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Syria, United States, and the War on Terror in the Middle East Table of Contents Introduction 1 Chapter 1: Cradle of Arab Nationalism: The Fatherland, the Ba'th and 15 Modern Syria under Asad I- The Emergence of Arab Nationalism and the Concept of 16 Greater Syria II- Syria: The Hub of Nationalist Development 25 III- The Ba'th Party and Syrian Leadership 34 IV- The State Under Asad 49 Chapter 2: The Beginning of US-Syrian Relations: Between the 63 Arab-Israeli Conflict and the Cold War I- Recognition and Neutrality (1944-1953) 64 II- The "New Look" and Baghdad Pact 68 III- The Soviet Insertion in the Middle East 70 IV- The Eisenhower Doctrine and the Middle East 71 V- A Try at Evenhandedness 75 VI- Turning Points (1967-1979) 77 VII- Kissinger's Realpolitik 82 VIII- A Foretaste of Middle East Diplomacy: The May 1974 87 Disengagement Agreement IX- A New Beginning? 97 Chapter 3: The Emergence of US-Syrian Ambivalent Relationship 109 I- The Implications of Fighting Evil for the Middle East 109 II- The Brink of War 114 III- The Irony of Fighting Terrorism 123 IV- The Emergence of Hizbollah 125 V- Support for Israel 128 VI- Rewarding Syria 132 Chapter 4: The Fulcrum of Elusive Peace 140 I- The Bush Years: Priorities Reordered 140 II- Breaking the Ice: The Madrid Peace Conference 150 III- The Clinton Years: Cooperation Versus Limits 161 IV- Toward The Brink of Peace 169 V- The Last Encounter 175 VI- A New Regional Order? 180 Chapter 5: The Unholy Relationship 200 I- Shebaa Farms: The Powder Keg of the Middle East 201 II- Transfer of Power 204 III- A New American Outlook 210 IV- Put on Notice 213 V- A De Facto Member of the "Axis of Evil" 218 Chapter 6: A New Cold War? 231 I- Punishing Syria 232 II- Wishful Versus Realpolitik Thinking 234 III- Domestic Considerations: Reform and the Kurdish Question 238 IV- Dynamics of Confrontation 249 V- Digging In 254 VI- Toward the Brink? 250 Chapter 7: The New Struggle for Lebanon: Democracy and Syria's Withdrawal 275 I- Pressuring Syria: Washington and the Lebanese-American Lobby 276 II- Breaking the Last Straw: Hariri's Assassination 285 III- The Swift Collapse of the Syrian Order in Lebanon 294 IV- Lebanon: The New Republic 299 V- The Dynamics of the Lebanon-Syria-US Triangular Relationship 305 Chapter 8: Syria Post-Withdrawal: Reform or Dictatorship? 321 I- Closing Ranks: Reform Versus Clan Control 321 II- Changing Guards: From "Old" to "New" Hardliners 329 Conclusion 336 Selected Bibliography 358
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
United States -- Foreign relations -- Syria.
Syria -- Foreign relations -- United States.
War on Terrorism, 2001-.
United States -- Politics and government -- 2001-.