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Introduction 12 Topics We Will Discuss 12 Chapter 1 ¿ What Is Non-Commercial Food Service? 12 History of the Non-commercial Food Service Industry 13 Chuck Wagons 13 Railroad Workers 14 Industry Food Service 14 Hospitals 14 School Lunch Programs 15 College food service 16 Prison Food Service 16 Military Food Service History 17 Chapter 2 ¿ Account Management 17 Accounts Payable 18 Invoices 18 Code Your Invoices 18 Monthly Total Purchases 21 Reconcile Your Accounts 21 Your Sales Report 21 Manager¿s Responsibility to Maintain Costs 24 Sales Projections and Your Operational Budget 25 Food and Beverage Costs 27 Labor Cost 27 Consistent Operational Costs 28 Services 28 Fixed Expenses 28 General Costs 28 Payroll Accounting 29 Compile Your Monthly Projections and Actual Numbers 30 Revenue Available for Schools 31 Control Daily Cash Handling 32 Understanding Gross Profits 33 Troubleshoot Cash Control Issues 33 Chapter 3 ¿ Using a Computer System 34 How Do I Choose a Computer? 34 There are many things to consider when choosing a computer. Some are: 34 Point-of-Sale Systems 36 Customer Software options 37 Purchasing and Inventory Management Software 39 Desktop Publishing 41 Do Computers Have a Future in Food Service? 41 Correct Use of E-Mail 41 Should You Have a Web Presence? 42 Elements of Your Web Page 43 Chapter 4 ¿ Effective Menu Planning and Pricing 43 Menu Style 44 Limited Menu 45 Extensive Menu 45 Design Your Menu for Your Customers 49 Choosing Menu Items 51 Develop Appealing and Nutritional Menus 52 Key Points to consider when choosing menu Items are 53 Menu Format 56 Determine Appropriate Menu Cycles 57 Menu Cycles 58 Menu Review Committees 58 Recipe and Procedure Manual 59 Menu Prices 62 Projecting Menu Prices 63 Control Food Costs 63 Sales Mix 65 School Menus 66 Chapter 5 ¿ Quality in Dietary and Nutritional Guidelines 67 Test Panel 67 Internal Quality Control 68 Tools to Gain Feedback 70 Tips to Ask the Right Questions 71 Operating Procedures 73 Conduct a Self Review 74 External Quality Control 76 JCAHO 76 Improve Dietary Services 79 Special Dietary and Nourishment Needs (Prescribed by Doctors) 79 School Cafeteria Requirements 80 Consider Food Allergies 82 Chapter 6 ¿ Purchasing and Receiving Practices 83 Purchasing or Ordering? 85 Ordering Tips 86 Establish Specifications 88 Evaluate and Choose Your Vendors 90 Full Line Suppliers¿also called one-stop or diversified suppliers. They handle large inventories and can usually supply everything you need. If you can find one supplier for most of your needs, ordering and receiving will be simplified. They may offer fresh vegetables and fruits, frozen food, meat, fish, poultry, paper supplies, equipment, and chemicals, for example. Such a wide selection can save you time, paperwork, and money because one large delivery instead of several smaller orders costs less for delivery. 90 Local Specialty Wholesalers¿suppliers who carry a limited selection, but their prices are often lower. They may carry only limited selections, but if they carry what you need at a better price, you should consider them a potential supplier. 90 National Jobbers¿These would be especially useful for large operations, such as the military, school districts, and other similar operations. Some of these only sell full lot amounts while others sell only broken lots. This is an important thing to know, because you probably won¿t need full lots. 90 Supermarkets¿Supermarkets are better suited for small operations or the occasions when you run out of food. A small operation might not be able to attract the attention of larger suppliers. In this case the non-commercial food service facility may have to work with local grocery stores. If you have this problem, offer to pick up your orders from a supplier if you have suitable transportation. 90 Credit 91 Product Quality 91 Price 92 Dealing with Suppliers 92 Purchasing for Health care 92 The Changing Face of Distributors 93 Buyer Responsibilities 94 Buyer Qualifications 95 Alternative Purchasing Systems 96 Purchasing Kickbacks and Gifts 96 School Food Purchasing 97 School Food Dollar Allocation 97 Buying through Bids 97 Brands and Quality 98 Chapter 7 ¿ Receiving, Storage and Inventory Practices 98 Receiving 98 Effective Receiving 99 Receiving and Storing Supplies 100 Receiving Tips 101 Receiving Procedures 103 Food Storage 104 Types of Storage 104 Dry Storage 104 Refrigerated Storage 105 Deep Chilling 107 Frozen Storage 107 Cleaning Products 108 Organize Your Storage Areas 108 Storage Spoilage Prevention 109 Safe Storage 110 Inventory 111 Periodic Inventory Count 111 Perpetual Inventory 111 Perpetual Order Form: 112 Inventory Forms 112 Determine Inventory Levels 113 Issuing 114 Chapter 8 ¿ Techniques to Purchase Large Quantities of Food 114 Meats, Poultry, and Fish 115 Properties of Meat 116 