Table of contents for Biology of humans : concepts, applications, and issues / Judith Goodenough, Betty McGuire, Robert A. Wallace.

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PART I	THE ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY
Chapter 1	Humans in the World of Biology
	
	All Living Things Share Basic Characteristics
	Living Organisms Share an Evolutionary History
	Life Has Many Levels of Organization
The Scientific Method Gathers Information for Drawing Logical Conclusions
		Inductive and deductive reasoning help solve problems
		Clinical trials follow strict guidelines
		Epidemiological studies look for patterns in populations
	Critical Thinking Helps Us Make Informed Decisions
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Medicinal Plants and the Shrinking Rain Forest
SOCIAL ISSUE Scientific Misconduct
Chapter 2	Chemistry Comes to Life
Basic Chemistry Helps Us Understand Human Biology
		Atoms contain protons, neutrons, and electrons
		Elements combine to form compounds
The atoms or ions of a compound are held together by chemical bonds
Water is essential to life
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids Are the Major Molecules of Life
		Carbohydrates supply energy to cells
		Lipids store energy and form cell membranes
		Proteins provide structure and speed up chemical reactions
		The nucleic acids are DNA and RNA
		ATP is a nucleotide that releases energy
SOCIAL ISSUE	The Ethics of Radiation Research on Humans
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE	What Is Happening to the Rain?
Chapter 3 	The Cell
Eukaryotic Cells Are Structurally More Complex than Prokaryotic Cells
		Cells are very small
		The plasma membrane has diverse functions
		Organelles are specialized compartments within cells
		The cytoskeleton provides support and movement
Our Cells Use Cellular Respiration and Fermentation to Generate ATP
		Cellular respiration requires oxygen
		Fermentation does not require oxygen
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE	Asbestos: The Deadly Miracle Material
Chapter 4	Body Organization and Homeostasis
The Organization of the Human Body Increases in Complexity from Cells to Organ Systems
	Groups of similar cells form tissues
	Many tissues have specialized junctions between the cells
	Tissues combine to form organs that in turn form organ systems
Most organs are housed in body cavities that are lined with membranes
The Skin Is an Organ System
	Skin protects, regulates body temperature, and excretes
	The skin has two layers
	Skin color is determined by pigment and blood flow
	Hair, nails, and glands are skin derivatives
	Skin interacts with other organ systems
Homeostasis Is a State of Relative Internal Constancy
	Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback mechanisms
	The hypothalamus regulates body temperature
HEALTH ISSUE	Fun in the Sun? Sunlight and Skin Cancer
HEALTH ISSUE	Acne: The Misery, the Myths, and the Medications
PART II	CONTROL AND COORDINATION OF THE BODY
Chapter 5	The Skeletal System
Bones Function in Support, Movement, Protection, Storage, and Blood Cell Production
Bones Have a Hard Outer Layer of Compact Bone Surrounding Spongy Bone
Bone Is Living Tissue
	Most of the skeleton begins as a cartilage model
	Hormones regulate bone growth
Bone Fractures Are Healed by Fibroblasts and Osteoblasts
Bones are Continuously Remodeled
We Divide the Human Skeleton into Two Parts
	The axial skeleton protects our internal organs
	The appendicular skeleton makes locomotion possible
Joints Are Junctures between Bones
	Synovial joints permit flexibility
HEALTH ISSUE	Osteoporosis: Fragility and Aging
Chapter 6	The Muscular System
The Muscular System Moves Our Body Parts and Maintains Our Posture
Most Skeletal Muscles Work in Pairs
Sarcomeres Are the Contractile Units of Muscles
	Skeletal muscle contracts when actin filaments slide across myosin 
	filaments
	Regulatory proteins and calcium ions control contraction
	Nerves stimulate muscle contraction
	Muscular dystrophy causes progressive muscle deterioration
The Strength of Muscle Contraction Depends on the Number of Motor Units Stimulated
The Strength of Contraction Increases If a Muscle Is Stimulated before It Has Relaxed
ATP for Muscle Contraction Comes from Many Sources
Slow-Twitch and Fast-Twitch Muscle Cells Differ in Contraction Speed and Duration
