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CONTENTS Section I: Teaching Nursing: Theories and Concepts Chapter 1 Student-Centered Teaching in Nursing: From Rote to Active Learning Lynne E. Young and Bruce Maxwell Chapter 2 Decision Making in Nursing Education: A Model to Support Student-Centered Learning Lynne E. Young, Bruce Maxwell, Barbara Paterson, and Angela Wolff Chapter 3 Perspectives on Teaching: Discovering BIASes Daniel D. Pratt and Barbara L. Paterson Chapter 4 Learning Styles: Maps, Myths, or Masks? Barbara L. Paterson and Daniel D. Pratt Chapter 5 From Filling a Bucket to Lighting a Fire: Aligning Nursing Education and Nursing Practice Helen Brown and Gweneth Hartrick Doane Chapter 6 Theories and Concepts to Guide Distance Education Using Student-Centered Approaches Victoria S. Murrell, Cynthia K. Russell, Margaret Thorman Hartig, and W. Dean Care Section II: Methods and Approaches to Student-Centered Learning in Nursing Chapter 7 Beyond Case Studies in Practice Education: Creating Capacities for Ethical Knowledge Through Story and Narrative Helen Brown and Patricia Rodney Chapter 8 Story-Based Learning: Blending Content and Process to Learn Nursing Lynne E. Young Chapter 9 Teaching the McGill Model of Nursing and Client-Centered Care: Collaborative Strategies for Staff Education and Development Catherine Pugnaire-Gros and Lynne E. Young Chapter 10 Context-Based Learning Beverly Williams and Rene A. Day Chapter 11 Tutoring Problem-Based Learning: A Model for Student-Centered Teaching Angela Wolff Chapter 12 Lectures for Active Learning in Nursing Education Marilyn H. Oermann Chapter 13 Models and Strategies for Teaching by Distance Education Using Student-Centered Approaches Cynthia K. Russell, Victoria S. Murrell, Margaret T. Hartig, W. Dean Care, Susan Jacob, Carol Lockhart, Sarah Mynatt, James Pruett, Cheryl Stegbauer, Carol Thompson Section III: Constructing Nursing Curricula: Challenges and Issues Chapter 14 Historical Influences of Nursing Curriculum JoEllen Dattilo and M. Kathleen Brewer Chapter 15 Conceptualizing the Purpose of Nursing: Philosophical Challenges in Creating Meaningful Theoretical Learning Experiences Sally Thorne Chapter 16 Aftermath of the Curriculum Revolution: What Did We Overthrow? Mary Ellen Purkis Chapter 17 Knowledge and Knowing Made Manifest: Curriculum Process in Student-Centered Learning Carol Jillings and Kathy O'Flynn-Magee Chapter 18 Preceptorship Pathways for the Senior Undergraduate Nursing Student Olive J. Yonge and Florence Myrick Chapter 19 Living Curricular Concepts: Opening Pedagogical Spaces Anne Bruce Section IV: Student-Centered Teaching: Challenges and Issues for Faculty Chapter 20 Racing Around the Classroom Margins: Race, Racism, and Teaching Nursing Colleen Varcoe and Janice McCormick Chapter 21 Barriers to Student-Centered Teaching: Overcoming Institutional and Attitudinal Obstacles Carol Jillings Chapter 22 Challenges, Issues, and Barriers to Student-Centered Approaches in Distance Education W. Dean Care, Cynthia K. Russell, Margaret Thorman. Hartig, Victoria S. Murrell, and David M. Gregory Chapter 23 Demonstrating the Scholarship of Teaching: A Sample Course Portfolio Beverly Williams Section V: Toward a New Future Chapter 24 Career Development: What New Faculty Members Need to Know, See, and Do Janet L. Storch Chapter 25 Musings: Reflecting on the Future of Nursing Education Barbara L. Paterson Glossary Appendices A. Sample Lesson Plan: Introducing Family Nursing B. Sample Course Outline Index Foreword This book, among the first in the 21st century to focus on the science and art of teaching, ushers in a new era through its forward-looking and innovative approaches. Provocatively presented, it provides a useful addition to the scholarly literature on higher education and teaching in nursing. Through reflections on their own personal experiences, the contributors to Teaching Nursing: Developing a Student-Centered Learning Environment share ways to empower students, thus modeling the goals of both student-centered learning and client-centered nursing practice. This knowledge helps faculty tackle the task of providing a multidiverse student population with the skills necessary to be creative, critical, and cooperative problem solvers. For years nursing education has included as its major objectives the development of problem-solving skills, critical thinking, and group process facilitation. It has nevertheless continued to focus on the teacher, who determines what will be taught, with students considered as the passive recipients of information. Behaving as though students are "empty vessels" to fill or "blank slates" on which the teacher writes his or her knowledge, nursing educators concentrate more on the subject than on the students. Such a model leaves little or no room for students to critically appraise what is presented. By contrast, in student-centered teaching, the shift moves away from the content and the teacher toward the learner. There has never been a more compelling reason for faculty to learn new ways to foster learning. The pace of change continues at an amazing rate. The promise of technology and its potential for changing the world is increasing at probably the most rapid rate we have ever known, both in our practice and our education. The reasons for changing the learning environment are crystal-clear, and yet change in nursing education has been slow to arrive. Possibly the most powerful reason for this inertia in universities, in addition to the reward system, is that many faculty simply do not know how to