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Contents Foreword 1. Sociological perspectives on religion 1.1 What is sociology? 1.2 The sociology of religion and general sociology 1.3 Sociology as science 1.4 The sociology of religion versus other disciplines that study religion 1.5 Classical sociology ¿ a comment 2 Religion as a phenomenon ¿ definitions and dimensions 2.1 Defining religion ¿ not just an academic issue 2.2 Substantive definitions: attempts at explaining the common content of religion 2.3 Functional definitions: the effect of religion on individuals and/or societies 2.4 Wide or narrow definitions of religion? 2.5 Do we need definitions of religion? 2.6 The dimensions of religion 3 Classical sociologists and their theories of religion 3.1 Karl Marx. Religion as projection and illusion 3.2 Émile Durkheim. Religion as integration 3.3 Max Weber. Social action, rationality, and religion as legitimation 3.4 Georg Simmel. Individuality, sociability, and religion 3.5 Sigmund Freud. Religion as parental dependency and instinctual control 3.6 George Herbert Mead. The social basis of identity formation 3.7 Talcott Parsons. The individual and social functions of religion 3.8 Between structures and actors 4 Religion in contemporary sociology and cultural analysis 4.1 Jürgen Habermas. The place of religion in rational dialogue 4.2 Niklas Luhmann. Religion as function 4.3 Erving Goffman. Everyday life as drama and rituals 4.4 Peter L. Berger og Thomas Luckmann. Religion as social construction 4.5 Pierre Bourdieu. Religion and social practice 4.6 Michel Foucault. Spirituality, corporality, and politics 4.7 Anthony Giddens. Religion in late modernity 4.8 Zygmunt Bauman. Liquid postmodernity 4.9 Some common themes and issues 5 The great narratives: modernity, postmodernity, secularization, and globalization 5.1 The characteristic traits of modernity 5.2 From modernity to postmodernity? 5.3 Globalization 5.4 Secularization ¿ a multi-dimensional concept 5.5 Extreme and moderate theories of secularization 5.6 The secularization of society and its fundamental forces 5.7 The debate on moderate theories of secularization 5.8 Religious diversity, competition, and secularization 5.9 Secularization and its limitations 5.10 Secularization on the organizational level: religion as a source of secularization 5.11 Secularization on an individual level? 5.12 Several great narratives 6 Religion in the public sphere 6.1 The diminishing role of religion in the public sphere 6.2 The continued role of religion in the public sphere 6.3 The official religion of the state 6.4 Civil religion 6.5 Religious nationalism 6.6 Public religion 6.7 Religion and political power 6.8 Suggestions for research 7 Individual religiosity 7.1 Deprivation theory: grievances create a need for religion 7.2 Socialization theory: long-term training teaches individuals to be religious 7.3 Rational choice theory: calculated benefits lead to religion 7.4 Religion as a search for meaning and belonging 7.5 How embedded? How individualized? 7.6 The social basis of individual religiosity 7.7 Popular religiosity ¿ a continual discourse with established religious traditions 7.8 Rituals and music as carriers of religiosity 7.9 When religion becomes important: on religiously committed individuals 7.10 Secularization on the individual level? 8 Religious organizations and movements 8.1 An interest in typologies 8.2 Church, sect, and mysticism 8.3 Some specifications and critical notes 8.4 The dynamics of religious organizations 8.5 Religious organizations as active entities: resource mobilization theory 8.6 Organizations characterized by force, utilitarianism, and normative commitment 8.7 Forms of domination in religious organizations 8.8 Sociological studies of religious movements and minorities 9 Religion, social unity, and conflict 9.1 Religion and social unity 9.2 Religion and social conflict 9.3 Fundamentalism 9.4 Religious violence 9.5 Social or religious sources of conflict? 9.6 Religion as a source of peace? 10 Race, ethnicity, and religion 10.1 Concepts of race, racism, and ethnicity 10.2 Classical theories of race and ethnicity 10.3 Contemporary theories of race and ethnicity 10.4 Immigration and religion 10.5 Assimilation, pluralism, and multiculturalism 10.6 The policy debate 11 Religion and gender 11.1 The role of religion in interpreting gender and gender roles 11.2 Women¿s religious experiences 11.3 The role of women in religious organizations 11.4 The participation of women in religious groups ¿ different explanations 11.5 Feminism and religion 11.6 Religion, sexuality, and family orientation 12 Sociology, theology, and religious faith 12.1 Conflicting perspectives? 12.2 Methodological atheism: sociology and its silence on the question of religious truth 12.3 Classical sociologists and their scientific optimism 12.4. Religion varies in its compatibility with sociology 12.5 Contemporary critique of methodological atheism 12.6 Research from the inside or the outside? 12.7 The sociology of religion as an applied science Literature Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Sociology and religion.