Table of contents for The Deer Stone Project : anthropological studies in Mongolia 2002-2004 / William W. Fitzhugh, editor ; Jamsranjav Bayarsaikhan, assistant editor, Peter K. Marsh, assistant editor.

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List of Figures		v
List of Tables		xi
Preface by Dr. A. Ochir	xiii
Part I: Conference Reports
1	The Deer Stone Project: Exploring Northern Mongolia and its Arctic Connections
	William W. Fitzhugh	3
2	The Ancient Art of Mongolian Reindeer Herding 
	Oi. Sukhbaatar	35
3	Shamanistic Elements in Mongolian Deer Stone Art
	Jamsranjav Bayarsaikhan	41
4	Rock Art from the Darkhat-West Hovsgol Region
	T. Sanjmyatav	47
5	Burial Mounds in Hovsgol Aimag, Northern Mongolia: Preliminary Results from
	2003 and 2004
	Bruno Frohlich, Naran Bazarsad, and Baatartsogt	57
6	Bronze Age Burial Mounds in Northern Mongolia: Use of GIS in Identifying Spatial
	and Temporal Variation
	Eliza Wallace and Bruno Frohlich	89
7	Tsaabug, Tsaahag, Tsaatan: Ethno-Ecology of Mongolia's Dukha Reindeer Herders
	Paula T. DePriest	99
8	Ethnography of the West Taiga Tsaatan Reindeer Herders
	Ts. Ayush	
9	Fourteenth Century Mummified Human Remains from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia
	Naran Bazarsad, Bruno Frohlich, Natsag Batbold, and David Hunt	121
10.	Comparative Analysis of Alpine/Arctic Plants in Hovsgol Province, 
	Northern Mongolia
	Ts.Tsendeehuu	135
11.	Modern Vegetation of the Hovsgol Region of Mongolia: A Possible Key to the Demise
	of the Ice Age Mammoth Steppe of the Arctic
	Steven B. Young	153
Part II: Museum Workshop Reports
12	Workshop Summaries - Introduction	163
	Harriet F. Beaubien
13	Archaeological Conservation: Collections Care from Field to Museum
	Harriet F. Beaubien	167
14	Model-Making and Casting
	Paul Rhymer and Carolyn Thome	185
15	Integrated Pest Management in Museums
	Jeremy Jacobs and Deborah Bell	191
16	Field and Laboratory Collections Management: Artifacts and Human Remains
	David R. Hunt	201 
17	Excavation and Treatment of Skeletal Remains
	David R. Hunt	211	
Part III: Archaeological Field Reports
18.	Archaeological Reports from the 2004 Deer Stone Project
	Jamsranjav Bayarsaikhan, Ts. Odbaatar, and William W. Fitzhugh	225
List of Figures
Fig. no.	Description	
Fig. 1.1	Map of field location.
Fig. 1.2	Expedition entering the mountains with Tsaatan west of Soyo.
Fig. 1.3	Ancient and modern Alaskan Eskimo art motifs.
Fig. 1.4	Human-animal spirit engraving on harpoon winged object. 
Fig. 1.5	Open-work ivory carving from Ekven site, Chukotka, and Alaskan Ipiutak bone ornament.
Fig. 1.6 	Bronze bird-man image from Yamal, Western Siberia.
Fig. 1.7 	Deer stone engraving of spirit maral (Asian Elk) with water bird beak or bill.
Fig. 1.8 	19th century Bering Sea Eskimo harpoon socket-piece with predator helping spirit carving.
Fig. 1.9 	Ipiutak spirit sucking tube from Ipiutak site, Alaska.
Fig. 1.10 	(a) Deer Stone 1 at Ulaan Tolgoi (Erkhel) site and (b) Ushkiin Uver deer stone.
Fig. 1.11 	Distribution of deer stone sites in Mongolia.
Fig. 1.12 	Distribution of West and East Taiga Tsaatan (Dukha) in Darkhat-Hovsgol region.
Fig. 1.13 	Melting pingo in Hovsgol aimag in 2001.
