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Contents PART I THE ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY Chapter 1 Humans in the World of Biology All Living Things Share Basic Characteristics Living Organisms Share an Evolutionary History Life Has Many Levels of Organization The Scientific Method Gathers Information for Drawing Logical Conclusions Inductive and deductive reasoning help solve problems Clinical trials follow strict guidelines Epidemiological studies look for patterns in populations Critical Thinking Helps Us Make Informed Decisions ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Medicinal Plants and the Shrinking Rain Forest SOCIAL ISSUE Scientific Misconduct Chapter 2 Chemistry Comes to Life Basic Chemistry Helps Us Understand Human Biology Atoms contain protons, neutrons, and electrons Elements combine to form compounds The atoms or ions of a compound are held together by chemical bonds Water is essential to life Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids Are the Major Molecules of Life Carbohydrates supply energy to cells Lipids store energy and form cell membranes Proteins provide structure and speed up chemical reactions The nucleic acids are DNA and RNA ATP is a nucleotide that releases energy SOCIAL ISSUE The Ethics of Radiation Research on Humans ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE What Is Happening to the Rain? Chapter 3 The Cell Eukaryotic Cells Are Structurally More Complex than Prokaryotic Cells Cells are very small The plasma membrane has diverse functions Organelles are specialized compartments within cells The cytoskeleton provides support and movement Our Cells Use Cellular Respiration and Fermentation to Generate ATP Cellular respiration requires oxygen Fermentation does not require oxygen ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Asbestos: The Deadly Miracle Material Chapter 4 Body Organization and Homeostasis The Organization of the Human Body Increases in Complexity from Cells to Organ Systems Groups of similar cells form tissues Many tissues have specialized junctions between the cells Tissues combine to form organs that in turn form organ systems Most organs are housed in body cavities that are lined with membranes The Skin Is an Organ System Skin protects, regulates body temperature, and excretes The skin has two layers Skin color is determined by pigment and blood flow Hair, nails, and glands are skin derivatives Skin interacts with other organ systems Homeostasis Is a State of Relative Internal Constancy Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback mechanisms The hypothalamus regulates body temperature HEALTH ISSUE Fun in the Sun? Sunlight and Skin Cancer HEALTH ISSUE Acne: The Misery, the Myths, and the Medications PART II CONTROL AND COORDINATION OF THE BODY Chapter 5 The Skeletal System Bones Function in Support, Movement, Protection, Storage, and Blood Cell Production Bones Have a Hard Outer Layer of Compact Bone Surrounding Spongy Bone Bone Is Living Tissue Most of the skeleton begins as a cartilage model Hormones regulate bone growth Bone Fractures Are Healed by Fibroblasts and Osteoblasts Bones are Continuously Remodeled We Divide the Human Skeleton into Two Parts The axial skeleton protects our internal organs The appendicular skeleton makes locomotion possible Joints Are Junctures between Bones Synovial joints permit flexibility HEALTH ISSUE Osteoporosis: Fragility and Aging Chapter 6 The Muscular System The Muscular System Moves Our Body Parts and Maintains Our Posture Most Skeletal Muscles Work in Pairs Sarcomeres Are the Contractile Units of Muscles Skeletal muscle contracts when actin filaments slide across myosin filaments Regulatory proteins and calcium ions control contraction Nerves stimulate muscle contraction Muscular dystrophy causes progressive muscle deterioration The Strength of Muscle Contraction Depends on the Number of Motor Units Stimulated The Strength of Contraction Increases If a Muscle Is Stimulated before It Has Relaxed ATP for Muscle Contraction Comes from Many Sources Slow-Twitch and Fast-Twitch Muscle Cells Differ in Contraction Speed and Duration Aerobic Exercise Increases Endurance; Resistance Exercise Builds Muslce SOCIAL ISSUE: Building Muscle Fair and Square? Anabolic Steroid Abuse Chapter 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind Neurons and Neuroglial Cells Are the Cells of the Nervous System Neuroglial cells support, protect, insulate, and nurture neurons Neurons can be sensory, motor, or associative Neurons Have Dendrites, a Cell Body, and an Axon Axons and dendrites are bundled together to form nerves The myelin sheath increases the rate of conduction and helps in repair The Nerve Impulse Is an Electrochemical Signal Ions move passively through ion channels The sodium-potassium pump uses ATP to transport sodium ions out and potassium ions in The inside of a resting neuron has a negative charge relative to the outside An action potential is a reversal and