Table of contents for Data communications and networking / Behrouz A. Forouzan.

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Table of Contents
Preface to the Third Edition xxix
Part 1
Overview of Data Communications and Networking 1
Chapter 1
Introduction 3
1.1 DATA COMMUNICATIONS 3
Components 4
Data Representation 5
Direction of Data Flow 6
1.2 NETWORKS 8
Distributed Processing 8
Network Criteria 8
Physical Structures 8
Categories of Networks 13
1.3 THE INTERNET 15
A Brief History 15
The Internet Today 16
1.4 PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS 18
Protocols 18
Standards 18
Standards Organizations 19
Internet Standards 20
1.5 KEY TERMS 20
1.6 SUMMARY 21
1.7 PRACTICE SET 22
Review Questions 22
Multiple-Choice Questions 23
Exercises 25
Chapter 2
Network Models 27
2.1 LAYERED TASKS 27
Sender, Receiver, and Carrier 27
Hierarchy 28
Services 29
2.2 INTERNET MODEL 29
Peer-to-Peer Processes 30
Functions of Layers 31
Summary of Layers 39
2.3 OSI MODEL 40
2.4 KEY TERMS 41
2.5 SUMMARY 41
2.6 PRACTICE SET 42
Review Questions 42
Multiple-Choice Questions 42
Exercises 44
Part 2
Physical Layer 45
Chapter 3
Signals 49
3.1 ANALOG AND DIGITAL 49
Analog and Digital Data 49
Analog and Digital Signals 49
Periodic and Aperiodic Signals 50
3.2 ANALOG SIGNALS 50
Sine Wave 51
Phase 54
Examples of Sine Waves 54
Time and Frequency Domains 54
Composite Signals 56
Bandwidth 59
3.3 DIGITAL SIGNALS 62
Bit Interval and Bit Rate 62
Digital Signal as a Composite Analog Signal 63
Digital Signal Through a Wide-Bandwidth Medium 63
Digital Signal Through a Band-Limited Medium 63
Digital versus Analog Bandwidth 65
Higher Bit Rate 66
3.4 ANALOG VERSUS DIGITAL 66
Low-pass versus Band-pass 66
Digital Transmission 66
Analog Transmission 67
3.5 DATA RATE LIMITS 67
Noiseless Channel: Nyquist Bit Rate 67
Noisy Channel: Shannon Capacity 68
Using Both Limits 69
3.6 TRANSMISSION IMPAIRMENT 69
Attenuation 69
Distortion 71
Noise 71
3.7 MORE ABOUT SIGNALS 72
Throughput 72
Propagation Speed 72
Propagation Time 73
Wavelength 73
3.8 KEY TERMS 74
3.9 SUMMARY 75
3.10 PRACTICE SET 75
Review Questions 75
Multiple-Choice Questions 76
Exercises 80
Chapter 4
Digital Transmission 85
4.1 LINE CODING 85
Some Characteristics of Line Coding 85
Line Coding Schemes 88
Some Other Schemes 94
4.2 BLOCK CODING 95
Steps in Transformation 96
Some Common Block Codes 97
4.3 SAMPLING 98
Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) 99
Pulse Code Modulation 99
Sampling Rate: Nyquist Theorem 101
How Many Bits per Sample? 102
Bit Rate 103
4.4 TRANSMISSION MODE 103
Parallel Transmission 104
Serial Transmission 104
4.5 KEY TERMS 107
4.6 SUMMARY 108
4.7 PRACTICE SET 108
Review Questions 108
Multiple-Choice Questions 109
Exercises 112
Chapter 5
Analog Transmission 115
5.1 MODULATION OF DIGITAL DATA 115
Aspects of Digital-to-Analog Conversion 116
Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) 117
Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) 120
Phase Shift Keying (PSK) 122
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) 125
Bit/Baud Comparison 127
5.2 TELEPHONE MODEMS 128
Modem Standards 130
5.3 MODULATION OF ANALOG SIGNALS 133
Amplitude Modulation (AM) 134
Frequency Modulation (FM) 136
Phase Modulation (PM) 138
5.4 KEY TERMS 138
5.5 SUMMARY 139
5.6 PRACTICE SET 140
Review Questions 140
