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Contents List of Tables 00 Preface 00 Acknowledgements 00 Introduction 00 1. Establishing a Culture of Resistance: Theoretical Perspectives 1 African Resistance 2 Theoretical Perspectives 8 Varied Literature on the Dynamics of Resistance 15 A Model of Resistance 38 Explanation, Uncertainty; Prediction, Causation 44 Implications 51 Notes 52 2. Repression and Resistance in Kenya: Historical Perspectives 58 The Giriama: Coastal Resistance with Echoes in the 1990s 61 The Path to Mau Mau 65 Mau Mau Resistance 69 A Repressive Colonial Legacy 84 Inheriting and Using Repressive Colonial Laws and Practices 87 Early Resistance to Kenya¿s Second President 93 Notes 98 3. Knocking at the Door: Individual Activism 100 Individual Activism: Defying the Odds 103 Characteristics of Individual Activists 110 Unpredictability of Individual Activism: The Role of Minor Actors 113 What Individual Activists Did 115 Motivational Issues 120 Tactics of Individual Activists 127 Institutional Learning: a Chess Game of Tactics 131 Implications of Individual Resistance 135 Notes 137 4. Opening the Door: Organizational Activism 141 Organizational Activism Builds on Individual Activism 142 Comparing Individual and Organizational Activism 146 Motivational Issues 150 Identifying Organizational Activists 152 Institutionalization of Resistance 155 Resistance by Nongovernmental Organizations 166 Accumulating Resistance 171 Resistance: Peaks and Valleys 173 Donors¿ Mixed Signals on Human Rights and Democracy 177 Implications of Organizational Activism 183 Notes 186 5. Entering the Bastille (Peacefully): From Resistance to Elected Power 192 Overcoming Barriers 195 Synergy in the Resistance Movement 198 Cycles of Resistance, Repression, and Reform 201 Further Growth of a Culture of Resistance 204 Resistance Becomes Normal 208 Implications of a Culture of Resistance 211 Notes 213 6. Mass Public Support: A Key Element in a Culture of Resistance 214 Constraints that did not Constrain 220 Mass Support for Activism: Theoretical Perspectives 229 Laying the Groundwork for Mass Participation 232 Different Kinds of Mass Support for Resistance 236 Human Rights Watchdogs become the Watched in a new Regime 245 Implications of Public Support for a Resistance Movement 247 Notes 248 7. Conclusion 253 Study Questions Answered 254 Political Synergy Achieved 259 Contribution to Social Movement Literature 260 Contribution to Democratic Transition Literature 263 Beyond Kenya 266 Summary of Findings and Implications for Future Research 267 Notes 273 Appendix A Methodology 275 B Human Rights Treaties in Kenya 283 C Socioeconomic Profiles of Kenya 284 D Repression and Torture in Kenya 286 Select Bibliography 293 Index 00 About the Author 00
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Government, Resistance to -- Case studies.
Government, Resistance to -- Kenya.
Human rights -- Kenya.
Democratization -- Kenya.
Political activists -- Kenya.
Human rights workers -- Kenya.