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Table of Contents Preface Acknowledgements Disclaimer Chapter 1 Overview of the Natural Gas Industry A. Introduction 1. The world picture for natural gas 2. Natural gas in the United States 3. Non-conventional gas reserves in the United States B. Sources of natural gas C. Natural Gas Compositions 1. Traditional natural gas 2. Important impurities 3. Coal Bed Methane 4. Subquality gas D. Classification 1. Liquids content 2. Sulfur content E. Processing and Principal Products 1. Methane 2. Ethane 3. Propane 4. E-P Mix 5. Isobutane 6. n-Butane 7. Natural gas liquids 8. Natural gasoline F. Product Specifications 1. Natural gas 2. Liquid products G. Combustion Characteristics 1. Heating value 2. Wobbe number H. References I. Books K. Websites Chapter 2 Overview of Gas Plant Processing A. Roles of Gas Plants B. Plant Processes C. Important Support Components 1. Utilities 2. Process control 3. Safety systems D. Contractual Agreements and Economics Chapter 3 Field Operations and Inlet Receiving A. Introduction B. Field Operations 1. Wellhead operations 2. Piping 3. Compression stations 4. Pigging C. Gas Hydrates 1. Properties 2. Hydrate formation prediction 3. Hydrate inhibition D. Inlet Receiving 1. Separator principles 2. Slug catcher configurations E. Safety and Environmental Considerations F. References G. Websites Chapter 4 Compression A. Introduction B. Fundamentals 1. Thermodynamics of compression 2. Multistaging 3. Compressor efficiencies C. Compressor Types 1. Positive displacement compressors 2. Dynamic compressors D. Capacity and Power Calculations 1. Capacity 2. Power requirements E. Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors F. Safety and Environmental Considerations G. References Chapter 5 Gas Treating A. Introduction 1. The problem 2. Acid gas concentrations in natural gas 3. Purification levels 4. Acid gas disposal 5. Purification processes B. Solvent Absorption Processes 1. Amines 2. Alkali salts C. Physical Absorption 1. Solvent properties 2. Representative process conditions 3. Hybrid processes D. Adsorption E. Cryogenic Fractionation F. Membranes 1. Membrane fundamentals 2. Carbon dioxide removal from natural gas 3. Operating considerations 4. Advantages and disadvantages of membrane systems G. Non-Regenerable Hydrogen Sulfide Scavengers H. Biological Processes I. Safety, and Environmental considerations 1. Amines 2. Physical absorption 3. Adsorption 4. Membranes J. References Chapter 6 Gas Dehydration A. Introduction B. Water Content of Hydrocarbons C. Gas Dehydration Processes. 1. Absorption processes 2. Adsorption processes 3. Desiccant processes 4. Membrane processes 5. Other processes 6. Comparison of dehydration processes D. Safety and Environmental Considerations E. References Chapter 7 Hydrocarbon Recovery A. Introduction 1. Retrograde condensation B. Process Components 1. External refrigeration 2. Turboexpansion 3. Heat exchange 4. Fractionation C. Recovery Processes 1. Dew point control and fuel conditioning 2. Lower ethane recovery 3. High ethane recovery D. Safety and Environmental Considerations E. References Chapter 8 Nitrogen Rejection A. Introduction B. Nitrogen Rejection for Gas Upgrading 1. Cryogenic distillation 2. Pressure swing adsorption 3. Membranes C. Nitrogen Rejection for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) D. Safety and Environmental Considerations E. References Chapter 9 Trace Component Recovery or Removal A. Introduction B. Helium 1. Introduction 2. Recovery methods C. Mercury 1. Environmental 2. Amalgam formation 3. Removal processes D. BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylene) E. References F. Websites Chapter 10 Liquids Processing A. Introduction B. Condensate Processing 1. Sweetening 2. Dehydration C. NGL Processing 1. Sweetening 2. Dehydration 3. Fractionation D. Safety and Environmental Considerations E. References Chapter 11 Sulfur Recovery A. Introduction B. Properties of Sulfur C. Sulfur Recovery Processes 1. The Claus process 2. Claus tail gas cleanup D. Sulfur Storage E. Safety and Environmental Considerations F. References Chapter 12 Transportation and Storage A. Introduction B. Gas 1. Transportation 2. Market Centers (Hubs) 3. Storage C. Liquids 1. Transportation 2. Storage D. References Chapter 14 Capital Costs of Gas Processing Facilities A. Introduction B. Basic Premises for All Plant Component Cost Data C. Amine Treating D. Glycol Dehydration E. NGL Recovery with Straight Refrigeration (Low C2 Recovery) F. NGL Recovery with Cryogenic Processing (High C2 Recovery) G. Sulfur Recovery and Tail Gas Cleanup 1. High sulfur recovery rates 2. Low sulfur recovery rates H. NGL Extraction Plant Costs for Larger Facilities I. Corrections to Cost Data J. References Chapter 15 Natural Gas Processing Plants A. Introduction B. Plant with Sweet Gas Feed and 98% Ethane Recovery 1. Overview of plant feed and product slate 2. Compression 3. Heat exchange 4. Dehydration 5. Propane refrigeration 6. Hydrocarbon recovery 7. Amine treating 8. Deethanizer 9. Residue compression C. Plant with Sour Gas Feed, NGL and Sulfur Recovery 1. Overview of plant feed and product slate 2. Inlet receiving 3. Inlet compression 4. Gas treating 5. Sulfur recovery 6. Dehydration 7. Hydrocarbon recovery 8. Liquids processing D. Plant with Sour Gas Feed with NGL Recovery and Nitrogen Rejection 1. Overview of plant feed and product slate 2. Inlet receiving 3. Gas treating 4. Sulfur recovery 5. Dehydration 6. NRU and cold box 7. Liquids processing E. References Notation Appendix A. Glossary of Gas Process Terminology B. Physical Constants and Physical Properties 1. Unit conversion factors 3. Thermodynamic and physical property data 4. Physical properties of alkanolamines and alkanolamine-water systems 5. Physical properties of glycols and glycol-water systems 6. Properties of saturated steam 7. PH diagrams and sat tables of hydrocarbons 8. Hydrocarbon compressibility factors C. References
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