Aerobic Exercise Increases Endurance; Resistance Exercise Builds Muslce
SOCIAL ISSUE:	Building Muscle Fair and Square? Anabolic Steroid Abuse
Chapter 7	Neurons: The Matter of the Mind
Neurons and Neuroglial Cells Are the Cells of the Nervous System
	Neuroglial cells support, protect, insulate, and nurture neurons
	Neurons can be sensory, motor, or associative
Neurons Have Dendrites, a Cell Body, and an Axon
	Axons and dendrites are bundled together to form nerves
	The myelin sheath increases the rate of conduction and helps in 
	repair
The Nerve Impulse Is an Electrochemical Signal
	Ions move passively through ion channels
	The sodium-potassium pump uses ATP to transport sodium ions out 
	and potassium ions in
	The inside of a resting neuron has a negative charge relative to the
	outside
	An action potential is a reversal and restoration of the charge 
	difference across the membrane
	The sodium-potassium pump restores the original distribution of 
	ions
	Action potentials are all-or-nothing events
	A neuron cannot fire during the refractory period
Synaptic Transmission Is Communication between Neurons
Synaptic transmission involves the release of neurotransmitter and the opening of ion channels
Neurons "sum up" input from excitatory and inhibitory synapses
	The neurotransmitter is quickly removed from the synapse
	Different neurotransmitters play different roles
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE	Environmental Toxins and the Nervous System
Chapter 8	The Nervous System
The Nervous System Consists of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
Bone, Membranes, and Cerebrospinal Fluid Protect the CNS
The Brain Is the Central Command Center
	The cerebrum is the conscious part of the brain
	The thalamus allows messages to pass to the cerebral cortex
	The hypothalamus is essential to homeostasis
	The cerebellum is an area of sensory-motor coordination
	The brainstem controls many of life's basic processes and connects 
	the brain and spinal cord
	The limbic system is involved in emotions and memory
	The reticular activating system filters sensory input
The Spinal Cord Transmits Messages to and from the Brain and Is a Reflex Center
The Peripheral Nervous System Consists of the Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems
	The somatic nervous system controls conscious functions
	The autonomic nervous system controls internal organs
Disorders of the Nervous System Vary in Health Significance
	Headaches have several possible causes
	Stroke occurs when the brain is deprived of blood
	Coma is a lack of response to all sensory input
Spinal cord injury results in impaired function below the site of injury
HEALTH ISSUE	Meningitis: Bacterial-Type and West Nile Virus
HEALTH ISSUE	To Sleep, Perchance to Dream
Chapter 8a	SPECIAL TOPIC	Drugs and the Mind
Psychoactive Drugs Alter Communication Between Neurons
Drug Dependence Causes Continued Drug Use
Alcohol Depresses the Central Nervous System
The rate of alcohol absorption depends on its concentration
	Alcohol is distributed to all body tissues
The elimination of alcohol from the body cannot be accelerated
	Alcohol has many health-related effects
Marijuana's Psychoactive Ingredient Is THC
	Marijuana binds to THC receptors in the brain
Long-term marijuana use has many effects on the body
Legalization of medical marijuana is controversial
Stimulants Excite the Central Nervous System
	Cocaine augments the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine
	Amphetamines augment the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine
	
Hallucinogenic Drugs Alter Sensory Perception
Sedatives Depress the Central Nervous System
Opiates Reduce Pain
Chapter 9	Sensory System
Sensory Receptors Generate Electrochemical Messages in Response to Stimuli
Receptors Are Classified by the Type of Stimulus to Which They Respond
 
Receptors for the General Senses Are Distributed Throughout the Body
	Mechanoreceptors detect touch and pressure
Cold and heat receptors detect temperature change
Muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs detect body and limb position
	Pain is caused by any sufficiently strong stimulus
Vision Depends on the Eye
The wall of the eyeball has three layers
The eye has two fluid-filled chambers
Sharp vision requires the image to be focused on the retina
 
	Light changes the shape of pigment molecules, which generate neural messages