Multiple-Choice Questions 141
Exercises 145
Chapter 6
Multiplexing 149
6.1 FDM 150
Multiplexing Process 151
Demultiplexing Process 151
The Analog Hierarchy 153
Other Applications of FDM 155
Implementation 155
6.2 WDM 155
6.3 TDM 157
Time Slots and Frames 157
Interleaving 158
Synchronizing 160
Bit Padding 161
Digital Signal (DS) Service 162
T Lines 163
Inverse TDM 165
More TDM Applications 165
6.4 KEY TERMS 166
6.5 SUMMARY 166
6.6 PRACTICE SET 167
Review Questions 167
Multiple-Choice Questions 167
Exercises 169
Chapter 7
Transmission Media 173
7.1 GUIDED MEDIA 174
Twisted-Pair Cable 174
Coaxial Cable 177
Fiber-Optic Cable 179
7.2 UNGUIDED MEDIA: WIRELESS 184
Radio Waves 186
Microwaves 188
Infrared 189
7.3 KEY TERMS 190
7.4 SUMMARY 190
7.5 PRACTICE SET 191
Review Questions 191
Multiple-Choice Questions 192
Exercises 195
Chapter 8
Circuit Switching and Telephone Network 197
8.1 CIRCUIT SWITCHING 197
Space-Division Switch 199
Time-Division Switch 201
TDM Bus 203
Space- and Time-Division Switch Combinations 203
8.2 TELEPHONE NETWORK 204
Major Components 204
LATAs 205
Making a Connection 207
Analog Services 208
Digital Services 209
A Brief History 210
8.3 KEY TERMS 211
8.4 SUMMARY 211
8.5 PRACTICE SET 212
Review Questions 212
Multiple-Choice Questions 213
Exercises 215
Chapter 9
High-Speed Digital Access: DSL, Cable Modems, and SONET 219
9.1 DSL TECHNOLOGY 219
ADSL 219
Other DSL Technologies 222
9.2 CABLE MODEM 223
Traditional Cable Networks 223
HFC Network 224
Sharing 226
CM and CMTS 226
Data Transmission Schemes: DOCSIS 227
9.3 SONET 228
SONET Devices 229
SONET Frame 229
Frame Transmission 230
Synchronous Transport Signals 230
STS-1 230
Virtual Tributaries 231
Higher-Rate Services 232
9.4 KEY TERMS 232
9.5 SUMMARY 233
9.6 PRACTICE SET 234
Review Questions 234
Multiple-Choice Questions 234
Exercises 237
Part 3
Data Link Layer 239
Chapter 10
Error Detection and Correction 243
10.1 TYPES OF ERRORS 243
Single-Bit Error 243
Burst Error 244
10.2 DETECTION 245
Redundancy 245
Parity Check 246
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) 249
Checksum 253
10.3 ERROR CORRECTION 256
Error Correction by Retransmission 256
Forward Error Correction 256
Burst Error Correction 260
10.4 KEY TERMS 260
10.5 SUMMARY 261
10.6 PRACTICE SET 261
Review Questions 261
Multiple-Choice Questions 262
Exercises 265
Chapter 11
Data Link Control and Protocols 267
11.1 FLOW AND ERROR CONTROL 267
Flow Control 267
Error Control 268
Flow and Error Control Mechanisms 268
11.2 STOP-AND-WAIT ARQ 268
Operation 269
Bidirectional Transmission 272
11.3 GO-BACK-N ARQ 272
Sequence Numbers 273
Sender Sliding Window 273
Receiver Sliding Window 274
Control Variables 274
Timers 274
Acknowledgment 275
Resending Frame 275
Operation 275
Sender Window Size 277
Bidirectional Transmission and Piggybacking 277
11.4 SELECTIVE REPEAT ARQ 278
Sender and Receiver Windows 278
Operation 278
Sender Window Size 279
Bidirectional Transmission and Piggybacking 280
Bandwidth-Delay Product 280
Pipelining 281
11.5 HDLC 281
Configurations and Transfer Modes 281
Frames 282
Frame Format 282
Frame Type 283
Examples 287
Data Transparency 288
11.6 KEY TERMS 290
11.7 SUMMARY 290
11.8 PRACTICE SET 291
Review Questions 291
Multiple-Choice Questions 291
Exercises 293
Chapter 12
Point-to-Point Access: PPP 295
12.1 POINT-TO-POINT PROTOCOL 295
