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Contents PREFACE Changes in the Eighth Edition Instructors Resource Manual With Tests and Practica Acknowledgments To the Student PART I THE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION APPROACH 1 INTRODUCTION What Is Behavior? What is Behavior Modification? Behavioral Assessment Behavior Modification and Related Terms Some Misconceptions about Behavior Modification. The Approach of This Book Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion 2 AREAS OF APPLICATION: AN OVERVIEW Parenting and Child Management Education: From Preschool to University Severe Problems: Developmental Disabilities, Childhood Autism, and Schizophrenia Clinical Behavior Therapy Self-Management of Personal Problems Medical and Health Care Gerontology Community Behavioral Analysis Business, Industry, and Government Sport Psychology Behavior Modification with Culturally Diverse Individuals Conclusion Study Questions Notes and Extended Discussion PART II BASIC BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES 3 GETTING A BEHAVIOR TO OCCUR MORE OFTEN WITH POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT "Do you want to sit here, Mommy?" Reinforcing Darren(s Cooperative Behavior Positive Reinforcement Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Positive Reinforcement Pitfalls of Positive Reinforcement Guidelines for the Effective Application of Positive Reinforcement Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion 4 DEVELOPING AND MAINTAINING BEHAVIOR WITH CONDITIONED REINFORCEMENT "OK, team! Here's how you can earn an Eagle Effort Award." Coach Dawson's Points Program Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement Pitfalls of Conditioned Reinforcement Guidelines for the Effective Use of Conditioned Reinforcement Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion 5 DECREASING A BEHAVIOR WITH EXTINCTION "Louise, let's get rid of your migraines" Louise's Case Extinction Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Extinction Pitfalls of Extinction Guidelines for the Effective Application of Extinction Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion 6 DEVELOPING BEHAVIORAL PERSISTENCE THROUGH THE USE OF INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT "Jan, let's see how many arithmetic problems you can do." Improving Jan(s Work Rate in Math Class Some Definitions Ratio Schedules Simple Interval Schedules Interval Schedules with Limited Hold Duration Schedules Overview of Eight Basic Schedules for Increasing and Maintaining Behavior Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement Pitfalls of Intermittent Reinforcement Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Reinforcement Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion 7 TYPES OF INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT TO DECREASE BEHAVIOR "Tommy, a little less talking out, please!" Decreasing Tommy's Talking Out The Schedules in This Chapter Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Responding Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Pitfalls of Schedules for Decreasing Behavior Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior Study Questions Application Exercises Note and Extended Discussion 8 DOING THE RIGHT THING AT THE RIGHT TIME AND PLACE: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION AND STIMULUS GENERALIZATION "Now, children, please work at your desks." Learning to Follow Teacher(s Instructions Stimulus Discrimination Learning and Stimulus Control Types of Controlling Stimuli: SDs and SÆs Stimulus Generalization Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training Pitfalls of Stimulus Discrimination Training Guidelines for Effective Stimulus Discrimination Training Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion 9 DEVELOPING APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR WITH FADING "Peter, what's your name?" Teaching Peter His Name Fading Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading Pitfalls of Fading Guidelines for the Effective Application of Fading Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion 10 GETTING A NEW BEHAVIOR TO OCCUR: AN APPLICATION OF SHAPING "Frank, did you do your jogging?" Improving Frank(s Exercising Shaping Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping Pitfalls of Shaping Guidelines for the Effective Application of Shaping Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion 11 GETTING A NEW BEHAVIOR TO OCCUR WITH BEHAVIORAL CHAINING "Steve, your pre-putt routine is inconsistent." Teaching Steve to Follow a Consistent Pre-Putt Routine Behavioral Chaining Methods for Teaching a Behavioral Chain Chaining Compared with Fading and Shaping Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Behavioral Chaining Pitfalls of Chaining Guidelines for the Effective Use of Behavioral Chaining Study Questions Application Exercises Note and Extended Discussion 12 ELIMINATING INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR THROUGH PUNISHMENT "Ben, don't be so aggressive." Eliminating Ben(s Aggressiveness The Principle of Punishment Types of Punishers Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment Should Punishment Be Used? Pitfalls of Punishment Guidelines for the Effective Application of Punishment Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion 13 ESTABLISHING A DESIRABLE BEHAVIOR BY USING ESCAPE AND AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING "Jason, that's bad for your health!" Curing Jason's Slouching Escape Conditioning Avoidance Conditioning Pitfalls of Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Guidelines