	Color vision depends on cones
Hearing Depends on the Ear
	The ear collects and amplifies sound waves and converts them to neural messages
	Variations in the movements of the basilar membrane determine loudness and pitch
	Hearing loss can be conductive or sensorineural
	Ear infections can occur in the ear canal or in the middle ear
Balance Depends on the Vestibular Apparatus of the Inner Ear
Smell and Taste Are the Chemical Senses
HEALTH ISSUE Correcting Vision Problems
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Noise Pollution
Chapter 10		The Endocrine System
The Endocrine System Communicates Using Chemical Messages
	Hormones are the messengers of the endocrine system
	Feedback mechanisms regulate the secretion of hormones
Hormones Influence Growth, Development, Metabolism, and Behavior
	Pituitary hormones often prompt other glands to release hormones
	Thyroid hormones regulate metabolism and decrease blood calcium
	Parathyroid hormones increase blood calcium
	The adrenal glands secrete stress hormones
	Hormones of the pancreas regulate blood glucose
	Hormones of the thymus gland promote maturation of white blood cells
	The pineal gland secretes melatonin
Other Chemical Messengers Act Locally
HEALTH ISSUE Is It Hot in Here, or Is It Me? Hormone Replacement Therapy and Menopause
HEALTH ISSUE Hormones and Our Response to Stress
HEALTH ISSUE Melatonin: Miracle Supplement or Potent Drug Misused by Millions
PART III	MAINTENANCE OF THE BODY
Chapter 11	Blood
Blood Functions in Transportation, Protection, and Regulation
Blood Consists of Plasma and Formed Elements
	Plasma is the liquid portion of blood
	Stem cells give rise to the formed elements
	Platelets are cell fragments essential to blood clotting
	White blood cells help defend the body against disease
	Red blood cells transport oxygen
	The effects of blood cell disorders depend on the type of blood cell affected
Blood Types Are Determined by Antigens on the Surface of Red Blood Cells
Blood Clotting Occurs in a Regulated Sequence of Events
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Lead Poisoning
Chapter 12	The Circulatory System
The Cardiovascular System Consists of the Blood Vessels and the Heart
The Blood Vessels Conduct Blood in Continuous Loops
	Arteries carry blood away from the heart
	Capillaries are sites of exchange with body cells
	Veins return blood to the heart
The Heart Is a Muscular Pump
	The heart functions as two separate pumps
	Blood flows through the heart in two circuits
	Coronary circulation serves the heart muscle
	The cardiac cycle is the sequence of heart muscle contraction and relaxation
	The rhythmic contraction of the heart is produced by its internal conduction 
	system
	An electrocardiogram is a recording of the electrical activities of the heart
	Blood pressure is the force blood exerts against blood vessel walls
Cardiovascular Disease Is a Major Killer in the United States
	High blood pressure can kill without producing symptoms
	Atherosclerosis is a buildup of lipids in the artery walls
	Coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries
	Heart attack is the death of heart muscle
The Lymphatic System Functions in the Circulatory and Immune Systems
HEALTH ISSUE The Cardiovascular Benefits of Exercise
Chapter 13	Body Defense Mechanisms
The Body's Defense System Targets Pathogens and Cancerous Cells
The Body Has Three Lines of Defense
The first line of defense consists of physical and chemical barriers that prevent entry of pathogens
The second line of defense includes defensive cells and proteins, inflammation, and fever
The third line of defense, the immune response, has specific targets and memory
The Immune System Distinguishes "Self" from "Nonself"
The Immune System Mounts Antibody-Mediated Responses and Cell-Mediated Responses
The Cell-Mediated Immune Response and the Antibody-Mediated Immune Response Have the Same Steps
B cells mount an antibody-mediated immune response against antigens free in the blood or bound to a cell surface
Cytotoxic T cells mount a cell-mediated defense against antigen-bearing cells
Immunological memory permits a more rapid response on subsequent exposure to the antigen
Suppressor T cells turn off the immune response
Immunity Can Be Active or Passive
Monoclonal Antibodies Are Used in Research, Clinical Diagnosis, and Disease Treatment