Fig. 1.14 	Tsaatan (Dukha) reindeer-herders in Menge Bulag tundra camp.
Fig. 1.15 	Ushkiin Uver deer stone site.
Fig. 1.16 	Sanjmyatav inspects vandalized Iron Age rock art site at Tolijgii Boom, Soyo.
Fig. 1.17 	Late prehistoric hearth in Upper Level at Soyo 1.
Fig. 1.18 	Neolithic level excavation map of Soyo 1, Feature 3.
Fig. 1.19 	Testing the pit feature at Menge Bulag 1.
Fig. 1.20 	Ulaan Tolgoi Deer Stone 5 trench, 2002.
Fig. 1.21 	Ulaan Tolgoi circular cremation feature, 2002.
Fig. 1.22 	Ulaan Tolgoi deer stone site, 2003.
Fig. 1.23 	Excavation map of Ulaan Tolgoi DS-4 area.
Fig. 1.24a 	Excavations at Ulaan Tolgoi Deer Stone 4, 2003.
Fig. 1.24b 	Feature 2 east-facing horse head burial at Ulaan Tolgoi DS-5.
Fig. 1.25 	Deer Stone 4 with one of several pecking stones.
Fig. 1.26 	2002 team members collecting bones from looted khirigsuur at Ulaan Tolgoi.
Fig. 1.27 	Erkhel Lake granite quarry.
Fig. 1.28	Shamanistic equipment from Angarkhai Hill cache, Sumber, Arbulag sum.
Fig. 2.1	Rock art displaying a reindeer herder with a long hunting spear.
Fig. 3.1. 	Pazyryk body tattoo decoration.
Fig. 3.2	Typical deer images on deer stones.
Fig. 3.3	The handle of a shaman drum on display at the National Museum of Mongolian History.
Fig. 3.4	The interior of a shaman drum at NMMH.
Fig. 3.5	The handle and drum beater of the Akhanghai Mountain shaman drum.
Fig. 3.6	Shamanic figure from Bayan Ulgii.
Fig. 3.7	Palate-shaped pentagonal figure.
Fig. 4.1	Tolijgii Boom rock art site near Soyo in 2002. View to west.
Fig. 4.2	Tolijgii Boom site with defaced panel showing water bird.
Fig. 4.3	Tolijgii Boom site showing defaced panel with a human insidea field of dots.
Fig. 4.4	Tolijgii Boom site showing a person outside a field of dots.
Fig. 4.5	Bichigt Bulag rock art panel with hunting scenes and dots.
Fig. 4.6	Narangiin Bulag rock art panel with field of dots and people.
Fig. 4.7	Ider River cave.
Fig. 4.8	Human figure in Ider Cave.
Fig. 5.1	Areas of 2003 and 2004 research.
Fig. 5.2	Ulaan Tolgoi Class III mound with circular fence. 
Fig. 5.3	Ulaan Tolgoi Class I mound with squared fence.
Fig. 5.4	Five of 14 deer stones located at Ushkiin Uver.
Fig. 5.5	The two most common expressions of khirigsuur: mounds with circular or square fences. 
Fig. 5.6	Three small mounds at Class I mound at Ulaan Tolgoi.
Fig. 5.7	Matt Gallon recording points on Class II burial mound at Ulaan Tolgoi.
Fig. 5.8	Class I mounds on the flat steppe southeast of Ulaan Tolgoi deer stone complex.
Fig. 5.9	Class III mound with squared fence and standing corner stones.
Fig. 5.10	Mound no. 20 at Ulaan Tolgoi.
Fig. 5.11	Four squared and two circular mounds at Ulaan Tolgoi.
 Fig. 5.12	Small mound feature, Soyo mound no. S04-40 north of the Khugiin Gol River.
Fig. 5.13	Slab burial at Ulaan Tolgoi (Mound E03-29). 
Fig. 5.14	Small chamber added to the external part of center mound (Mound E03-30).
Fig. 5.15	Landsat image of Soyo area. Areas A, B & C enlarged in Figures 16, 17 & 18.
Fig. 5.16	Soyo area A. Four clusters of mounds all located on southern hill sides.
