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Contents Contributors Foreword Series Preface Preface List of Abbreviations 1 The Contribution of Renewables in Society G. Berndes 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Historic and present biomass uses for food, energy and materials in the world 1.3 Potential availability of agricultural residues and land for non-food crop production 1.4 Drivers behind increasing demand for biomass for energy and materials 1.5 Land use competition 1.6 Multifunctional biomass production systems 1.7 Summary 1.8 Acknowledgements 2 The potential of renewables as a feedstock for chemistry and energy W.G.J.H.M. van Sark, M.K. Patel, A.P.C Faaij, M.M Hoogwijk 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Supply of Energy and Materials using Renewables 2.3 Demand for energy and materials 2.4 Summary 3 Sustainability performance indicators A. Lapkin 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The hierarchy of sustainability metrics 3.3 Aspects of methodology 3.4 Examples of sustainability metrics for technology assessment 3.5 Summary 4 Life cycle inventory analysis applied for renewable resources N. Jungbluth & R. Frischknecht 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Conceptual background in ISO 14040ff for LCA 4.3 Goal and scope definition 4.4 Inventory analysis 4.5 LCI data documentation and exchange format 4.6 Consequential versus attributional LCI 4.7 Summary 5 Net Energy Balancing and Fuel-Cycle Analysis H. Shapouri, M. Wang & J.A. Duffield 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Methodology 5.3 Energy Balance of Fossil Fuel Versus Biofuel 5.4 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Corn Ethanol Production 5.5 Summary 6 Life Cycle Assessment as an Environmental Sustainability Tool A. Azapagic 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The LCA methodology: A Brief Overview 6.3 LCIA impact categories as indicators of environmental sustainability 6.4 Using LCA to assess environmental sustainability 6.5 Summary 7 Exergy J. Dewulf & H. Van Langenhove 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Assessment of sustainability of technology: developing metrics 7.3 A thermodynamic basis to develop sustainability assessment metrics: exergy 7.4 Technology assessment by exergy analysis 7.5 Exergy-based indicators: how to assess the role of renewables 7.6 Exergy based indicators: integrating the role of renewables in an overall physical chemical sustainability assessment 7.7 Summary 8 Material flow analysis and the use of renewables from a systems perspective S. Bringezu 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Overview of the methodlogy 8.3 Examples of MFA studies in the context of renewables 8.4 Summary 8.5 Acknowledgements 9 Ecological Footprints and Biocapacity: Essential Elements in Sustainability Assessment W.E. Rees 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Eco-Footprint Analysis 9.3 Inherent Strengths in EFA 9.4 Answering the Critics 9.5 Summary 10 The Sustainable Process Index (SPI) M. Narodoslawsky & A. Niederl 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Computation of the SPI 10.3 Case Study: Biodiesel from Used Vegetable Oil 10.4 Summary 11 Assessment of sustainable land use in producing biomass H. Haberl & K-H. Erb 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Sustainability issues involved in promoting biomass energy 11.3 Conclusions and recommendations 11.4 Summary 12 Assessment of the forest products industries K. Richter, F. Werner & H-J. Althaus 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Metrics and criteria to assess the sustainability of forestry 12.3 Metrics and criteria for assessing the sustainability of the wood industry 12.4 Scope for action 12.5 Summary 13 Assessment of the Energy Production Industry: modern options for producing secondary energy carriers from biomass A. Faaij 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Technology Overview 13.3 Economics of biomass energy systems 13.4 Heat, power and fuels from biomass; key markets 13.5 Summary 14 Assessment of Biofuels J.A. Duffiel, H. Shapouri & M. Wang 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Background 14.3 Biofuel Feedstocks 14.4 Bio-Transportation Fuels and Fuel Additives 14.5 Current Supply of Biofuels 14.6 Future supply of biofuels 14.7 Measuring the Sustainability of Biofuels 14.8 Summary 15 Assessment of organic waste treatment J-O. Sundqvist 15.1 Introduction 15.2 General description of options for organic waste treatment 15.3 Environmental characteristics from organic waste treatment 15.4 Results from a life cycle assessment of organic waste 15.5 Discussion 15.6 Summary 16 Oleochemical and Petrochemical Surfactants: An Overall Assessment E. Saouter, G. Van Hoof, M. Stalmans & A. Brunskill 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Main chemical and structural differences 16.3 Resource and usage 16.4 Environmental Profile 16.5 Sustainability aspects of Oleochemical production 16.6 Summary 17 Assessment of biobased packaging materials A. Detzel, M. Kr¿ger & A. Ostermayer 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Environmental aspects of polymer production 17.3 Environmental aspects of packaging disposal 17.4 Summary 18 Assessment of biotechnology based chemicals P. Saling & A. Kicherer 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Explanation: What is eco-efficiency analysis? 18.3 Evaluation of decision making processes with eco-efficiency analysis 18.4 Case studies 18.5 Summary 19 Assessment of bio-based pharmaceuticals: The Cephalexin case A. Bruggink & P. Nossin 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Assessment methods during Process Development and Technology Transfers 19.3 Assessment of bio-based routes to Cephalexin 19.4 Summary 20 Conclusive Chapter J. Dewulf & H. Van Langenhove 20.1 Introduction 20.2 The available sustainability metrics 20.3 Where are we going to in assessing renewables-based technology? Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Renewable energy sources.