Frame Format 295
Transition States 296
12.2 PPP STACK 297
Link Control Protocol (LCP) 297
Authentication Protocols 300
Network Control Protocol (NCP) 302
An Example 304
12.3 KEY TERMS 305
12.4 SUMMARY 305
12.5 PRACTICE SET 305
Review Questions 305
Multiple-Choice Questions 306
Exercises 308
Chapter 13
Multiple Access 311
13.1 RANDOM ACCESS 311
Multiple Access (MA) 312
Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) 314
CSMA/CD 315
CSMA/CA 316
13.2 CONTROLLED ACCESS 317
Reservation 318
Polling 318
Token Passing 319
13.3 CHANNELIZATION 320
FDMA 321
TDMA 321
CDMA 321
13.4 KEY TERMS 326
13.5 SUMMARY 326
13.6 PRACTICE SET 327
Review Questions 327
Multiple-Choice Questions 327
Exercises 330
Chapter 14
Local Area Networks: Ethernet 333
14.1 TRADITIONAL ETHERNET 334
MAC Sublayer 334
Physical Layer 337
Physical Layer Implementation 339
Bridged Ethernet 341
Switched Ethernet 342
Full-Duplex Ethernet 343
14.2 FAST ETHERNET 344
Mac Sublayer 344
Physical Layer 345
Physical Layer Implementation 346
14.3 GIGABIT ETHERNET 350
MAC Sublayer 350
Physical Layer 350
Physical Layer Implementation 351
14.4 KEY TERMS 354
14.5 SUMMARY 355
14.6 PRACTICE SET 356
Review Questions 356
Multiple-Choice Questions 356
Exercises 358
Chapter 15
Wireless LANs 361
15.1 IEEE 802.11 361
Architecture 361
Physical Layer 363
MAC Layer 365
Addressing Mechanism 370
15.2 BLUETOOTH 372
Architecture 373
Bluetooth Layers 374
Radio Layer 375
Baseband Layer 375
L2CAP 378
Other Upper Layers 379
15.3 KEY TERMS 380
15.4 SUMMARY 380
15.5 PRACTICE SET 381
Review Questions 381
Multiple-Choice Questions 381
Exercises 385
Chapter 16 Connecting LANs, Backbone Networks, and Virtual LANs 387
16.1 CONNECTING DEVICES 387
Repeaters 387
Hubs 389
Bridges 390
Two-Layer Switch 396
Router and Three-Layer Switches 396
16.2 BACKBONE NETWORKS 396
Bus Backbone 397
Star Backbone 398
Connecting Remote LANs 398
16.3 VIRTUAL LANS 399
Membership 401
Configuration 402
Communication Between Switches 403
IEEE Standard 403
Advantages 403
16.4 KEY TERMS 404
16.5 SUMMARY 404
16.6 PRACTICE SET 405
Review Questions 405
Multiple-Choice Questions 405
Exercises 407
Chapter 17 Cellular Telephone and Satellite Networks 409
17.1 CELLULAR TELEPHONY 409
Frequency-Reuse Principle 409
Transmitting 410
Receiving 411
Handoff 411
Roaming 411
First Generation 411
Second Generation 412
Third Generation 419
17.2 SATELLITE NETWORKS 420
Orbits 420
Footprint 421
Three Categories of Satellites 422
GEO Satellites 423
MEO Satellites 424
LEO Satellites 425
17.3 KEY TERMS 428
17.4 SUMMARY 428
17.5 PRACTICE SET 429
Review Questions 429
Multiple-Choice Questions 429
Exercises 433
Chapter 18 Virtual Circuit Switching: Frame Relay and ATM 435
18.1 VIRTUAL CIRCUIT SWITCHING 435
Global Addressing 436
Virtual Circuit Identifier 436
Three Phases 436
Data Transfer Phase 437
Setup Phase 437
Teardown Phase 440
18.2 FRAME RELAY 441
Architecture 442
Frame Relay Layers 443
FRADs 444
VOFR 445
LMI 445
Congestion Control and Quality of Service 446
18.3 ATM 446
Design Goals 446
Problems 446
Architecture 449
Switching 452
ATM Layers 453
Congestion Control and Quality of Service 459
ATM LANs 459
18.4 KEY TERMS 460
18.5 SUMMARY 460
18.6 PRACTICE SET 461
Review Questions 461
Multiple-Choice Questions 462
Exercises 464
Part 4 Network Layer 467