The Immune System Can Cause Problems
Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system attacks the body's own cells
Allergies are immune responses to harmless substances
HEALTH ISSUE Rejection of Organ Transplants
Chapter 13a SPECIAL TOPIC Infectious Disease
Pathogens Are Disease-Causing Organisms
	Certain bacteria produce toxins that cause disease
Viruses can damage the host cell when they leave the cell after replication or when they are incorporated into the cell's chromosomes
	Protozoans cause disease by producing toxins and enzymes
	Fungi often cause disease by secreting enzymes that digest cells
Parasitic worms cause disease by releasing toxins, feeding off blood, or competing with the host for food
Prions induce disease by causing normal proteins to become misfolded and clump together
Disease Is Spread When a Pathogen Enters the Body through Contact, Consumption, or a Vector
Infectious Diseases Remain a Cause for Concern
New diseases are emerging and some old diseases are reappearing
Epidemiologists track diseases
Chapter 14	The Respiratory System
In the Respiratory System, Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Are Exchanged across a Moist Body Surface
The nose filters and conditions incoming air and has receptors for the sense of smell
The sinuses lighten the head and condition inhaled air
The pharynx is a passageway for food and air
The larynx is an adjustable entryway that produces the voice
The trachea is the windpipe
The bronchial tree is a system of air tubules that conducts air
The alveoli of the lungs are surfaces for gas exchange
Pressure Changes within the Lungs Cause Breathing
	Inhalation occurs when the pressure in the lungs decreases
	Exhalation occurs when the pressure in the lungs increases
	The volume of air moved into and out of the lungs is an indication of health
Blood Transports Gases between the Lungs and the Cells
	Most oxygen is carried by hemoglobin
	Most carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate ions
Breathing Is Controlled Primarily by Respiratory Centers in the Brain
	Brain centers control the basic breathing pattern
	Depth and rate of breathing are affected by chemoreceptors
Respiratory Disorders Have Many Causes
	The common cold can be caused by many types of viruses
	
	The flu is caused by three types of viruses
	Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs
	Strep throat can have serious consequences
	Tuberculosis causes tubercles to form in the lungs
	Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi
	Emphysema is caused by the destruction of alveoli
SOCIAL ISSUE Bird Flu, Will It Become a Pandemic?
HEALTH ISSUE Surviving a Common Cold
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Air Pollution and Human Health
Chapter 14a SPECIAL TOPIC Smoking and Disease
Smoking Is the Leading Cause of Death in the United States
Cigarette Smoke Contains Poisons and Cancer-Causing Substances
Smoking Causes Several Deadly Diseases
	Smoking causes lung disease
	Smoking causes cancer
	Smoking causes heart disease
	Smoking causes other health problems
Smoking Poses Additional Health Risks for Women
Passive Smoking Causes Serious Health Problems
No Cigarette Is Safe
The Health Benefits of Quitting Smoking Are Numerous
Chapter 15	 The Digestive System
The Digestive System Consists of a Long Tube That Runs through the Body, Along with Accessory Glands
The Digestive System is Divided into Specialized Compartments for Food Processing
	The mouth begins mechanical digestion and the chemical digestion of starch
	The pharynx is shared by the digestive and respiratory systems
	The esophagus conducts food from the pharynx to the stomach
	The stomach stores and liquefies food and begins protein digestion
	The small intestine is the primary site of digestion and absorption
The pancreas, liver, and gallbladder are accessory organs that aid the processes of digestion and absorption within the small intestine
	The large intestine absorbs water and other useful substances
Nerves and Hormones Control Digestive Activities 
HEALTH ISSUE Heartburn and Peptic Ulcers--Those Burning Sensations
Chapter 15a SPECIAL TOPIC Nutrition and Weight Control
"MyPyramid" Is a Food Guide for Planning a Healthy Diet
Nutrients Provide Energy or Have a Structural or Functional Role in the Body
	Lipids include fats, oils, and cholesterol
	Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fiber
	Proteins are chains of amino acids
Vitamins are needed in small amounts to promote and regulate the body's chemical reactions
Minerals play structural and functional roles in the body
Water is critical and needed in large amounts
Food Labels Help Us Make Wise Food Choices
For Body Energy Balance, Calories Gained in Food Must Equal Calories Used
Obesity is Body Weight 20 Percent or More above the Body Weight Standard
Successful Weight-Loss Programs Usually Involve Reducing Calorie Intake, Increasing Calorie Use, and Changing Behavior
Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Are Eating Disorders That Create Calorie Deficits
Chapter 16	The Urinary System
Organs from Several Body Systems Eliminate Waste
By Producing Urine, the Kidneys Maintain Homeostasis
	Each kidney has three regions
	Nephrons are the functional units of the kidneys
	The kidneys help maintain acid-base balance
	The kidneys help conserve water
	Hormones influence kidney function
	The kidneys help produce red blood cells and activate vitamin D
Dialysis and Transplant Surgery Help When Kidneys Fail
	Dialysis cleanses the blood
	Renal function can be restored with a kidney transplant
Urination Has Involuntary and Voluntary Components
Bacteria Can Enter the Urethra and Cause Urinary Tract Infections
HEALTH ISSUE Kidney Stones and Their Shocking Treatment
HEALTH ISSUE Urinalysis: What Your Urine Says about You
PART IV	REPRODUCTION
Chapter 17	Reproductive Systems
The Gonads Produce Gametes and Sex Hormones
A Male's Reproductive Role Differs from a Female's
The Male Reproductive System Delivers Sperm to the Egg
	The testes produce sperm and male hormones
	The duct system stores and transplants sperm
	The accessory glands produce most of the volume of semen
	The penis transfers sperm to the female
As sperm develop, changes occur in the number of chromosomes and the cell's structure and function
The interplay of hormones controls male reproductive processes
The Female Reproductive System Produces the Eggs and Nurtures the Embryo and Fetus
	The ovaries produce eggs and female hormones
	The oviducts transport the immature egg and zygote
	The uterus supports the growth of the developing embryo
	External genitalia lie outside the vagina
	The breasts produce milk to nourish the baby
	The events of the ovarian cycle lead to release of an egg
	The interplay of hormones coordinates the ovarian and menstrual cycles
	Menopause ends a woman's reproductive cycles
Problems with the Female Reproductive System Vary in the Severity of Health Consequences
The Human Sexual Response Has Four Stages
Birth Control Is the Prevention of Pregnancy
	Abstinence is refraining from intercourse
	Sterilization may involve cutting and sealing gamete transport tubes
	Hormonal contraception interferes with regulation of reproductive processes
	Intrauterine devices prevent the union of sperm and egg, and implantation
	Barrier methods of contraception prevent the union of sperm and egg
	Spermicidal preparations kill sperm
	Fertility awareness is avoidance of intercourse when fertilization could occur
	The morning-after pill is emergency contraception
HEALTH ISSUE Breast Cancer
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Environmental Estrogens
Chapter 17a SPECIAL TOPIC Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS
STDs Are Extremely Common and Can Have Long-Lasting Effects
STDs Caused by Bacteria Can Be Cured with Antibiotics
	Chlamydia can cause pain during urination, PID, or no symptoms
	Gonorrhea can cause pain during urination, PID, or no symptoms
	Syphilis can progress though three stages when untreated
STDs Caused by Viruses Can Be Treated Bt Not Cured
	Genital herpes can cause painful, fluid-filled blisters
	Genital warts can lead to cervical, penile, or anal cancer
An HIV Infection Progresses to AIDS
	HIV/AIDS is a global epidemic
	HIV consists of RNA and enzymes encased in a protein coat
HIV enters the cells, rewrites its RNA as DNA, inserts DNA into the host chromosome, and replicates
Most HIV is transmitted through sexual contact, intravenous drug use, or from pregnant woman to her fetus
Sites of HIV infection include the immune system and the brain
An HIV infection progresses through several stages as helper T cells decline
Treatments for HIV infection are designed to block specific steps in HIV's replication cycle