restoration of the charge difference across the membrane The sodium-potassium pump restores the original distribution of ions Action potentials are all-or-nothing events A neuron cannot fire during the refractory period Synaptic Transmission Is Communication between Neurons Synaptic transmission involves the release of neurotransmitter and the opening of ion channels Neurons "sum up" input from excitatory and inhibitory synapses The neurotransmitter is quickly removed from the synapse Different neurotransmitters play different roles ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Environmental Toxins and the Nervous System Chapter 8 The Nervous System The Nervous System Consists of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Bone, Membranes, and Cerebrospinal Fluid Protect the CNS The Brain Is the Central Command Center The cerebrum is the conscious part of the brain The thalamus allows messages to pass to the cerebral cortex The hypothalamus is essential to homeostasis The cerebellum is an area of sensory-motor coordination The brainstem controls many of life's basic processes and connects the brain and spinal cord The limbic system is involved in emotions and memory The reticular activating system filters sensory input The Spinal Cord Transmits Messages to and from the Brain and Is a Reflex Center The Peripheral Nervous System Consists of the Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems The somatic nervous system controls conscious functions The autonomic nervous system controls internal organs Disorders of the Nervous System Vary in Health Significance Headaches have several possible causes Stroke occurs when the brain is deprived of blood Coma is a lack of response to all sensory input Spinal cord injury results in impaired function below the site of injury HEALTH ISSUE Meningitis: Bacterial-Type and West Nile Virus HEALTH ISSUE To Sleep, Perchance to Dream Chapter 8a SPECIAL TOPIC Drugs and the Mind Psychoactive Drugs Alter Communication Between Neurons Drug Dependence Causes Continued Drug Use Alcohol Depresses the Central Nervous System The rate of alcohol absorption depends on its concentration Alcohol is distributed to all body tissues The elimination of alcohol from the body cannot be accelerated Alcohol has many health-related effects Marijuana's Psychoactive Ingredient Is THC Marijuana binds to THC receptors in the brain Long-term marijuana use has many effects on the body Legalization of medical marijuana is controversial Stimulants Excite the Central Nervous System Cocaine augments the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine Amphetamines augment the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine Hallucinogenic Drugs Alter Sensory Perception Sedatives Depress the Central Nervous System Opiates Reduce Pain Chapter 9 Sensory System Sensory Receptors Generate Electrochemical Messages in Response to Stimuli Receptors Are Classified by the Type of Stimulus to Which They Respond Receptors for the General Senses Are Distributed Throughout the Body Mechanoreceptors detect touch and pressure Cold and heat receptors detect temperature change Muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs detect body and limb position Pain is caused by any sufficiently strong stimulus Vision Depends on the Eye The wall of the eyeball has three layers The eye has two fluid-filled chambers Sharp vision requires the image to be focused on the retina Light changes the shape of pigment molecules, which generate neural messages Color vision depends on cones Hearing Depends on the Ear The ear collects and amplifies sound waves and converts them to neural messages Variations in the movements of the basilar membrane determine loudness and pitch Hearing loss can be conductive or sensorineural Ear infections can occur in the ear canal or in the middle ear Balance Depends on the Vestibular Apparatus of the Inner Ear Smell and Taste Are the Chemical Senses HEALTH ISSUE Correcting Vision Problems ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Noise Pollution Chapter 10 The Endocrine System The Endocrine System Communicates Using Chemical Messages Hormones are the messengers of the endocrine system Feedback mechanisms regulate the secretion of hormones Hormones Influence Growth, Development, Metabolism, and Behavior Pituitary hormones often prompt other glands to release hormones Thyroid hormones regulate metabolism and decrease blood calcium Parathyroid hormones increase blood calcium The adrenal glands secrete stress hormones Hormones of the pancreas regulate blood glucose Hormones of the thymus gland promote maturation of white blood cells The pineal gland secretes melatonin Other Chemical Messengers Act Locally HEALTH ISSUE Is It Hot in Here, or Is It Me? Hormone Replacement Therapy and Menopause HEALTH ISSUE Hormones and Our Response to Stress HEALTH ISSUE Melatonin: Miracle Supplement or Potent Drug Misused by Millions PART III MAINTENANCE OF THE BODY Chapter 11 Blood Blood Functions in