The Meat Market 117 Frozen Meat 118 Identifying Portions of Meat 120 Processed Meat 121 Poultry 123 Specifications 123 Eggs 124 Every non-commercial food service facility needs to find a reliable egg supplier. Be sure that your facility and your supplier refrigerate eggs right away. Eggs that are graded wrong can drive your price up unnecessarily.The longer they are exposed to room temperature, the lower the quality. Eggs can be purchased in these forms: in shells, as liquid, frozen, and dried. The type you need will depend on what you plan to prepare. We¿ll discuss that in more detail shortly. Another interesting bit of egg trivia¿the weight distribution of an egg is: white = 58 percent yolk = 31 percent, and shell = 11 percent. 124 The Market 125 Selecting Fresh Produce 125 Regulations 125 Nutrition 125 The Produce Market 126 Perishable Items 127 Purchasing Produce 127 Processed Foods 128 Regulations 128 Convenience Foods 130 Dairy Products 131 Regulation¿The dairy industry is carefully overseen and regulated by the government because it is easy to contaminate milk products. It is produced every day, and there is no effective way to shut off the market temporarily. Milk has a short shelf life, so it needs to be processed and moved to markets quickly. 131 Sanitation 132 Quality Standards 132 Chapter 9 ¿ Choose the Proper Equipment 137 Equipment Budget 138 Used Equipment 139 Make Wise Purchases 141 Choose a Quality Level 141 Equipment Records 142 Specific Equipment, Tools, and Supplies 142 Ovens 142 Cookware Options 146 Beverage Equipment for Preparation and Serving 147 Refrigerated Prep Tables 148 Heated Tables 148 Scales 149 Fryer Equipment 149 Refrigerators and Freezers 151 Smaller Equipment 153 Packages 157 Miscellaneous Kitchen Tools 159 Pizza Pans 160 Serving Supplies 162 Wash Up Afterwards 163 Washing by Hand 163 Chapter 10 ¿ Customer Service 164 Build Customer Loyalty and Word of Mouth 164 Know Your Customers 165 Members Only 165 Lifetime Customers 166 Communicate the Value of Loyalty 166 Show How You Are Better 167 Educating Guests on the Differences 168 Delight Your Guests 168 Word of Mouth 169 Pleasing Customers 170 Make Your Guests Happy 171 Internal Relations 171 Chapter 11 ¿ Food Handling and Sanitation Procedures 172 HAACP Requirements 174 These HACCP Checklists can be useful to your facility. 174 Why Should You Use HACCP? 174 HACCP Procedures 176 Manage Food Temperatures and Storage Requirements 178 Storage Options and Requirements 178 Dry Storage 178 Refrigerated Storage 179 Use this checklist to monitor refrigerator and freezer storage. 180 Deep Chilling 180 Frozen Storage 180 Issues with Food Temperatures 181 Cooling 181 Chilling It Quickly 181 Reheating 182 Prepping 182 Thawing and Marinating 183 Cold Food Precautions 184 Cooking 184 Serving and Holding 185 Clean versus Sanitary 186 Sanitize Portable Equipment: 188 Sanitizing In-Place Equipment: 188 Floors, Walls and Ceilings 189 Ventilation 190 Restrooms 190 Sanitation Practices 190 Dishware 191 Sanitary Self-Service 191 Cross-Contamination Concerns 192 Contributing to Food-borne Illness 193 Control 193 Bacteria 193 Dangerous Bacteria 194 Employee Hygiene Concerns 195 Clothing 197 Food Safety Inspections 199 How to Prepare for an Inspection 200 Preparing for an Inspection 201 Chapter 12 ¿ Safety and Risk Management 202 Local, State and Federal Agencies 203 Red Cross 203 Local Fire Department 203 OSHA 204 Develop Safety Requirements 204 First Aid 204 Fire 205 Accidents 205 Effective Staff Training 206 Common Safety Concerns 207 Safety in the Kitchen 207 Heat and Burns 207 Cuts 208 Knife Safety 209 Electric Shock 209 Strains 210 Slipping and Falling 210 Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals 212 Good Ergonomics 213 Safety in Dining and Serving Areas 213 Choking 213 Environmental Issues 213 Fresh Indoor Air 214 Outdoor Air Quality 214 Theft 215 Chapter 13 ¿ Interviewing and Hiring Employees 216 The Value (and Cost) of Employees 216 Design Employee Applications 217 Screen Applicants 218 Sort the Applications 218 Screening Potential Employees 220 Effective Interviewing 220 Unlawful Pre-Employment Questions 223 Key Points for Conducting Employment Interviews 225 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 226 Hiring 229 Rejecting Applicants 232 Employee Handbooks 232 Personnel Files 233 Chapter 14 ¿ Train and Manage Employees 234 Orientation and Instruction 234 Training and Motivation 234 Outside Training 237 Effective Staff Meetings 237 Positive Group Feeling 237 Dialogue 237 Training 238 Staffing & Scheduling 239 Periodic Employee Evaluations 241 Create Effective Evaluations 245 Conducting Evaluations 246 Reprimand and Discipline Employees 249 Exit Interviews 250 Chapter 15 ¿ Operational Management 251 Food Production 251 "Cook¿Serve" Production 252 "Assemble-Serve" Production 253 "Cook¿Freeze" ¿ Serve Production 254 "Cook-Chill-Serve" Production 257 Produce Food for Modified Diets 259 Vending Services 259 Additional Food Production Issues 260 School Food Production 261 Producing Food On-Site 261 Satellite Food Production 261 Convenience Foods 262 Distribution and Service 262 Meal Assembly and Deli 264 Chapter 16 ¿ Operate an Effective Dining Area 265 Take Orders 265 Opening Responsibilities 266 Side-Work Responsibilities 266 Service Responsibilities 268 Closing Responsibilities 269 Hosting 269 Nature of Hosting 270 Information a Host Needs 270 Receiving Customers 270 Handle Customer Complaints 271 Clerical Work 273 Breakfast Specific 273 Lunch Specific 274 Dinner Specific 274 Clear the Table 275 Courtesy to Departing Customers 275 Supervise Service Employees 275 Inspect Dining Room 276 Provide Adequate Service for Special Parties 276 Large Party Policies 277 Decorate Your Dining Room 277 Chapter 17 ¿ Control Facility Costs 280 Controlling Costs Does Work 281 What is Cost Control? 283 Food Cost Controls 283 Food Purchasing 284 Buying Strategy to Reduce Food Costs 285 Tighten Your Purchasing Belt 285 Purchasing Ideas 286 Buy Quality 287 Reduce Purchasing Costs 287 Inventory Levels Affect Cash Flow 288 Reduce Pilferage 288 Control Labor Costs 289 Scheduling 289 Computer Software to Improve Scheduling 290 Scheduling 290 Productivity 291 Productive People 291 Help Employees Recharge 292 Streamline Tasks 293 Productive Layout and Design 293 Labor-Saving Equipment 295 Cooking Equipment 295 More Cooking-Equipment Tips 296 Other Cooking Innovations 296 Labor-Saving Equipment Resources 297 Chapter 18 ¿ Marketing and Promotion 297 Determine Your Market 298 Mystery Shoppers 298 Do-It-Yourself Marketing 299 Guerrilla Marketing 300 Patience is Crucial 300 Repetition for Emphasis 300 What Benefits Do You Offer? 300 Should You Have a Web Presence? 301 What to Put on Your Web Site 302 You Need an Effective Web Site 302 Marketing Tools 303 Low Cost Marketing Ideas 303 Marketing Literature 305 Business Cards 305 Promotional Items 306 Use Marketing Literature 309 Coupons 310 Incentives 311 Discounts 311 Promotions 312 Customer Loyalty Programs ¿ Frequent Diner Programs 313 Delight Your Guests 313 Maintain Employee Relations 314 Market Research 314 Chapter 19 ¿ Catering and Special Events 315 Add Catering To a Food Service Facility 315 Skills for a Successful Caterer 318 Cook and Food Presentation Skills 318 Display Equipment 318 Other Catering Equipment 320 Planning and Organizational Skills 323 Be Efficient and Stay Calm 323 Crisis Management 324 Assess Your Skills Profile 324 Catering and Profits 324 Types of Catering 325 Off-Premise Catering ¿ Off-premise catering is for a business that has a kitchen but no dining facilities. All food and other items are transported to different locations. These services could be provided in people¿s homes, at facilities that have no kitchens, at parks for outdoor weddings, at office business meetings. Off-premise catering is more challenging because each situation and location are new while with on-site catering you are in a familiar location. With off-premise catering each event is unique and so are the potential problems. But off-premise catering has some advantages over on-premise catering. The events can be more exciting and rewarding if you enjoy the challenge of working in unusual and unique locations and dealing with new people. One interesting specialized type of off-premise catering is mobile catering, where a caterer feeds a basic menu to a large group of people like forest firefighters, disaster relief workers, construction-site workers, people taking camping trips, or excursions. The caterer develops a seasonal menu and a picnic table concept on the back of a properly equipped truck. The fare is usually hot or cold sandwiches, beverages, soup, coffee, bagels, or burritos. This is not as glamorous as some catering, but it is profitable and less stressful. There are two important considerations for any type of catering. 325 On-Premise Catering 326 Catering For Businesses 326 Social Event Catering ¿ Individuals usually book these events. They are scheduled around occasions in a person¿s life such as anniversaries, bar mitzvahs, birthdays, births, fund raising events, graduations, holiday parties, reunions, and weddings. Social catering is considered to be the catering business. While it is actually the smaller sector of the business, but caterers are drawn to these events because they are fun and lively, and people can relate to a birthday or anniversary as opposed to the launch of new product or a new building opening. 327 Menus 327 Marketing 328 Booking n Event 328
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Food service -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Food service management -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.