Table of contents for Non-commercial food service managers handbook : a complete guide for hospitals, nursing homes, military, prisons, schools, and churches, with companion CD-ROM / Shri L. Henkel & Douglas R. Brown.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

Introduction	12
Topics We Will Discuss	12
Chapter 1 ¿ What Is Non-Commercial Food Service?	12
History of the Non-commercial Food Service Industry	13
Chuck Wagons	13
Railroad Workers	14
Industry Food Service	14
Hospitals	14
School Lunch Programs	15
College food service	16
Prison Food Service	16
Military Food Service History	17
Chapter 2 ¿ Account Management	17
Accounts Payable	18
Invoices	18
Code Your Invoices	18
Monthly Total Purchases	21
Reconcile Your Accounts	21
Your Sales Report	21
Manager¿s Responsibility to Maintain Costs	24
Sales Projections and Your Operational Budget	25
Food and Beverage Costs	27
Labor Cost	27
Consistent Operational Costs	28
Services	28
Fixed Expenses	28
General Costs	28
Payroll Accounting	29
Compile Your Monthly Projections and Actual Numbers	30
Revenue Available for Schools	31
Control Daily Cash Handling	32
Understanding Gross Profits	33
Troubleshoot Cash Control Issues	33
Chapter 3 ¿ Using a Computer System	34
How Do I Choose a Computer?	34
There are many things to consider when choosing a 
computer. Some are:	34
Point-of-Sale Systems	36
Customer Software options	37
Purchasing and Inventory Management Software	39
Desktop Publishing	41
Do Computers Have a Future in Food Service?	41
Correct Use of E-Mail	41
Should You Have a Web Presence?	42
Elements of Your Web Page	43
Chapter 4 ¿ Effective Menu Planning and Pricing	43
Menu Style	44
Limited Menu	45
Extensive Menu	45
Design Your Menu for Your Customers	49
Choosing Menu Items	51
Develop Appealing and Nutritional Menus	52
Key Points to consider when choosing menu Items are	53
Menu Format	56
Determine Appropriate Menu Cycles	57
Menu Cycles	58
Menu Review Committees	58
Recipe and Procedure Manual	59
Menu Prices	62
Projecting Menu Prices	63
Control Food Costs	63
Sales Mix	65
School Menus	66
Chapter 5 ¿ Quality in Dietary and Nutritional Guidelines	67
Test Panel	67
Internal Quality Control	68
Tools to Gain Feedback	70
Tips to Ask the Right Questions	71
Operating Procedures	73
Conduct a Self Review	74
External Quality Control	76
Improve Dietary Services	79
Special Dietary and Nourishment Needs (Prescribed by 
Doctors)	79
School Cafeteria Requirements	80
Consider Food Allergies	82
Chapter 6 ¿ Purchasing and Receiving Practices	83
Purchasing or Ordering?	85
Ordering Tips	86
Establish Specifications	88
Evaluate and Choose Your Vendors	90
Full Line Suppliers¿also called one-stop or diversified suppliers. They handle large 
inventories and can usually supply everything you need. If you can find one supplier 
for most of your needs, ordering and receiving will be simplified. They may offer 
fresh vegetables and fruits, frozen food, meat, fish, poultry, paper supplies, 
equipment, and chemicals, for example. Such a wide selection can save you time, 
paperwork, and money because one large delivery instead of several smaller orders 
costs less for delivery.	90
Local Specialty Wholesalers¿suppliers who carry a limited selection, but their prices 
are often lower. They may carry only limited selections, but if they carry what you 
need at a better price, you should consider them a potential supplier.	90
National Jobbers¿These would be especially useful for large operations, such as the 
military, school districts, and other similar operations. Some of these only sell full 
lot amounts while others sell only broken lots. This is an important thing to know, 
because you probably won¿t need full lots.	90
Supermarkets¿Supermarkets are better suited for small operations or the occasions 
when you run out of food. A small operation might not be able to attract the 
attention of larger suppliers. In this case the non-commercial food service facility 
may have to work with local grocery stores. If you have this problem, offer to pick 
up your orders from a supplier if you have suitable transportation.	90
Credit	91
Product Quality	91
Price	92
Dealing with Suppliers	92
Purchasing for Health care	92
The Changing Face of Distributors	93
Buyer Responsibilities	94
Buyer Qualifications	95
Alternative Purchasing Systems	96
Purchasing Kickbacks and Gifts	96
School Food Purchasing	97
School Food Dollar Allocation	97
Buying through Bids	97
Brands and Quality	98
Chapter 7 ¿ Receiving, Storage and Inventory Practices	98
Receiving	98
Effective Receiving	99
Receiving and Storing Supplies	100
Receiving Tips	101
Receiving Procedures	103
Food Storage	104
Types of Storage	104
Dry Storage	104
Refrigerated Storage	105
Deep Chilling	107
Frozen Storage	107
Cleaning Products	108
Organize Your Storage Areas	108
Storage Spoilage Prevention	109
Safe Storage	110
Inventory	111
Periodic Inventory Count	111
Perpetual Inventory	111
Perpetual Order Form:	112
Inventory Forms	112
Determine Inventory Levels	113