for the Effective Application of Escape and Avoidance Study Questions Application Exercises Note and Extended Discussion 14 PROCEDURES BASED ON PRINCIPLES OF RESPONDENT CONDITIONING "I hate that word!" Making Words Unpleasant Operant Versus Respondent Behavior Principle of Respondent Conditioning Higher Order Conditioning Respondent Extinction Counterconditioning Common Respondently Conditioned Responses Respondent and Operant Conditioning Compared Applications of Respondent Conditioning Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion 15 RESPONDENT AND OPERANT CONDITIONING TOGETHER "I have to finish my term paper!" Responding to Meet Deadlines Operant-Respondent Interactions Respondent and Operant Components of Emotions Respondent and Operant Components of Thinking Private Thoughts and Feelings: More Respondent-Operant Interactions Study Questions Application Exercises Note and Extended Discussion 16 TRANSFERRING BEHAVIOR TO NEW SETTINGS AND MAKING IT LAST: GENERALITY OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE "Hi, there. I have a nice surprise for you in my car." Teaching Stan to Protect Himself Generality Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Programming Generality of Operant Behavior Programming Generality of Respondent Behavior Pitfalls of Generality Guidelines for Programming Generality of Operant Behavior Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion PART III SOME PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS TO EFFECTIVE PROGRAMMING STRATEGIES 17 CAPITALIZING ON EXISTING STIMULUS CONTROL: RULES AND GOALS Rules Goals Study Questions Application Exercises Note and Extended Discussion 18 CAPITALIZING ON EXISTING STIMULUS CONTROL: MODELING, GUIDANCE, AND SITUATIONAL INDUCEMENT Modeling Physical Guidance Situational Inducement Study Questions Application Exercises Note and Extended Discussion 19 MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION A Traditional View of Motivation A Behavioral View of Motivation Some Applications of Motivating Operations Motivating Operations and Behavior Modification Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion PART IV DEALING WITH DATA 20 BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT: INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS Minimal Phases of a Program Sources of Information for Baseline Assessment Data! Data! Data! Why Bother? Behavioral Assessment Compared to Traditional Assessment Study Questions Note and Extended Discussion 21 DIRECT BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT: WHAT TO RECORD AND HOW Characteristics of Behavior to Be Recorded Strategies for Recording Behavior Assessing the Accuracy of Observations Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion 22 FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CAUSES OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR Approaches to Functional Assessment Major Causes of Problem Behaviors Medical Causes of Problem Behaviors Guidelines for Conducting a Functional Assessment Study Questions Application Exercises Note and Extended Discussion 23 DOING RESEARCH IN BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION The Reversal-Replication (ABAB) Research Design Multiple-Baseline Designs The Changing-Criterion Design Alternating-Treatments (or Multi-Element) Design Data Analysis and Interpretation Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion PART V PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 24 PLANNING, APPLYING, AND EVALUATING A TREATMENT PROGRAM A Problem Has Been Referred: Should You Design a Program? Selecting and Implementing an Assessment Procedure Strategies of Program Design and Implementation Program Maintenance and Evaluation Study Questions Application Exercise Notes and Extended Discussion 25 TOKEN ECONOMIES Initial Steps in Setting up a Token Economy Specific Implementation Procedures Preparing a Manual Programming Generality to the Natural Environment Ethical Considerations A Summary of Considerations in Designing a Token Economy Study Questions Application Exercise Notes and Extended Discussion 26 HELPING AN INDIVIDUAL TO DEVELOP SELF-CONTROL Causes of Self-Control Problems A Model for Self-Control Steps in a Self-Control Program Circumventing the Therapist Study Questions Application Exercises Notes and Extended Discussion 27 COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Cognitive Restructuring Methods Self-Directed Coping Methods Mindfulness and Acceptance A Behavioral Interpretation of Cognitive Behavioral Techniques Concluding Comments Study Questions Application Exercise Notes and Extended Discussion 28 AREAS OF CLINICAL BEHAVIOR THERAPY Specific Phobias Other Anxiety Disorders Depression Alcohol Problems Eating Disorders and Obesity Couple Distress Sexual Dysfunction Habit Disorders Study Questions Notes and Extended Discussion PART IV A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND ETHICAL ISSUES 29 GIVING IT ALL SOME PERSPECTIVE: A BRIEF HISTORY The Operant-Conditioning Orientation: Applied Behavior Analysis The Respondent-Conditioning (and Hullian and Wolpean) Orientation Mixtures and Offshoots of the Two Major Orientations The Terms Behavior Therapy, Behavior Modification, and Applied Behavior Analysis The Future of Behavior Modification Study Questions Notes and Extended Discussion 30 ETHICAL ISSUES A Behavioral View of Ethics Arguments Against Deliberately Controlling Behavior Ethical Guidelines Conclusions Study Questions Notes and Extended Discussion GLOSSARY REFERENCES AUTHOR INDEX SUBJECT INDEX
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