Chapter 18	Development Throughout Life
Human Life Has Two Main Periods of Development
The Prenatal Period Begins at Fertilization and Ends at Birth
Fertilization, cleavage, and implantation characterize the pre-embryonic period
	Tissues and organs form during the embryonic period
	Rapid growth characterizes the fetal period
Birth Is the Transition from Prenatal to Postnatal Development
	True labor has three stages
	The placenta may send the signal to initiate labor
	Drugs and breathing techniques can relieve pain during childbirth
Environmental Disruptions During the Embryonic Period Cause Major Birth Defects
The Mother's Mammary Glands Produce Milk
The Postnatal Period Begins with Birth and Continues into Old Age
	Possible causes of aging
Medical advances and a healthy lifestyle can help achieve a high-quality old age
HEALTH ISSUE Making Babies, But Not the Old-Fashioned Way
PART V	GENETICS AND DEVELOPMENT
Chapter 19	Chromosomes and Cell Division
The Human Life Cycle Has Two Types of Cell Division
Chromosomes Consist of DNA and Protein
Our Cells Divide in a Characteristic Cyclic Pattern
	Interphase is a period of growth and preparation for cell division
	
	Division of body cells entails division of the nucleus and the cytoplasm
	Mitosis has four stages
	Cytokinesis occurs toward the end of mitosis
Meiosis Forms Haploid Gametes
Meiosis keeps the chromosome number constant over generations and increases genetic variability in the population
Meiosis involves two cell divisions
Crossing over and independent assortment cause genetic recombination during meiosis
Failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis creates cells with extra or missing chromosomes
HEALTH ISSUE Nondisjunction of Sex Chromosomes
Chapter 19a Stem Cells and Cloning
Stem Cells Are Unspecialized Cells That Divide Continually
There Are Many Sources of Human Stem Cells
	Embryonic stem cells can be harvested from unused embryos created for
	in vitro fertilization
	
	Adult stem cells are found in many tissues
	Stem cells can be harvested from unbilical cord blood
	Embryonic stem cells can be created by somatic cell nuclear transfer
Embryonic Stem Cell Research Raises Ethical and Political Controversy
Chapter 20	Genetics and Human Inheritance
Principles of Inheritance Help Us Predict How Simple Traits Are Passed to the Next Generation
	During gamete formation alleles segregate and assort independently
	Mendelian genetics considers patterns of inheritance
	Pedigrees help us to ascertain genotype
	A dominant allele often produces a protein that the recessive allele does not
	Codominant alleles both produce functioning gene products
	In incomplete dominance the heterozygote has an intermediate phenotype
	In pleiotropy, one gene has many effects
	Certain genes have multiple alleles in a population
	Most traits are controlled by many genes
	Sex-linked genes are located on the sex chromosomes
Sex-influenced genes are autosomal genes whose expression is influenced by sex hormones
Breaks in Chromosomes Change Chromosomal Structure and Function
Certain Genetic Disorders Can Be Detected by Laboratory Tests
SOCIAL ISSUE Gene Testing
Chapter 21 DNA and Biotechnology
DNA Is s Double Helix Consisting of Two Strings of Nucleotides
During Replication of DNA, Each Original Strand Serves as a Template for a New Strand
DNA Codes for RNA, Which Codes for a Protein
	Transcription is RNA synthesis
	Translation is protein synthesis
Point Mutations Result from Nucleotide Substitution, Insertion, or Deletion
Gene Activity Can Be Turned On or Off
Coiling and uncoiling of chromosomes regulate gene activity at the chromosome level
Certain genes regulate the activity of other genes
Chemical signals regulate gene activity
Genetic Engineering Is the Manipulation of DNA for Human Purposes
	Recombinant DNA is made of DNA from different sources
	Genetic engineering produces proteins of interest or transgenic organisms
	Gene therapy replaces faulty genes with functional genes
	Faulty information in mRNA may someday be correctable
Genomics Can Be Used to Study How Genes Function and How Diseases Are Inherited
	The Human Genome Project sequenced a representative human genome
	Microarray analysis is a useful tool in genomics
SOCIAL ISSUE Stem Cells--The Body's Repair Kit
Chapter 21a SPECIAL TOPIC Cancer
