Table of contents for Behavior modification : what it is and how to do it / Garry Martin, Joseph Pear.

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Contents
PREFACE
Changes in the Eighth Edition
Instructors Resource Manual With Tests and Practica
Acknowledgments
To the Student
PART I THE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION APPROACH
1	INTRODUCTION 
What Is Behavior? 
What is Behavior Modification?
Behavioral Assessment 
Behavior Modification and Related Terms 
Some Misconceptions about Behavior Modification.
The Approach of This Book 
Study Questions 
Application Exercises 
Notes and Extended Discussion 
2	AREAS OF APPLICATION: AN OVERVIEW 
Parenting and Child Management
Education: From Preschool to University 
Severe Problems: Developmental Disabilities, Childhood Autism, and Schizophrenia
Clinical Behavior Therapy 
Self-Management of Personal Problems 
Medical and Health Care 
Gerontology
Community Behavioral Analysis 
Business, Industry, and Government 
Sport Psychology 
Behavior Modification with Culturally Diverse Individuals
Conclusion 
Study Questions 
Notes and Extended Discussion
PART II BASIC BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES
3	GETTING A BEHAVIOR TO OCCUR MORE OFTEN WITH POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT 
"Do you want to sit here, Mommy?"
Reinforcing Darren(s Cooperative Behavior 
Positive Reinforcement
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Positive Reinforcement 
Pitfalls of Positive Reinforcement 
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Positive Reinforcement 
Study Questions 
Application Exercises 
Notes and Extended Discussion 
4	DEVELOPING AND MAINTAINING BEHAVIOR WITH CONDITIONED REINFORCEMENT 
"OK, team! Here's how you can earn an Eagle Effort Award."
Coach Dawson's Points Program Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers 
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement 
Pitfalls of Conditioned Reinforcement 
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Conditioned Reinforcement
Study Questions 
Application Exercises
Notes and Extended Discussion 
5	DECREASING A BEHAVIOR WITH EXTINCTION
"Louise, let's get rid of your migraines"
Louise's Case 
Extinction 
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Extinction 
Pitfalls of Extinction
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Extinction 
Study Questions 
Application Exercises 
Notes and Extended Discussion
6	DEVELOPING BEHAVIORAL PERSISTENCE THROUGH THE USE OF INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT 
"Jan, let's see how many arithmetic problems you can do."
Improving Jan(s Work Rate in Math Class 
Some Definitions 
Ratio Schedules 
Simple Interval Schedules 
Interval Schedules with Limited Hold 
Duration Schedules 
Overview of Eight Basic Schedules for Increasing and Maintaining Behavior 
Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement
	Pitfalls of Intermittent Reinforcement 
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Reinforcement
Study Questions
Application Exercises 
Notes and Extended Discussion 
7	TYPES OF INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT 
TO DECREASE BEHAVIOR 
"Tommy, a little less talking out, please!"
Decreasing Tommy's Talking Out 
The Schedules in This Chapter 
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates 
Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding 
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Responding 
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior 
	Pitfalls of Schedules for Decreasing Behavior
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior
Study Questions
Application Exercises
Note and Extended Discussion 
8	DOING THE RIGHT THING AT THE RIGHT TIME AND PLACE: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION AND STIMULUS
GENERALIZATION
"Now, children, please work at your desks."
Learning to Follow Teacher(s Instructions
Stimulus Discrimination Learning and Stimulus Control
Types of Controlling Stimuli: SDs and SÆs 
Stimulus Generalization 
Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training
	Pitfalls of Stimulus Discrimination Training
Guidelines for Effective Stimulus Discrimination Training
Study Questions
Application Exercises
Notes and Extended Discussion
9	DEVELOPING APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR WITH FADING
"Peter, what's your name?"
Teaching Peter His Name
Fading
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading
	Pitfalls of Fading
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Fading
Study Questions
Application Exercises
Notes and Extended Discussion
10	GETTING A NEW BEHAVIOR TO OCCUR: AN APPLICATION OF SHAPING 
"Frank, did you do your jogging?"
Improving Frank(s Exercising 
Shaping 
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping 
Pitfalls of Shaping 
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Shaping 
Study Questions 
Application Exercises 
Notes and Extended Discussion
11	GETTING A NEW BEHAVIOR TO OCCUR WITH BEHAVIORAL CHAINING
"Steve, your pre-putt routine is inconsistent."
Teaching Steve to Follow a Consistent Pre-Putt Routine
Behavioral Chaining
Methods for Teaching a Behavioral Chain
Chaining Compared with Fading and Shaping
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Behavioral Chaining
Pitfalls of Chaining
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Behavioral Chaining
Study Questions
Application Exercises 
Note and Extended Discussion 
12	ELIMINATING INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR THROUGH PUNISHMENT
"Ben, don't be so aggressive."
Eliminating Ben(s Aggressiveness
The Principle of Punishment
Types of Punishers 
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment 
Should Punishment Be Used?
Pitfalls of Punishment
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Punishment 
Study Questions
Application Exercises
Notes and Extended Discussion 
13	ESTABLISHING A DESIRABLE BEHAVIOR BY USING ESCAPE AND AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING
"Jason, that's bad for your health!"
Curing Jason's Slouching
Escape Conditioning
Avoidance Conditioning 
Pitfalls of Escape and Avoidance Conditioning
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Escape and Avoidance
Study Questions
Application Exercises
Note and Extended Discussion 
14	PROCEDURES BASED ON PRINCIPLES OF RESPONDENT CONDITIONING
"I hate that word!"