Transportation, Protection, and Regulation Blood Consists of Plasma and Formed Elements Plasma is the liquid portion of blood Stem cells give rise to the formed elements Platelets are cell fragments essential to blood clotting White blood cells help defend the body against disease Red blood cells transport oxygen The effects of blood cell disorders depend on the type of blood cell affected Blood Types Are Determined by Antigens on the Surface of Red Blood Cells Blood Clotting Occurs in a Regulated Sequence of Events ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Lead Poisoning Chapter 12 The Circulatory System The Cardiovascular System Consists of the Blood Vessels and the Heart The Blood Vessels Conduct Blood in Continuous Loops Arteries carry blood away from the heart Capillaries are sites of exchange with body cells Veins return blood to the heart The Heart Is a Muscular Pump The heart functions as two separate pumps Blood flows through the heart in two circuits Coronary circulation serves the heart muscle The cardiac cycle is the sequence of heart muscle contraction and relaxation The rhythmic contraction of the heart is produced by its internal conduction system An electrocardiogram is a recording of the electrical activities of the heart Blood pressure is the force blood exerts against blood vessel walls Cardiovascular Disease Is a Major Killer in the United States High blood pressure can kill without producing symptoms Atherosclerosis is a buildup of lipids in the artery walls Coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries Heart attack is the death of heart muscle The Lymphatic System Functions in the Circulatory and Immune Systems HEALTH ISSUE The Cardiovascular Benefits of Exercise Chapter 13 Body Defense Mechanisms The Body's Defense System Targets Pathogens and Cancerous Cells The Body Has Three Lines of Defense The first line of defense consists of physical and chemical barriers that prevent entry of pathogens The second line of defense includes defensive cells and proteins, inflammation, and fever The third line of defense, the immune response, has specific targets and memory The Immune System Distinguishes "Self" from "Nonself" The Immune System Mounts Antibody-Mediated Responses and Cell-Mediated Responses The Cell-Mediated Immune Response and the Antibody-Mediated Immune Response Have the Same Steps B cells mount an antibody-mediated immune response against antigens free in the blood or bound to a cell surface Cytotoxic T cells mount a cell-mediated defense against antigen-bearing cells Immunological memory permits a more rapid response on subsequent exposure to the antigen Suppressor T cells turn off the immune response Immunity Can Be Active or Passive Monoclonal Antibodies Are Used in Research, Clinical Diagnosis, and Disease Treatment The Immune System Can Cause Problems Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system attacks the body's own cells Allergies are immune responses to harmless substances HEALTH ISSUE Rejection of Organ Transplants Chapter 13a SPECIAL TOPIC Infectious Disease Pathogens Are Disease-Causing Organisms Certain bacteria produce toxins that cause disease Viruses can damage the host cell when they leave the cell after replication or when they are incorporated into the cell's chromosomes Protozoans cause disease by producing toxins and enzymes Fungi often cause disease by secreting enzymes that digest cells Parasitic worms cause disease by releasing toxins, feeding off blood, or competing with the host for food Prions induce disease by causing normal proteins to become misfolded and clump together Disease Is Spread When a Pathogen Enters the Body through Contact, Consumption, or a Vector Infectious Diseases Remain a Cause for Concern New diseases are emerging and some old diseases are reappearing Epidemiologists track diseases Chapter 14 The Respiratory System In the Respiratory System, Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Are Exchanged across a Moist Body Surface The nose filters and conditions incoming air and has receptors for the sense of smell The sinuses lighten the head and condition inhaled air The pharynx is a passageway for food and air The larynx is an adjustable entryway that produces the voice The trachea is the windpipe The bronchial tree is a system of air tubules that conducts air The alveoli of the lungs are surfaces for gas exchange Pressure Changes within the Lungs Cause Breathing Inhalation occurs when the pressure in the lungs decreases Exhalation occurs when the pressure in the lungs increases The volume of air moved into and out of the lungs is an indication of health Blood Transports Gases between the Lungs and the Cells Most oxygen is carried by hemoglobin Most carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate ions Breathing Is Controlled Primarily by Respiratory Centers in the Brain Brain centers control the basic breathing pattern Depth and rate of breathing are affected by chemoreceptors Respiratory Disorders Have Many Causes