Chapter 19 Host-to-Host Delivery: Internetworking, Addressing, and Routing 471
19.1 INTERNETWORKS 471
Need for Network Layer 472
Internet as a Packet-Switched Network 474
Internet as a Connectionless Network 476
19.2 ADDRESSING 477
Internet Address 477
Classful Addressing 479
Subnetting 486
Supernetting 490
Classless Addressing 491
Dynamic Address Configuration 492
Network Address Translation (NAT) 494
19.3 ROUTING 497
Routing Techniques 497
Static versus Dynamic Routing 499
Routing Table for Classful Addressing 500
Routing Table for Classless Addressing: CIDR 501
19.4 KEY TERMS 503
19.5 SUMMARY 503
19.6 PRACTICE SET 504
Review Questions 504
Multiple-Choice Questions 505
Exercises 508
Chapter 20 Network Layer Protocols: ARP, IPv4, ICMP, IPv6, and ICMPv6 513
20.1 ARP 514
Mapping 514
Packet Format 516
Encapsulation 517
Operation 517
20.2 IP 519
Datagram 520
Fragmentation 523
20.3 ICMP 525
Types of Messages 526
20.4 IPV6 528
IPv6 Addresses 529
Categories of Addresses 530
IPv6 Packet Format 531
Fragmentation 532
ICMPv6 532
Transition from IPv4 to IPv6 533
20.5 KEY TERMS 535
20.6 SUMMARY 535
20.7 PRACTICE SET 536
Review Questions 536
Multiple-Choice Questions 537
Exercises 540
Chapter 21 Unicast and Multicast Routing: Routing Protocols 543
21.1 UNICAST ROUTING 543
Metric 544
Interior and Exterior Routing 544
21.2 UNICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS 545
RIP 546
OSPF 548
BGP 557
21.3 MULTICAST ROUTING 560
IGMP 561
Multicast Trees 567
MBONE 568
21.4 MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS 569
DVMRP 570
MOSPF 572
CBT 574
PIM 576
Applications 576
21.5 KEY TERMS 577
21.6 SUMMARY 577
21.7 PRACTICE SET 579
Review Questions 579
Multiple-Choice Questions 579
Exercises 586
Part 5 Transport Layer 589
Chapter 22 Process-to-Process Delivery: UDP and TCP 593
22.1 PROCESS-TO-PROCESS DELIVERY 593
Client-Server Paradigm 594
Addressing 594
Multiplexing and Demultiplexing 597
Connectionless versus Connection-Oriented Service 597
Reliable versus Unreliable 600
22.2 USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL (UDP) 601
Port Numbers 601
User Datagram 601
Applications 602
22.3 TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP) 603
Port Numbers 603
TCP Services 603
Numbering Bytes 606
Sequence Number 607
Segment 608
Connection 609
State Transition Diagram 612
Flow Control 614
Silly Window Syndrome 618
Error Control 619
TCP Timers 621
Congestion Control 624
Other Features 624
22.4 KEY TERMS 625
22.5 SUMMARY 626
22.6 PRACTICE SET 626
Review Questions 626
Multiple-Choice Questions 627
Exercises 631
Chapter 23 Congestion Control and Quality of Service 633
23.1 DATA TRAFFIC 633
Traffic Descriptor 633
Traffic Profiles 634
23.2 CONGESTION 636
Network Performance 636
23.3 CONGESTION CONTROL 638
Open-Loop Congestion Control 638
Closed-Loop Congestion Control 639
23.4 TWO EXAMPLES 639
Congestion Control in TCP 639
Congestion Control in Frame Relay 641
23.5 QUALITY OF SERVICE 643
Flow Characteristics 643
Flow Classes 644
23.6 TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE QOS 644
Scheduling 644
Traffic Shaping 646
Resource Reservation 649
Admission Control 649
23.7 INTEGRATED SERVICES 649
Signaling 649
Flow Specification 649
Admission 650
Service Classes 650
RSVP 650
Problems with Integrated Services 653
23.8 DIFFERENTIATED SERVICES 653
23.9 QOS IN SWITCHED NETWORKS 655