Making Words Unpleasant
Operant Versus Respondent Behavior
Principle of Respondent Conditioning
Higher Order Conditioning 
Respondent Extinction 
Counterconditioning
Common Respondently Conditioned Responses
Respondent and Operant Conditioning Compared 
Applications of Respondent Conditioning
Study Questions
Application Exercises
Notes and Extended Discussion 
15	RESPONDENT AND OPERANT CONDITIONING TOGETHER
"I have to finish my term paper!"
Responding to Meet Deadlines
Operant-Respondent Interactions
Respondent and Operant Components of Emotions
Respondent and Operant Components of Thinking
Private Thoughts and Feelings: More Respondent-Operant Interactions
Study Questions
Application Exercises
Note and Extended Discussion
16	TRANSFERRING BEHAVIOR TO NEW SETTINGS AND MAKING IT LAST: GENERALITY OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE 
"Hi, there. I have a nice surprise for you in my car."
Teaching Stan to Protect Himself 
Generality
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Programming Generality of Operant Behavior
Programming Generality of Respondent Behavior
	Pitfalls of Generality
Guidelines for Programming Generality of Operant Behavior
Study Questions 
Application Exercises
Notes and Extended Discussion 
PART III SOME PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS 
TO EFFECTIVE PROGRAMMING STRATEGIES
17	CAPITALIZING ON EXISTING STIMULUS CONTROL: RULES AND GOALS
Rules
Goals
Study Questions
Application Exercises
Note and Extended Discussion 
18	CAPITALIZING ON EXISTING STIMULUS CONTROL: MODELING, GUIDANCE, AND SITUATIONAL INDUCEMENT 
Modeling
Physical Guidance
Situational Inducement 
Study Questions 
Application Exercises
Note and Extended Discussion 
19	MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
A Traditional View of Motivation 
A Behavioral View of Motivation
Some Applications of Motivating Operations
Motivating Operations and Behavior Modification
Study Questions
Application Exercises
Notes and Extended Discussion
PART IV DEALING WITH DATA
20	BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT: INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Minimal Phases of a Program
Sources of Information for Baseline Assessment
Data! Data! Data! Why Bother? 
Behavioral Assessment Compared to Traditional Assessment
Study Questions
Note and Extended Discussion 
21	DIRECT BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT: WHAT TO RECORD AND HOW
Characteristics of Behavior to Be Recorded
Strategies for Recording Behavior
Assessing the Accuracy of Observations
Study Questions 
Application Exercises
Notes and Extended Discussion
22	FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CAUSES OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR
Approaches to Functional Assessment
Major Causes of Problem Behaviors
Medical Causes of Problem Behaviors
Guidelines for Conducting a Functional Assessment
Study Questions
Application Exercises
Note and Extended Discussion 
23	DOING RESEARCH IN BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
The Reversal-Replication (ABAB) Research Design
Multiple-Baseline Designs 
The Changing-Criterion Design
Alternating-Treatments (or Multi-Element) Design
Data Analysis and Interpretation
Study Questions
Application Exercises 
Notes and Extended Discussion 
PART V PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
24	PLANNING, APPLYING, AND EVALUATING A TREATMENT PROGRAM
A Problem Has Been Referred: Should You Design a Program?
Selecting and Implementing an Assessment Procedure
Strategies of Program Design and Implementation
Program Maintenance and Evaluation
Study Questions
Application Exercise
Notes and Extended Discussion
25	TOKEN ECONOMIES
Initial Steps in Setting up a Token Economy
Specific Implementation Procedures
Preparing a Manual
Programming Generality to the Natural Environment 
Ethical Considerations
A Summary of Considerations in Designing a Token Economy 
Study Questions 
Application Exercise 
Notes and Extended Discussion 
26	HELPING AN INDIVIDUAL TO DEVELOP SELF-CONTROL
Causes of Self-Control Problems 
A Model for Self-Control
Steps in a Self-Control Program
Circumventing the Therapist
Study Questions
Application Exercises
Notes and Extended Discussion
27	COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
Cognitive Restructuring Methods
Self-Directed Coping Methods 
Mindfulness and Acceptance 
A Behavioral Interpretation of Cognitive Behavioral Techniques
Concluding Comments 
Study Questions
Application Exercise
Notes and Extended Discussion 
28	AREAS OF CLINICAL BEHAVIOR THERAPY
	Specific Phobias
	 Other Anxiety Disorders
	Depression 
Alcohol Problems
	Eating Disorders and Obesity 
	Couple Distress
	Sexual Dysfunction
	Habit Disorders
 Study Questions 
	Notes and Extended Discussion 
PART IV A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND ETHICAL ISSUES
29	GIVING IT ALL SOME PERSPECTIVE: A BRIEF HISTORY 
The Operant-Conditioning Orientation: Applied Behavior Analysis
The Respondent-Conditioning (and Hullian and Wolpean) Orientation
Mixtures and Offshoots of the Two Major Orientations
The Terms Behavior Therapy, Behavior Modification, and Applied Behavior Analysis 
The Future of Behavior Modification
Study Questions 
Notes and Extended Discussion 
30	ETHICAL ISSUES 
A Behavioral View of Ethics
Arguments Against Deliberately Controlling Behavior
Ethical Guidelines
Conclusions
Study Questions 
Notes and Extended Discussion
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES 
AUTHOR INDEX
SUBJECT INDEX

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Behavior modification.