The common cold can be caused by many types of viruses The flu is caused by three types of viruses Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs Strep throat can have serious consequences Tuberculosis causes tubercles to form in the lungs Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi Emphysema is caused by the destruction of alveoli SOCIAL ISSUE Bird Flu, Will It Become a Pandemic? HEALTH ISSUE Surviving a Common Cold ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Air Pollution and Human Health Chapter 14a SPECIAL TOPIC Smoking and Disease Smoking Is the Leading Cause of Death in the United States Cigarette Smoke Contains Poisons and Cancer-Causing Substances Smoking Causes Several Deadly Diseases Smoking causes lung disease Smoking causes cancer Smoking causes heart disease Smoking causes other health problems Smoking Poses Additional Health Risks for Women Passive Smoking Causes Serious Health Problems No Cigarette Is Safe The Health Benefits of Quitting Smoking Are Numerous Chapter 15 The Digestive System The Digestive System Consists of a Long Tube That Runs through the Body, Along with Accessory Glands The Digestive System is Divided into Specialized Compartments for Food Processing The mouth begins mechanical digestion and the chemical digestion of starch The pharynx is shared by the digestive and respiratory systems The esophagus conducts food from the pharynx to the stomach The stomach stores and liquefies food and begins protein digestion The small intestine is the primary site of digestion and absorption The pancreas, liver, and gallbladder are accessory organs that aid the processes of digestion and absorption within the small intestine The large intestine absorbs water and other useful substances Nerves and Hormones Control Digestive Activities HEALTH ISSUE Heartburn and Peptic Ulcers--Those Burning Sensations Chapter 15a SPECIAL TOPIC Nutrition and Weight Control "MyPyramid" Is a Food Guide for Planning a Healthy Diet Nutrients Provide Energy or Have a Structural or Functional Role in the Body Lipids include fats, oils, and cholesterol Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fiber Proteins are chains of amino acids Vitamins are needed in small amounts to promote and regulate the body's chemical reactions Minerals play structural and functional roles in the body Water is critical and needed in large amounts Food Labels Help Us Make Wise Food Choices For Body Energy Balance, Calories Gained in Food Must Equal Calories Used Obesity is Body Weight 20 Percent or More above the Body Weight Standard Successful Weight-Loss Programs Usually Involve Reducing Calorie Intake, Increasing Calorie Use, and Changing Behavior Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Are Eating Disorders That Create Calorie Deficits Chapter 16 The Urinary System Organs from Several Body Systems Eliminate Waste By Producing Urine, the Kidneys Maintain Homeostasis Each kidney has three regions Nephrons are the functional units of the kidneys The kidneys help maintain acid-base balance The kidneys help conserve water Hormones influence kidney function The kidneys help produce red blood cells and activate vitamin D Dialysis and Transplant Surgery Help When Kidneys Fail Dialysis cleanses the blood Renal function can be restored with a kidney transplant Urination Has Involuntary and Voluntary Components Bacteria Can Enter the Urethra and Cause Urinary Tract Infections HEALTH ISSUE Kidney Stones and Their Shocking Treatment HEALTH ISSUE Urinalysis: What Your Urine Says about You PART IV REPRODUCTION Chapter 17 Reproductive Systems The Gonads Produce Gametes and Sex Hormones A Male's Reproductive Role Differs from a Female's The Male Reproductive System Delivers Sperm to the Egg The testes produce sperm and male hormones The duct system stores and transplants sperm The accessory glands produce most of the volume of semen The penis transfers sperm to the female As sperm develop, changes occur in the number of chromosomes and the cell's structure and function The interplay of hormones controls male reproductive processes The Female Reproductive System Produces the Eggs and Nurtures the Embryo and Fetus The ovaries produce eggs and female hormones The oviducts transport the immature egg and zygote The uterus supports the growth of the developing embryo External genitalia lie outside the vagina The breasts produce milk to nourish the baby The events of the ovarian cycle lead to release of an egg The interplay of hormones coordinates the ovarian and menstrual cycles Menopause ends a woman's reproductive cycles Problems with the Female Reproductive System Vary in the Severity of Health Consequences The Human Sexual Response Has Four Stages Birth Control Is the Prevention of Pregnancy Abstinence is refraining from intercourse Sterilization may involve cutting and sealing gamete transport tubes Hormonal contraception interferes with regulation of reproductive processes Intrauterine devices prevent the union of sperm and egg, and