Cancer Is Uncontrolled Cell Division
	Tumors can be benign or malignant
	Tumor development progresses through stages
Cancer Begins with a Single Cell That Escapes Normal Control Mechanisms
	Cancer cells lose restraints on cell division
	Cancer cells do not self-destruct when their DNA is damaged
	Cancer cells divide indefinitely
	Cancer cells attract a blood supply
	Cancer cells do not adhere to neighboring cells
	
	Body defense cells destroy cancer cells
Viruses, Certain Chemicals, and Radiation Can Cause Cancer
	Certain viruses can disrupt genetic control of cell division
	Some chemicals can cause mutations
	Radiation can cause mutations
Certain Lifestyle Habits Reduce the Risk of Cancer
There Are Several Ways to Diagnose Cancer
Surgery, Radiation, and Chemotherapy Are Conventional Ways to Treat Cancer
	Surgery is used to remove tumors
	Radiation therapy is used to kill localized cancer cells
	Chemotherapy is used to kill cancer cells throughout the body
	Immunotherapy boosts immune responses against cancer cells
	Inhibition of blood vessel formation may slow the spread of cancer cells
	Gene therapy may someday help fight cancer in several ways
PART VI	EVOLUTION AND ECOLOGY
Chapter 22	Evolution and Our Heritage
Life Evolved on the Earth about 3.8 billion Years Ago
	Inorganic molecules formed small organic molecules
	Small organic molecules joined to form larger molecules
	Macromolecules aggregated into droplets
The Scale of Evolutionary Change May Be Small or Large
	Microevolution occurs below the species level
	Macroevolution occurs above the species level
Evidence of Evolution Comes from Diverse Sources
	The fossil record provides evidence of evolution
	Geographic distributions reflect evolutionary history
	Comparative anatomy and embryology reveal common descent
	Comparative molecular biology also reveals evolutionary relationships
Human Roots Trace Back to the First Primates
	Primates have distinct characteristics
	Discussions of human origins often evoke controversy
	Misconceptions distort the picture of human evolution
	Walking on two feet was a critical step in hominid evolution
SOCIAL ISSUE Conducting Research on Our Relatives
Chapter 23 Ecology, the Environment, and Us
The Earth Is a Closed Ecosystem with Energy as the Only Input
The Biosphere Is the Part of the Earth Where Life Exists
Ecological Succession Is the Change in Species Occupying a Given Location over Time
Energy Flows through Ecosystems from Producers to Consumers
	Food chains and food webs depict feeding relationships
	Energy is lost as it is transferred through trophic levels
Ecological pyramids depict energy or biomass at each trophic level
Ecological pyramids have health and environmental ramifications
Chemicals Cycle through Ecosystems
	Water cycles between the atmosphere and land
	Carbon cycles between the environment and living bodies
	Nitrogen cycles through several nitrogenous compounds
	Phosphorus cycles between rocks and living organisms
Humans Can Upset Biogeochemical Cycles
	Humans sometimes cause shortage or pollution of water
	Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide affect global temperatures
Disruptions to the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles can cause eutrophication
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Global Warming
Chapter 24 HUMAN POPULATION DYNAMICS
Population Dynamics Describe How Population Size Changes
	Rates of addition and subtraction determine population growth rate
The size of the initial population influences how quickly population size increases
The age structure of population influences future growth
Immigration and emigration affect population size
The Human Population Cannot Continue Growing Exponentially
Environmental Factors Regulate Population Size
The Growing Human Population Has Caused Several Problems
	The human population may be reaching the earth's carrying capacity
	
	Human activities cause pollution
	Human activities deplete the earth's resources
	Human activities have reduced biodiversity
Our Future Depends on the Decisions We Make Today
SOCIAL ISSUE Maintaining Our Remaining Biodiversity
GLOSSARY
APPENDIX I UNIT CONVERSIONS
APPENDIX II SELECTED ANSWERS TO THINKING ABOUT THE CONCEPT QUESTIONS
APPENDIX IIII HINTS FOR APPLYING THE CONCEPTS QUESTIONS
CREDITS
INDEX

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Human biology.