Fig. 5.17	Soyo area B. Class I mounds (white circles) clustering around the Khugiin Gol River.
Fig. 5.18	Soyo area C. Two clusters of mostly Class I and II mounds.
Fig. 5.19	Ulaan Tolgoi research area.
Fig. 5.20	Ulaan Tolgoi Area A.
Fig. 5.21	Mounds located about 5 km west of the Ushkiin Uver deer stone complex.
Fig. 5.22	Landsat image depicting area between Erkhel Lake and Ushkin Uver.
Fig. 6.1	Class I mounds (located on the flat steppe) at Soyo.
Fig. 6.2	Three of the five deer stones at Ulaan Tolgoi.
Fig. 6.3	Soyo area A depicting large concentration of mostly Class III mounds.
Fig. 6.4	Landsat image (a) and map (b) showing the distribution of Class I, II, and III mounds.
Fig. 7.1	Map of Mongolia showing the location of Tsaatan reindeer herding.
Fig. 7.2	Tsaatan reindeer herders examining a bear skull, near Ulaan Taiga, August 2003.
Fig. 7.3	Tsaatan reindeer uses and products.
Fig. 7.4	Tsaatan shelters.
Fig. 7.5	Reindeer and cows on the summer pasture at Menge Bulag.
Fig. 7.6	Tsaatan children riding reindeer in the fall pasture.
Fig. 7.7	Plants used by Tsaatan.
Fig. 7.8	Urts poles standing in a winter camp with larch and pine trees.
Fig. 7.9	Evidence of forest fire on a larch stand.
Fig. 7.10	Reindeer does and calf in the spring pasture.
Fig. 8.1	Equipment and rope for reindeer herders.
Fig. 8.2	Reindeer herders have recently begun to herd other livestock.
Fig. 8.3	Tsaatan children riding reindeer to herd cows.
Fig. 8.4	Reindeer transportation.
Fig. 8.5	A Tsaatan child's reindeer saddle.
Fig. 8.6	A community settled in 2-3 urts.
Fig. 8.7	Inside an urts.
Fig. 8.8	The interior of an urts.
Fig. 8.9	Preparing breakfast.
Fig. 8.10	Some types of foods made from reindeer milk.
Fig. 8.11	An ongon-sakhiul of a reindeer herding family.
Fig. 8.12	The reindeer herder shaman, Suyun.
Fig. 9.1	Location of Hets Mountain Cave.
Fig. 9.2	Survey team.
Fig. 9.3	Hets Mountain area.
Fig. 9.4	Natsag Batbold entering the second tunnel.
Fig. 9.5	Lateral section of cave.
Fig. 9.6	Cave viewed from western end. 
Fig. 9.7	N. Batbold and T. Amgalantugs mapping cave.
Fig. 9.8	Horizontal view of cave. 
Fig. 9.9	Group 1 human remains.
Fig. 9.10	Group 1 human remains.
Fig. 9.11	Forty year-old woman with fractured neck.
Fig. 9.12	Facial view of forty year-old woman seen in Figure 9.11. 
Fig. 9.13	Sampling material for dating purposes.
Fig. 9.14	Buddhist lama explaining paraphernalia.
Fig. 10.1	Areas covered in the research study.
Fig. 10.2	Jamso riverside environment where Phyllodoce coerulla grows.
Fig. 10.3	Phyllodoce coerulla, the new species of Mongolian flora found in Hovsgol.
Fig. 10.4	Saussurea dorogostaiskii, relic vegetation from glacial period, Jamso riverside, 2002.
Fig. 10.5	Caragana jubrta, relic vegetation from near Evt Mountain pass, 2002.
Fig. 10.6	Allium altaicum L., relic vegetation from the period of glaciation.
Fig. 10.7	Ledum palustre vegetation found in taiga while flowering.
Fig. 10.8	Rhodendron amreum, very rare vegetation in taiga near Uhert Mountain pass, 2001.
Fig. 10.9	Adonis mongolica, a very rare herb in taiga, near Toom Mountain pass, 2001.