go about making these changes. This book will help teachers make the conceptual shift toward being facilitators of learning who will engage students in relational, generative learning experiences. Through the use of examples and exercises, its authors, committed nurse educators and leaders, demonstrate a prototype of student-centered teaching. They confidently take the novice and experienced teacher by the hand and guide them toward understanding true student needs and building learning partnerships by providing the skillful interweaving of theory with practical advice on how to achieve the goals of student-centered learning. This provides nurse educators with a rare opportunity to trace the past, consider the present, and envision the future of student-centered teaching. The issues that are discussed in Teaching Nursing: Developing a Student-Centered Environment are much the same as they were several decades ago. We must redefine the activities that comprise learning and not continue to base so much of what transpires in the classroom on the outdated transmission model of teaching and learning. We must allow students to reconstruct information themselves through the processes of making sense of it. This is not an easy task, owing to the constraints in higher education and to the fact that teachers tend to teach as they were taught. The authors of this text show the way for faculty who are willing to give up the control of being keepers of knowledge to instead foster an environment of trust and reward by being facilitators and coaches for learning. This is teaching scholarship at its best, and it will make a significant difference in nursing education. Rheba de Tornyay, EdD, FAAN Dean and Professor, School of Nursing University of Washington, Seattle Editor Emeritus, Journal of Nursing Education Preface As the editors of Teaching Nursing: Developing a Student-Centered Learning Environment, we had different reasons for believing in the need for a book like this one. Lynne entered the academy to study nursing at the baccalaureate level after several years of professional practice. She was shocked that the academy and its practitioners, in pursuit of "teaching," did not draw on and develop the practical knowledge base of those like her-using dialogue about learning and nursing and the relationship between the two as a resource to further thinking about nursing. Such a process, she reasoned at the time, had potential to develop and deepen the intellects of not only the students but also of the nursing academics. Therein lay the seeds of her curiosity about, and commitment to, student-centered learning. Through scholarship aimed at clarifying health-promoting nursing practice, Lynne came to appreciate the salience of client-centeredness in nursing and concomitantly appreciated the potential that student-centered teaching held to teach students the core principles of client-centered care through modeling. Thus, Lynne was convinced that current and future nurse educators could benefit from a state-of-the art text about this important topic. Barbara's passion for student-centered teaching arose when she discovered in her work as an administrator of a tertiary care hospital and in her doctoral research about clinical teaching that the traditional teacher-centered approaches resulted in graduates who learned how to be students more than they learned how to respond creatively to the ever-changing needs of patients and to the complex and highly political world of nursing practice. She questioned whether students who had been taught with teacher-centered approaches would ever be truly equipped to nurse in a patient-centered and family-centered way. She saw the incorporation of student-centered teaching in nursing education as an effective alternate. Recently Barbara completed a 3-year stint as an in-house scholar in a tertiary care hospital medical unit. There, through a partnership process, Barbara and the nursing staff developed a creative, enthusiastic, and welcoming nursing team who provided competent and compassionate care to patients and families and embraced both learning and learners. This experience convinced her that student-centered teaching is not only beneficial to nursing students, but it is crucial to the growth and continued development of nurses, teachers, and the profession. As converts to this way of teaching, we each sought to learn how to teach as student-centered nurse educators. We read the relevant literature. We asked colleagues. We went to scholarly conferences that promised to enlighten us. What we learned over the years was that many nurse educators were successfully teaching in a student-centered way, but they were not necessarily sharing what they did or what they had learned with others. This book represents our attempt to bring together expert nurse educators to contribute to the current knowledge about student-centered teaching in nursing education, while at the same time identifying the gaps and contradictions in this body of knowledge and suggesting avenues for future discussion and study. It corresponds to the history of student-centered teaching as an important social movement in nursing education. For several years, individual educators have been integrating student-centered teaching while working in institutions that do not effectively support or reward such teaching. It is time now to move beyond functioning as individuals who are isolated from each other. We need to publicly share our approaches and challenges in student-centered teaching so that we may receive feedback and