QoS in Frame Relay 655
QoS in ATM 657
23.10 KEY TERMS 659
23.11 SUMMARY 660
23.12 PRACTICE SET 660
Review Questions 660
Multiple-Choice Questions 661
Exercises 665
Part 6 Application Layer 667
Chapter 24 Client-Server Model: Socket Interface 671
24.1 CLIENT-SERVER MODEL 671
Relationship 671
Concurrency 673
Processes 674
24.2 SOCKET INTERFACE 675
Sockets 675
Connectionless Iterative Server 677
Connection-Oriented Concurrent Server 678
Client and Server Programs 680
24.3 KEY TERMS 680
24.4 SUMMARY 680
24.5 PRACTICE SET 681
Review Questions 681
Multiple-Choice Questions 681
Exercises 684
Chapter 25 Domain Name System (DNS) 685
25.1 NAME SPACE 685
Flat Name Space 685
Hierarchical Name Space 686
25.2 DOMAIN NAME SPACE 686
Label 686
Domain Name 687
Domain 688
25.3 DISTRIBUTION OF NAME SPACE 689
Hierarchy of Name Servers 689
Zone 689
Root Server 690
Primary and Secondary Servers 690
25.4 DNS IN THE INTERNET 691
Generic Domains 691
Country Domains 693
Inverse Domain 693
25.5 RESOLUTION 694
Resolver 694
Mapping Names to Addresses 695
Mapping Addresses to Names 695
Recursive Resolution 695
Iterative Resolution 696
Caching 696
25.6 DNS MESSAGES 697
Header 697
Question Section 698
Answer Section 698
Authoritative Section 698
Additional Information Section 698
25.7 DDNS 698
25.8 ENCAPSULATION 699
25.9 KEY TERMS 699
25.10 SUMMARY 699
25.11 PRACTICE SET 700
Review Questions 700
Multiple-Choice Questions 701
Exercises 703
Chapter 26 Electronic Mail (SMTP) and File Transfer (FTP) 705
26.1 ELECTRONIC MAIL 705
Sending Mail 705
Receiving Mail 706
Addresses 706
User Agent (UA) 707
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) 708
Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) 714
Mail Delivery 715
Mail Access Protocols 717
Web-Based Mail 718
26.2 FILE TRANSFER 718
Connections 720
Communication 720
File Transfer 722
User Interface 723
Anonymous FTP 724
26.3 KEY TERMS 725
26.4 SUMMARY 725
26.5 PRACTICE SET 726
Review Questions 726
Multiple-Choice Questions 726
Exercises 729
Chapter 27 HTTP and WWW 731
27.1 HTTP 731
Transaction 732
Request Messages 732
Response Message 734
Headers 735
Some Examples 736
Some Other Features 738
27.2 WORLD WIDE WEB 738
Hypertext and Hypermedia 739
Browser Architecture 740
Static Documents 740
HTML 741
Examples 743
Dynamic Documents 745
Common Gateway Interface (CGI) 746
Examples 746
Active Documents 747
Java 748
Examples 751
27.3 KEY TERMS 752
27.4 SUMMARY 752
27.5 PRACTICE SET 753
Review Questions 753
Multiple-Choice Questions 753
Exercises 758
Chapter 28 Multimedia 761
28.1 DIGITIZING AUDIO AND VIDEO 762
Digitizing Audio 762
Digitizing Video 762
28.2 AUDIO AND VIDEO COMPRESSION 763
Audio Compression 763
Video Compression 764
28.3 STREAMING STORED AUDIO/VIDEO 769
First Approach: Using a Web Server 769
Second Approach: Using a Web Server with Metafile 770
Third Approach: Using a Media Server 770
Fourth Approach: Using a Media Server and RTSP 771
28.4 STREAMING LIVE AUDIO/VIDEO 772
28.5 REAL-TIME INTERACTIVE AUDIO/VIDEO 772
Characteristics 773
Real-Time Transport Protocol 777
Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) 778
28.6 VOICE OVER IP 779
SIP 779
H.323 781
28.7 KEY TERMS 784
28.8 SUMMARY 784
28.9 PRACTICE SET 785
Review Questions 785
Multiple-Choice Questions 786
Exercises 789
Part 7 Security 791