implantation Barrier methods of contraception prevent the union of sperm and egg Spermicidal preparations kill sperm Fertility awareness is avoidance of intercourse when fertilization could occur The morning-after pill is emergency contraception HEALTH ISSUE Breast Cancer ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Environmental Estrogens Chapter 17a SPECIAL TOPIC Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS STDs Are Extremely Common and Can Have Long-Lasting Effects STDs Caused by Bacteria Can Be Cured with Antibiotics Chlamydia can cause pain during urination, PID, or no symptoms Gonorrhea can cause pain during urination, PID, or no symptoms Syphilis can progress though three stages when untreated STDs Caused by Viruses Can Be Treated Bt Not Cured Genital herpes can cause painful, fluid-filled blisters Genital warts can lead to cervical, penile, or anal cancer An HIV Infection Progresses to AIDS HIV/AIDS is a global epidemic HIV consists of RNA and enzymes encased in a protein coat HIV enters the cells, rewrites its RNA as DNA, inserts DNA into the host chromosome, and replicates Most HIV is transmitted through sexual contact, intravenous drug use, or from pregnant woman to her fetus Sites of HIV infection include the immune system and the brain An HIV infection progresses through several stages as helper T cells decline Treatments for HIV infection are designed to block specific steps in HIV's replication cycle Chapter 18 Development Throughout Life Human Life Has Two Main Periods of Development The Prenatal Period Begins at Fertilization and Ends at Birth Fertilization, cleavage, and implantation characterize the pre-embryonic period Tissues and organs form during the embryonic period Rapid growth characterizes the fetal period Birth Is the Transition from Prenatal to Postnatal Development True labor has three stages The placenta may send the signal to initiate labor Drugs and breathing techniques can relieve pain during childbirth Environmental Disruptions During the Embryonic Period Cause Major Birth Defects The Mother's Mammary Glands Produce Milk The Postnatal Period Begins with Birth and Continues into Old Age Possible causes of aging Medical advances and a healthy lifestyle can help achieve a high-quality old age HEALTH ISSUE Making Babies, But Not the Old-Fashioned Way PART V GENETICS AND DEVELOPMENT Chapter 19 Chromosomes and Cell Division The Human Life Cycle Has Two Types of Cell Division Chromosomes Consist of DNA and Protein Our Cells Divide in a Characteristic Cyclic Pattern Interphase is a period of growth and preparation for cell division Division of body cells entails division of the nucleus and the cytoplasm Mitosis has four stages Cytokinesis occurs toward the end of mitosis Meiosis Forms Haploid Gametes Meiosis keeps the chromosome number constant over generations and increases genetic variability in the population Meiosis involves two cell divisions Crossing over and independent assortment cause genetic recombination during meiosis Failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis creates cells with extra or missing chromosomes HEALTH ISSUE Nondisjunction of Sex Chromosomes Chapter 19a Stem Cells and Cloning Stem Cells Are Unspecialized Cells That Divide Continually There Are Many Sources of Human Stem Cells Embryonic stem cells can be harvested from unused embryos created for in vitro fertilization Adult stem cells are found in many tissues Stem cells can be harvested from unbilical cord blood Embryonic stem cells can be created by somatic cell nuclear transfer Embryonic Stem Cell Research Raises Ethical and Political Controversy Chapter 20 Genetics and Human Inheritance Principles of Inheritance Help Us Predict How Simple Traits Are Passed to the Next Generation During gamete formation alleles segregate and assort independently Mendelian genetics considers patterns of inheritance Pedigrees help us to ascertain genotype A dominant allele often produces a protein that the recessive allele does not Codominant alleles both produce functioning gene products In incomplete dominance the heterozygote has an intermediate phenotype In pleiotropy, one gene has many effects Certain genes have multiple alleles in a population Most traits are controlled by many genes Sex-linked genes are located on the sex chromosomes Sex-influenced genes are autosomal genes whose expression is influenced by sex hormones Breaks in Chromosomes Change Chromosomal Structure and Function Certain Genetic Disorders Can Be Detected by Laboratory Tests SOCIAL ISSUE Gene Testing Chapter 21 DNA and Biotechnology DNA Is s Double Helix Consisting of Two Strings of Nucleotides During Replication of DNA, Each Original Strand Serves as a Template for a New Strand DNA Codes for RNA, Which Codes for a Protein Transcription is RNA synthesis Translation is protein synthesis Point Mutations Result from Nucleotide Substitution, Insertion, or Deletion Gene Activity Can Be Turned On or Off Coiling and uncoiling of chromosomes regulate