Issuing	114
Chapter 8 ¿ Techniques to Purchase Large Quantities of Food	114
Meats, Poultry, and Fish	115
Properties of Meat	116
The Meat Market	117
Frozen Meat	118
Identifying Portions of Meat	120
Processed Meat	121
Poultry	123
Specifications	123
Eggs	124
Every non-commercial food service facility needs to find a reliable egg supplier. Be 
sure that your facility and your supplier refrigerate eggs right away. Eggs that are 
graded wrong can drive your price up unnecessarily.The longer they are exposed to 
room temperature, the lower the quality. Eggs can be purchased in these forms: in 
shells, as liquid, frozen, and dried. The type you need will depend on what you plan 
to prepare. We¿ll discuss that in more detail shortly. Another interesting bit of egg 
trivia¿the weight distribution of an egg is: white = 58 percent yolk = 31 percent, and 
shell = 11 percent.	124
The Market	125
Selecting Fresh Produce	125
Regulations	125
Nutrition	125
The Produce Market	126
Perishable Items	127
Purchasing Produce	127
Processed Foods	128
Regulations	128
Convenience Foods	130
Dairy Products	131
Regulation¿The dairy industry is carefully overseen and regulated by the 
government because it is easy to contaminate milk products. It is produced every 
day, and there is no effective way to shut off the market temporarily. Milk has a 
short shelf life, so it needs to be processed and moved to markets quickly.	131
Sanitation	132
Quality Standards	132
Chapter 9 ¿ Choose the Proper Equipment	137
Equipment Budget	138
Used Equipment	139
Make Wise Purchases	141
Choose a Quality Level	141
Equipment Records	142
Specific Equipment, Tools, and Supplies	142
Ovens	142
Cookware Options	146
Beverage Equipment for Preparation and Serving	147
Refrigerated Prep Tables	148
Heated Tables	148
Scales	149
Fryer Equipment	149
Refrigerators and Freezers	151
Smaller Equipment	153
Packages	157
Miscellaneous Kitchen Tools	159
Pizza Pans	160
Serving Supplies	162
Wash Up Afterwards	163
Washing by Hand	163
Chapter 10 ¿ Customer Service	164
Build Customer Loyalty and Word of Mouth	164
Know Your Customers	165
Members Only	165
Lifetime Customers	166
Communicate the Value of Loyalty	166
Show How You Are Better	167
Educating Guests on the Differences	168
Delight Your Guests	168
Word of Mouth	169
Pleasing Customers	170
Make Your Guests Happy	171
Internal Relations	171
Chapter 11 ¿ Food Handling and Sanitation Procedures	172
HAACP Requirements	174
These HACCP Checklists can be useful to your facility.	174
Why Should You Use HACCP?	174
HACCP Procedures	176
Manage Food Temperatures and Storage Requirements	178
Storage Options and Requirements	178
Dry Storage	178
Refrigerated Storage	179
Use this checklist to monitor refrigerator and freezer storage.	180
Deep Chilling	180
Frozen Storage	180
Issues with Food Temperatures	181
Cooling	181
Chilling It Quickly	181
Reheating	182
Prepping	182
Thawing and Marinating	183
Cold Food Precautions	184
Cooking	184
Serving and Holding	185
Clean versus Sanitary	186
Sanitize Portable Equipment:	188
Sanitizing In-Place Equipment:	188
Floors, Walls and Ceilings	189
Ventilation	190
Restrooms	190
Sanitation Practices	190
Dishware	191
Sanitary Self-Service	191
Cross-Contamination Concerns	192
Contributing to Food-borne Illness	193
Control	193
Bacteria	193
Dangerous Bacteria	194
Employee Hygiene Concerns	195
Clothing	197
Food Safety Inspections	199
How to Prepare for an Inspection	200
Preparing for an Inspection	201
Chapter 12 ¿ Safety and Risk Management	202
Local, State and Federal Agencies	203
Red Cross	203
Local Fire Department	203
OSHA	204
Develop Safety Requirements	204
First Aid	204
Fire	205
Accidents	205
Effective Staff Training	206
Common Safety Concerns	207
Safety in the Kitchen	207
Heat and Burns	207
Cuts	208
Knife Safety	209
Electric Shock	209
Strains	210
Slipping and Falling	210
Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals	212
Good Ergonomics	213
Safety in Dining and Serving Areas	213
Choking	213
Environmental Issues	213
Fresh Indoor Air	214
Outdoor Air Quality	214
Theft	215
Chapter 13 ¿ Interviewing and Hiring Employees	216
The Value (and Cost) of Employees	216
Design Employee Applications	217
Screen Applicants	218
Sort the Applications	218
Screening Potential Employees	220
Effective Interviewing	220
Unlawful Pre-Employment Questions	223
Key Points for Conducting Employment Interviews	225
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)	226
Hiring	229
Rejecting Applicants	232
Employee Handbooks	232
Personnel Files	233
Chapter 14 ¿ Train and Manage Employees	234
Orientation and Instruction	234
Training and Motivation	234
Outside Training	237
Effective Staff Meetings	237
Positive Group Feeling	237
Dialogue	237
Training	238
Staffing & Scheduling	239
Periodic Employee Evaluations	241
Create Effective Evaluations	245
Conducting Evaluations	246
Reprimand and Discipline Employees	249
Exit Interviews	250
Chapter 15 ¿ Operational Management	251
Food Production	251
"Cook¿Serve" Production	252