critique, and so that we can sustain the vision of the student-centered teaching movement. This book enables the achievement of such a goal. Featured in each chapter are opening scenarios, learning activities, and resources for educators. * Opening Scenarios: Each chapter begins with a story of a lived experience of the chapter author that is designed to draw the learner in to the world of the author in a way that bridges the theory of teaching nursing with the practice of teaching nursing. * Learning Activities, found at the end of each chapter, are designed to engage students in exercises that foster further learning about the main ideas presented in each chapter. Collectively, the learning activities challenge students to apply a range of ways of knowing in their learning, for example, theoretical, empirical, esthetic, affective, and critical knowing. * Resources for Educators are presented in two subsections: Planning the Teaching/Learning Experience and Evaluating the Teaching/Learning Experience. Each subsection addresses one or more of the following topics: Planning the Teaching/Learning Experience Questions to Support a Thoughtful Reading Questions in this subsection are designed to challenge readers to consider the ideas presented in the chapter in light of the readers' experiences and beliefs. Instructions for Educators Instructions in this subsection provide guidance for incorporating the main ideas presented in the chapter into teaching practice. Tips for Developing a Student-Centered Learning Environment In this subsection, authors provide readers with practical ideas for fostering student-centered learning. Evaluating the Teaching/Learning Experience Questions to Elicit Feedback from Students on Their Learning Evaluating students' learning by eliciting feedback from them relative to the goals of the teaching/learning session allows educators to assess the effectiveness of the educational process. In this subsection, questions that that have potential to draw out learners' understanding of the main ideas of the chapter are offered. Reflective Questions for the Educator Through reflection, one develops self-knowledge. Thus, in this subsection, we offer questions to prompt educators' reflections on their teaching to inspire a value for self-development. Sample Evaluation Strategies and Tools Strategies and tools that can be used by educators for evaluating learning are offered in this subsection. In this book, we hope to entice you to challenge the "traditional" in nursing education. To that end, we provide you with theoretical grounding, ideas for implementation, and arguments about some arising issues. We present student-centered teaching as paradoxical-in order for you to embrace the power of student-centered teaching, you must be prepared to give up the power that is traditionally allocated to teachers. If you are new to the notion of student-centered teaching and engage the chapters of this book, you will question at least some of your assumptions about teaching and learning, as well as the traditional socialization to independence and autonomy as a teacher. Although this will be assuredly difficult at times, we promise that it will also prove to be extremely liberating. We invite you to enter into a way of teaching that not only yields student achievement but will draw you into a community of scholarship in which both teacher and student thrive because of the learning and interdependence they share. If you are well versed in the tenets of student-centered teaching, you will find that the book will provoke you to new insights and questions about teaching in this way. You will find solace and support in your commitment to student-centered teaching, as well. Whether you are new to student-centered teaching or familiar with it, we hope that you become as committed as we are to centering your teaching on the needs, gifts, and interests of students. We assure you that if you have the courage to invite students to center their learning on their abilities, needs, goals, experience, and interests, both you and the students you learn with will experience many blessings. Lynne Young Barbara Paterson Acknowledgments We acknowledge Dr. Rheba de Tornyay for writing the Foreword to this book. de Tornyay is a nurse, educator, and person we greatly admire for her lifetime of contributions to advancing nursing in general and nursing education in particular. de Tornyay lives the values essential to building a vibrant nursing community-authenticity, commitment to excellence, and humility-and in that we find Dr. Rheba de Tornyay a most inspiring person. We also acknowledge the support and contributions of the chapter authors and the publisher, particularly Helen Kogut. Her continued patience and her conviction that this book was significant to nursing education have made the editing of the book a rewarding experience. Finally, we acknowledge the many students and teachers in our experience as nurse educators who challenged and engaged us by the questions they raised and the examples they modeled. They sometimes caused us to feel uncomfortable-even at times irritated-but they, more than any others, have refined and shaped our understanding of student-centered teaching, including the gaps and the areas of confusion that exist in the field. Our learning from what they taught us convinced us that a book such as this was critically important to our profession and to nurse educators in general. We thank you. LEY BLP
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Nursing -- Study and teaching.
Teaching -- methods.