Fig. 10.10	Equisetum, a main diet plant eaten by reindeer, called by Tsaatan, jaad.
Fig. 10.11	Bayandalai's wife, Tsetsgee, with her son, 2002.
Fig. 10.12	Steven Young with Mongolian students at Tsaatan camp at Menge Bulag, 2001.
Fig. 10.13	Summer tundra pasture at Menge Bulag, 2001.	
Fig. 13.1	Blocklift sequence.
Fig. 13.2	A block-lifted deposit of fragile beads and bracelets.
Fig. 13.3	Fragile animal bones being faced with tissue in preparation for lifting.
Fig. 13.4	Reassembled ceramic vessel with minor fills and customized storage mount.
Fig. 13.5	Small metal artifacts, bagged and stored in a container with desiccated silica gel.
Fig. 13.6	Monitoring the salt levels during desalination of ceramic sherds.
Fig. 13.7	Fragile skeletal remains stored for protection in customized housing.
Fig. 13.8	Steatite seal with a silicone rubber mold.
Fig. 14.1	Cast of the deer stone in the National Museum of Mongolian History.
Fig. 14.2	Shopping at Ulaanbaatar market for model-making materials.
Fig. 14.3	Workshop participants examining deer stone mold. 
Fig. 14.4	Paul Rhymer demonstrating molding and casting at the workshop 
Fig. 18.1	Soyo 1, Feature 3 excavation in 2004. View north toward Khugiin Gol River.
Fig. 18.2.	Soyo 1, Feature 3 south wall soil profile in Squares 3 and 4.
Fig. 18.3	Soyo 1, Feature 3, west wall profile of Square 4.
Fig. 18.4	Soyo 1, Feature 3, south wall profile of Square 5.
Fig. 18.5	Soyo 1, Feature 3, east wall profile of Square 5. 
Fig. 18.6	Soyo 1, Feature 3, west wall profile of Square 5.
Fig. 18.7	Soyo 1, Feature 3 excavation map for Squares 1-5.
Fig. 18.8	Soyo 1, Feature 3, Square 3artifacts.
Fig. 18.9	Soyo 1, Feature 3, Square 3 artifacts.
Fig. 18.10	Soyo 1, Feature 3, Square 3 biface points no. 21, 22.
Fig. 18.11	Soyo 1, Feature 3, flint artifacts from Square 4.
Fig. 18.12	Soyo 1, Feature 3, ceramic artifacts from Square 5.
Fig. 18.13	Soyo 1, Feature 3, lithic artifacts from Square 5.
Fig. 18.14	Soyo 1, Feature 3, lithics artifacts from Square 5.
Fig. 18.15	Soyo 1, Feature 3, bone fragments from Square 5.
Fig. 18.16	Soyo 1, Feature 3, Square 5 level 1 map.
Fig. 18.17	Soyo 1, Feature 3, Square 5, Level 2 map.
Fig. 18.18	Soyo 1, Feature 3, Square 5, early Neolithic ceramics.
Fig. 18.19	Chudriin Daraa deer stone associated with a looted mound.
Fig. 18.20	Chudriin Daraa west feature excavation plan.
Fig. 18.21	Chudriin Daraa bone finds.
Fig. 18.22	Chudriin A small iron knife.
Fig. 18.23	Chudriin Daraa bone object decorated with triangular designs.
Fig. 18.24	Chudrrin Daraa birch-bark with fish scale decoration.
Fig. 18.25	Churdiin Daraa pelvic bone of small child.
Fig. 18.26	Chudriin Daraa bones from a child.
Fig. 18.27	Chudriin Daraa bones from a child.
Fig. 18.28	Chudriin Daraa bones from a child.
Fig. 18.29	Tsatstain Hoshuu site cleared to the top of the rock deposit. View to north.
Fig. 18.30	Tsatstain Hoshuu upper level rocks with antler fragment.
Fig. 18.31	Tsatstain Hoshuu upper level rocks showing locations of horse head offerings.
Fig. 18.32	Tsatstain Hoshuu excavation showing large rock slab north of the deer stone.
Fig. 18.33	Site of shaman's cache at Angarkhai Mountain, Sumber village, Arbulag sum.