"Assemble-Serve" Production	253
"Cook¿Freeze" ¿ Serve Production	254
"Cook-Chill-Serve" Production	257
Produce Food for Modified Diets	259
Vending Services	259
Additional Food Production Issues	260
School Food Production	261
Producing Food On-Site	261
Satellite Food Production	261
Convenience Foods	262
Distribution and Service	262
Meal Assembly and Deli	264
Chapter 16 ¿ Operate an Effective Dining Area	265
Take Orders	265
Opening Responsibilities	266
Side-Work Responsibilities	266
Service Responsibilities	268
Closing Responsibilities	269
Hosting	269
Nature of Hosting	270
Information a Host Needs	270
Receiving Customers	270
Handle Customer Complaints	271
Clerical Work	273
Breakfast Specific	273
Lunch Specific	274
Dinner Specific	274
Clear the Table	275
Courtesy to Departing Customers	275
Supervise Service Employees	275
Inspect Dining Room	276
Provide Adequate Service for Special Parties	276
Large Party Policies	277
Decorate Your Dining Room	277
Chapter 17 ¿ Control Facility Costs	280
Controlling Costs Does Work	281
What is Cost Control?	283
Food Cost Controls	283
Food Purchasing	284
Buying Strategy to Reduce Food Costs	285
Tighten Your Purchasing Belt	285
Purchasing Ideas	286
Buy Quality	287
Reduce Purchasing Costs	287
Inventory Levels Affect Cash Flow	288
Reduce Pilferage	288
Control Labor Costs	289
Scheduling	289
Computer Software to Improve Scheduling	290
Scheduling	290
Productivity	291
Productive People	291
Help Employees Recharge	292
Streamline Tasks	293
Productive Layout and Design	293
Labor-Saving Equipment	295
Cooking Equipment	295
More Cooking-Equipment Tips	296
Other Cooking Innovations	296
Labor-Saving Equipment Resources	297
Chapter 18 ¿ Marketing and Promotion	297
Determine Your Market	298
Mystery Shoppers	298
Do-It-Yourself Marketing	299
Guerrilla Marketing	300
Patience is Crucial	300
Repetition for Emphasis	300
What Benefits Do You Offer?	300
Should You Have a Web Presence?	301
What to Put on Your Web Site	302
You Need an Effective Web Site	302
Marketing Tools	303
Low Cost Marketing Ideas	303
Marketing Literature	305
Business Cards	305
Promotional Items	306
Use Marketing Literature	309
Coupons	310
Incentives	311
Discounts	311
Promotions	312
Customer Loyalty Programs ¿ Frequent Diner Programs	313
Delight Your Guests	313
Maintain Employee Relations	314
Market Research	314
Chapter 19 ¿ Catering and Special Events	315
Add Catering To a Food Service Facility	315
Skills for a Successful Caterer	318
Cook and Food Presentation Skills	318
Display Equipment	318
Other Catering Equipment	320
Planning and Organizational Skills	323
Be Efficient and Stay Calm	323
Crisis Management	324
Assess Your Skills Profile	324
Catering and Profits	324
Types of Catering	325
Off-Premise Catering ¿ Off-premise catering is for a business that has a kitchen but 
no dining facilities. All food and other items are transported to different locations. 
These services could be provided in people¿s homes, at facilities that have no 
kitchens, at parks for outdoor weddings, at office business meetings. Off-premise 
catering is more challenging because each situation and location are new while with 
on-site catering you are in a familiar location. With off-premise catering each event 
is unique and so are the potential problems. But off-premise catering has some 
advantages over on-premise catering. The events can be more exciting and 
rewarding if you enjoy the challenge of working in unusual and unique locations and 
dealing with new people. One interesting specialized type of off-premise catering is 
mobile catering, where a caterer feeds a basic menu to a large group of people like 
forest firefighters, disaster relief workers, construction-site workers, people taking 
camping trips, or excursions. The caterer develops a seasonal menu and a picnic 
table concept on the back of a properly equipped truck. The fare is usually hot or 
cold sandwiches, beverages, soup, coffee, bagels, or burritos. This is not as 
glamorous as some catering, but it is profitable and less stressful. There are two 
important considerations for any type of catering.	325
On-Premise Catering	326
Catering For Businesses	326
Social Event Catering ¿ Individuals usually book these events. They are scheduled 
around occasions in a person¿s life such as anniversaries, bar mitzvahs, birthdays, 
births, fund raising events, graduations, holiday parties, reunions, and weddings. 
Social catering is considered to be the catering business. While it is actually the 
smaller sector of the business, but caterers are drawn to these events because they 
are fun and lively, and people can relate to a birthday or anniversary as opposed to 
the launch of new product or a new building opening.	327
Menus	327
Marketing	328
Booking n Event	328

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Food service -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Food service management -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.