Portrait Income and Labor Force Participation Overcoming Poverty Educational Attainment The Gender Gap Differences Among Communities Chapter 6: Social and Civil Rights Struggles Political and Educational Activism Other Community Organizations Cultural Citizenship Chapter 7: Voices and Images of the Diaspora The Spanish-language Press The Emergence of a New Cultural Discourse The Nuyorican Poets Growing Up Narratives Performing Culture Popular Music The Visual Arts Cultural Crossovers Epilogue: Overcoming the Colonial Experience: Future Challenges Brief Chronology of Puerto Rican History About the Authors References
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Puerto Ricans -- United States -- History.
Puerto Ricans -- Emigration and immigration -- History.
Puerto Rico -- History.