Fig. 18.34	A selection of shaman's equipment recovered from the Angarkhai hill cache.
Fig. 18.35	Ulaan Tolgoi deer stone site showing Deer Stones 5 (left) and 4 before excavation.
Fig. 18.36 Ulaan Tolgoi (Erkhel) DS4, Feature 4 upper level rock structure.
Fig. 18.37 Ulaan Tolgoi DS4, Feature 4 lower level bone (B) and charcoal (CH) finds.
Fig. 18.38 Ulaan Tolgoi (Erkhel) DS4, Feature 4, soil profile of north wall from 0S 8W to 0S 4W.
Fig. 18.39 Ulaan Tolgoi (Erkhel) DS4, Feature 5, upper level rocks and lower level horse head.
Fig. 18.40 Ulaan Tolgoi (Erkhel) DS4, Feature 5 west wall soil profile 0N 2W to 4N 2W.
Fig. 18.41 Ulaan Tolgoi (Erkhel) DS4, Feature 6 upper level rocks and finds in Square 4N 2E.
Fig. 18.42 Ulaan Tolgoi (Erkhel) DS4, Feature 6, lower level rocks and horse head burial.
Fig. 18.43 Ulaan Tolgoi (Erkhel) DS4, Feature 7 upper level map.
Fig. 18.44 Ulaan Tolgoi (Erkhel) DS4, profile from 2S/4W to 2S/1W.
Fig. 18.45 Calibrated plot of radiocarbon dates from deer stone sites.
List of Tables
Table 1.1	Radiocarbon dates from deer stone sites, 2002-2004.
Table 5.1	Distribution of mounds surveyed during 2003 and 2004.
Table 5.2	Distribution of Class I, II and III mounds.
Table 5.3	Distribution of mounds with circular and squared fences.
Table 5.4	Squared mound statistics. Ulan Tolgoi area.
Table 5.5	Squared mound statistics. Ulaan Tolgoi area.
Table 5.6	Deer stone locations recorded to 1/10 of one second.
Table 9.1	List of articulated human bodies found in the Hets Mountain Cave.
Table 10.1	Vascular plants of Hovsgol province.
Table 10.2	Comparison of the main groups of vascular plants.
Table 10.3	Comparison of the main families of vascular plants in Hovsgol and Alaska.
Table 10.4	Coefficient similarity of the dominant genera in the Hovsgol tundra.
Table 10.5	Comparison of the genus Ericaceae in Hovsgol and Alaska by coefficient similarity.
Table 10.6	Comparison of Ericaceae in Hovsgol and Central Siberia.
Table 10.7	Comparison of Ericaceae in Alaska and Central Siberia by coefficient similarity.
Table 10.8	Average amount of lichen eaten by reindeer per day.
Table 10.9	Plants grazed by Reindeer.
Table 10.10	Pasture capacity of reindeer rangeland.
Table 10.11.	Productivity of tundra plants grazed by reindeer in summer pastures.
Table 10.12	Diet selection of the reindeer in their summer pasture.
Table 18.1	Artifacts found in Soyo-1, Feature 3, Square 3.
Table 18.2	Artifacts from Soyo-1/F3, Square 4.
Table 18.3	Artifacts from Soyo-1/F3, Square 5.
Table 18.4	Archaeological artifacts found in Soyo-1/F3, Square 5.

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Darkhat (Mongolian people) -- Implements -- Congresses.
Darkhat (Mongolian people) -- Domestic animals -- Congresses.
Darkhat (Mongolian people) -- Antiquities -- Congresses.
Ethnology -- Mongolia -- Khðcovsgðcol Aµimag -- Congresses..
Reindeer herding -- Mongolia -- Khðcovsgðcol Aµimag -- Congresses.
Deer in art -- Congresses.
Stone carving -- Mongolia -- Khðcovsgðcol Aµimag -- Congresses.
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Mongolia -- Khðcovsgðcol Aµimag -- Congresses.
Khðcovsgðcol Aµimag (Mongolia) -- Antiquities -- Congresses.