Chapter 29 Cryptography 795
29.1 INTRODUCTION 795
29.2 SYMMETRIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY 796
Traditional Ciphers 797
Block Cipher 801
Operation Modes 805
29.3 PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY 808
RSA 809
Choosing Public and Private Keys 810
29.4 KEY TERMS 810
29.5 SUMMARY 810
29.6 PRACTICE SET 811
Review Questions 811
Multiple-Choice Questions 811
Exercises 813
Chapter 30 Message Security, User Authentication, and Key Management 815
30.1 MESSAGE SECURITY 815
Privacy 816
Message Authentication 817
Integrity 817
Nonrepudiation 817
30.2 DIGITAL SIGNATURE 817
Signing the Whole Document 817
Signing the Digest 818
30.3 USER AUTHENTICATION 820
User Authentication with Symmetric-Key Cryptography 820
User Authentication with Public-Key Cryptography 822
30.4 KEY MANAGEMENT 823
Symmetric Key Distribution 823
Public-Key Certification 829
30.5 KERBEROS 831
Servers 831
Operation 832
Using Different Servers 834
Kerberos Version 5 834
Realms 834
30.6 KEY TERMS 835
30.7 SUMMARY 835
30.8 PRACTICE SET 836
Review Questions 836
Multiple-Choice Questions 836
Exercises 839
Chapter 31 Security Protocols in the Internet 841
31.1 IP LEVEL SECURITY: IPSEC 841
Security Association 842
Two Modes 842
Two Security Protocols 842
Encapsulating Security Payload 844
31.2 TRANSPORT LAYER SECURITY 846
Position of TLS 846
Two Protocols 846
31.3 APPLICATION LAYER SECURITY: PGP 848
31.4 FIREWALLS 849
Packet-Filter Firewall 849
Proxy Firewall 850
31.5 VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK 851
Private Networks 851
Achieving Privacy 852
VPN Technology 854
31.6 KEY TERMS 855
31.7 SUMMARY 855
31.8 PRACTICE SET 856
Review Questions 856
Multiple-Choice Questions 856
Exercises 859
Appendix A ASCII Code 861
Appendix B Numbering Systems and Transformation 865
B.1 NUMBERING SYSTEMS 865
Decimal Numbers 865
Binary Numbers 866
Octal Numbers 867
Hexadecimal Numbers 868
B.2 TRANSFORMATION 869
From Other Systems to Decimal 870
From Decimal to Other Systems 870
From Binary to Octal or Hexadecimal 871
From Octal or Hexadecimal to Binary 872
Appendix C The OSI Model 873
C.1 THE MODEL 873
C.2 LAYERS IN THE OSI MODEL 873
First Four Layers 873
Session Layer 874
Presentation Layer 874
Application Layer 876
C.3 COMPARISON 877
Appendix D 8B/6T Code 878
Appendix E Checksum Calculation 881
E.1 BINARY NOTATION 881
Partial Sum 881
Sum 881
Checksum 881
E.2 HEXADECIMAL NOTATION 882
Partial Sum 882
Sum 883
Checksum 884
Appendix F Structure of a Router 885
F.1 COMPONENTS 885
Input Ports 885
Output Ports 886
Routing Processor 886
Switching Fabrics 886
Appendix G ATM LANs 889
G.1 ATM LAN ARCHITECTURE 889
Pure ATM Architecture 890
Legacy LAN Architecture 890
Mixed Architecture 891
G.2 LAN EMULATION (LANE) 891
G.3 CLIENT-SERVER MODEL 892
LAN Emulation Client (LEC) 892
LAN Emulation Configuration Server (LECS) 893
LAN Emulation Server (LES) 893
Broadcast/Unknown Server (BUS) 893
Appendix H Client-Server Programs 895
H.1 UDP CLIENT-SERVER PROGRAMS 895
Server Program 895
Client Program 896
H.2 TCP CLIENT-SERVER PROGRAMS 897
Server Program 898
Client Program 899
Appendix I RFCs 901
Appendix J UDP and TCP Ports 903
Appendix K Contact Addresses 905
Acronyms 907
Glossary 911
Index 949

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Data transmission systems.
Computer networks.