gene activity at the chromosome level Certain genes regulate the activity of other genes Chemical signals regulate gene activity Genetic Engineering Is the Manipulation of DNA for Human Purposes Recombinant DNA is made of DNA from different sources Genetic engineering produces proteins of interest or transgenic organisms Gene therapy replaces faulty genes with functional genes Faulty information in mRNA may someday be correctable Genomics Can Be Used to Study How Genes Function and How Diseases Are Inherited The Human Genome Project sequenced a representative human genome Microarray analysis is a useful tool in genomics SOCIAL ISSUE Stem Cells--The Body's Repair Kit Chapter 21a SPECIAL TOPIC Cancer Cancer Is Uncontrolled Cell Division Tumors can be benign or malignant Tumor development progresses through stages Cancer Begins with a Single Cell That Escapes Normal Control Mechanisms Cancer cells lose restraints on cell division Cancer cells do not self-destruct when their DNA is damaged Cancer cells divide indefinitely Cancer cells attract a blood supply Cancer cells do not adhere to neighboring cells Body defense cells destroy cancer cells Viruses, Certain Chemicals, and Radiation Can Cause Cancer Certain viruses can disrupt genetic control of cell division Some chemicals can cause mutations Radiation can cause mutations Certain Lifestyle Habits Reduce the Risk of Cancer There Are Several Ways to Diagnose Cancer Surgery, Radiation, and Chemotherapy Are Conventional Ways to Treat Cancer Surgery is used to remove tumors Radiation therapy is used to kill localized cancer cells Chemotherapy is used to kill cancer cells throughout the body Immunotherapy boosts immune responses against cancer cells Inhibition of blood vessel formation may slow the spread of cancer cells Gene therapy may someday help fight cancer in several ways PART VI EVOLUTION AND ECOLOGY Chapter 22 Evolution and Our Heritage Life Evolved on the Earth about 3.8 billion Years Ago Inorganic molecules formed small organic molecules Small organic molecules joined to form larger molecules Macromolecules aggregated into droplets The Scale of Evolutionary Change May Be Small or Large Microevolution occurs below the species level Macroevolution occurs above the species level Evidence of Evolution Comes from Diverse Sources The fossil record provides evidence of evolution Geographic distributions reflect evolutionary history Comparative anatomy and embryology reveal common descent Comparative molecular biology also reveals evolutionary relationships Human Roots Trace Back to the First Primates Primates have distinct characteristics Discussions of human origins often evoke controversy Misconceptions distort the picture of human evolution Walking on two feet was a critical step in hominid evolution SOCIAL ISSUE Conducting Research on Our Relatives Chapter 23 Ecology, the Environment, and Us The Earth Is a Closed Ecosystem with Energy as the Only Input The Biosphere Is the Part of the Earth Where Life Exists Ecological Succession Is the Change in Species Occupying a Given Location over Time Energy Flows through Ecosystems from Producers to Consumers Food chains and food webs depict feeding relationships Energy is lost as it is transferred through trophic levels Ecological pyramids depict energy or biomass at each trophic level Ecological pyramids have health and environmental ramifications Chemicals Cycle through Ecosystems Water cycles between the atmosphere and land Carbon cycles between the environment and living bodies Nitrogen cycles through several nitrogenous compounds Phosphorus cycles between rocks and living organisms Humans Can Upset Biogeochemical Cycles Humans sometimes cause shortage or pollution of water Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide affect global temperatures Disruptions to the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles can cause eutrophication ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Global Warming Chapter 24 HUMAN POPULATION DYNAMICS Population Dynamics Describe How Population Size Changes Rates of addition and subtraction determine population growth rate The size of the initial population influences how quickly population size increases The age structure of population influences future growth Immigration and emigration affect population size The Human Population Cannot Continue Growing Exponentially Environmental Factors Regulate Population Size The Growing Human Population Has Caused Several Problems The human population may be reaching the earth's carrying capacity Human activities cause pollution Human activities deplete the earth's resources Human activities have reduced biodiversity Our Future Depends on the Decisions We Make Today SOCIAL ISSUE Maintaining Our Remaining Biodiversity GLOSSARY APPENDIX I UNIT CONVERSIONS APPENDIX II SELECTED ANSWERS TO THINKING ABOUT THE CONCEPT QUESTIONS APPENDIX IIII HINTS FOR APPLYING THE CONCEPTS QUESTIONS CREDITS INDEX
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