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TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgments vii 1. Introduction 1 Background and Rationale 1 Purpose of this Research Report 3 Structure of the Report 4 2. Women and Urban Poverty in Guatemala 5 Country Overview 5 Urbanization and Poverty at the Time of the Study 8 Urban Poverty and Women?s Livelihoods and Employment 9 Urban Programs and Poor Working Women 11 3. Objectives, Design, and Cost of the Hogares Comunitarios Program (HCP) 13 Objectives 13 Design 13 Cost Structure 15 4. Overview of Study Objectives, Design, Methods, and Samples 17 Operational Evaluation 17 Impact Evaluation 18 5. The Operational Evaluation of the HCP: Conceptual Framework, Objectives, and Methodology 21 Conceptual Aspects of Operations Research 21 Identification of the System to Be Analyzed 22 Objectives of the Operational Evaluation of the HCP 24 Methodology 25 Semi-Structured Interviews with the Program Caretaker 25 Semi-Structured Observations in the Hogares 27 Focus Groups 28 Geographic Area and Sample 29 6. How Well Does the HCP Work? Key Findings of the Operational Evaluation and Follow-Up Actions 31 Operational Aspects of the Program 31 Program Inputs 31 Parents? Inputs 34 Conclusions on Program?s Operations 35 Quality of Services 36 Hygiene and Safety of the Hogares 36 Daily Activities and Caretakers? Time Allocation 38 Interaction Between Caretakers and Beneficiary Children 41 Attitudes and Perceptions of the Main Implementers and Users Toward the Program 43 Caretaker Mothers 43 Beneficiary Parents 44 Social Workers 46 Summary of Recommendations Made and Response of the New Program Administration 46 7. The Impact Evaluation of the HCP: Objectives, Design, and Methodology 51 Objectives 51 Design 54 Matching by Design: BeneficiaryMmatched Control Survey 54 Propensity Score Matching 57 Random Sample Survey 59 Sample Size Calculations 59 Beneficiary/Matched Control Sample 59 Random Survey Sample 60 Geographical Location 60 Data Collection Methodology 61 Beneficiary/Matched Control Sample 61 Random Sample 63 8. Key Findings of the Evaluation of the Program?s Coverage, Cost, and Impact on Children?s Diets 65 Characteristics of Beneficiary Children and Households 65 Program Coverage 69 Patterns and Cost of Childcare in Guatemala City 74 Impact of the Program on Beneficiary Children?s Diets 78 Results Using the Beneficiary/Matched Control Design 79 Propensity Score Matching Results 85 The Caretaker Mothers: Other Beneficiaries of the Program? 87 9. Conclusions and Implications for Urban Programming 91 Key Findings 91 Strengths and Weaknesses of our Evaluation 94 Comparision with Other Community Day Care Programs in the Latin America Region 97 Lessons Learned for Urban Programming 99 Diagnosis 100 Targeting 101 Program Design 103 Partnerships 104 Conclusions 105 Annex: List of Modules and Data Collected for Beneficiary/Control and Random Samples 107 References 109 TABLES 2.1 Poverty indicators by welfare measure, Central America comparisons 8 3.1 Cost structure of the Hogares Comunitarios Programa 16 4.1 Summary of operations research objectives, methods, and sample 18 4.2 Summary of impact evaluation objectives, design, sample, sampling strategy, and data collection methods 20 6.1 Conditions of material provided by program at the time of opening the hogar and at the time of interviews 32 6.2 How frequently are parents late in paying their monthly fees (based on the caretakers? recall) 35 6.3 Physical characteristics and availability of services in the HCP (n=206) 37 6.4 Frequency of observation of non-optimal hygiene practices (n=206) 38 6.5 Quality of interaction between caretakers and beneficiary children (n=183) 42 8.1 Characteristics of beneficiaries of the HCP, compared to the control group and mothers from the random sample 66 8.2 Reasons why mothers do not use the Hogares Comunitarios Program or would not use it even if space was available (random sample) 72 8.3 Childcare arrangements used by beneficiary and control households on weekdays (Monday to Friday) and their costa, b 75 8.4 Comparison of the mean monthly cost of childcare paid by beneficiary and control householdsa 77 8.5 Probit regressions of participation in the Hogares Comunitarios Program 86 8.6 Average treatment effect of HCP participation on program participants, propensity score matching method (Bootstrapped standard errors, 50 replications) 87 8.7 Comparison of propensity score matching methods with paired beneficiary- control results 88 FIGURES 5.1 Inputs and activities of the Hogares Comunitarios Program 23 6.1 Time allocation of program caretakers 40 8.1 Comparison of percentage of daily nutrient requirements met by beneficiary and control children (during their stay in place of care on weekdays) 80 8.2 Comparison of percentage of daily nutrient requirements met by beneficiary and control children (during weekends at home; 48-hour recall) 80 8.3 Comparison of percentage of daily nutrient requirements met by beneficiary and control children (before and after their stay in place of care on weekdays, 24-hour recall) 81 8.4 Contribution of selected food groups to iron intake (weekdays at place of care) 82 8.5 Contribution of selected food groups to vitamin A intake (weekdays at place of care) 82
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Day care centers -- Guatemala -- Evaluation.
Child care services -- Guatemala -- Evaluation.
Children -- Guatemala -- Nutrition.
Urban women -- Employment -- Guatemala.
Work and family -- Guatemala.
Hogares Communitarios Program.