Table of contents for Literature : an introduction to fiction, poetry, drama, and writing / [compiled by] X.J. Kennedy, Dana Gioia.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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Preface xlv
To the Instructor xlix
About the Authors lxi
1	Reading a Story 3
Fable, Parable, and Tale 4
W. Somerset Maugham n The Appointment in Samarra 4
A servant tries to gallop away from Death in this brief sardonic fable retold in memorable form by a popular storyteller.
Aesop n The North Wind and the Sun 5
The North Wind and the Sun argue who is stronger and decide to try their powers on an unsuspecting traveler.
Bidpai n The Camel and His Friends 6
With friends like these, you can guess what the camel doesn't need. 
Chuang Tzu n Independence 8
The Prince of Ch'u asks the philosopher Chuang Tzu to become his advisor and gets a surprising reply in this classic Chinese fable.
Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm n Godfather Death 9
Neither God nor the Devil came to the christening. In this stark folktale,
a young man receives magical powers with a string attached.
Plot 11
The Short Story 13
John Updike n A & P 14
In walk three girls in nothing but bathing suits, and Sammy finds himself no longer an aproned checkout clerk but an armored knight.
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
John Updike n Why Write? 20
Writing About Plot
Paying Attention to Plot 20
Analyzing Plot 21
Writing Assignment on Plot 22
More Topics for Writing 22
2	Point of View 23
William Faulkner n A Rose for Emily 28
Proud, imperious Emily Grierson defied the town from the fortress of her mansion. Who could have guessed the secret that lay within?
Anne Tyler n Teenage Wasteland 35
With her troubled son, his teachers, and a peculiar tutor all giving her their own versions of what's going on with him, what's a mother to do?
James Baldwin n Sonny's Blues 43
Two brothers in Harlem see life differently. The older brother is the sensible family man, but Sonny wants to be a jazz musician.
Eudora Welty n A Worn Path 64
When the man said to old Phoenix, "you must be a hundred years old, and scared of nothing," he might have been exaggerating, but not by much.
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
James Baldwin n Race and the African American Writer 70
Writing about Point of View
How Point of View Shapes a Story 71
Understanding Point of View 71
Writing Assignment on Point of View 72
More Topics for Writing 72
3	Character 73
Katherine Anne Porter n The Jilting of Granny Weatherall 76
For sixty years Ellen Weatherall has fought back the memory of that terrible day, but now once more the priest waits in the house.
Katherine Mansfield n Miss Brill 83
Sundays had long brought joy to solitary Miss Brill, until one fateful day when she happened to share a bench with two lovers in the park.
Tobias Wolff n The Rich Brother 86
Blood may be thicker than water, but sometimes the tension between brothers is thicker than blood.
Raymond Carver n Cathedral 98
He had never expected to find himself trying to describe a cathedral to a blind man. He hadn't even wanted to meet this odd, old friend of his wife.
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Raymond Carver n Commonplace but Precise Language 109
Writing About Character 
How Character Creates Action 110
Writing About Character 110
Writing Assignment on Character 110
More Topics for Writing 111
4	Setting 112
Kate Chopin n The Storm 115
Even with her husband away, Calixta feels happily, securely married. Why then should she not shelter an old admirer from the rain?
Jack London n To Build a Fire 119
Seventy-five degrees below zero. Alone except for one mistrustful wolf dog,
a man finds himself battling a relentless force.
T. Coraghessan Boyle n Greasy Lake 130
Murky and strewn with beer cans, the lake appears a wasteland. On its shore three "dangerous characters" learn a lesson one grim night.
Amy Tan n A Pair of Tickets 137
A young woman flies with her father to China to meet two half sisters she never knew existed.
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Amy Tan n Setting the Voice 150
Writing about Setting 
The Importance of Setting 151
Analyzing Setting 152
Writing Assignment on Setting 152
More Topics for Writing 152
5	Tone and Style 153
Ernest Hemingway n A Clean, Well-Lighted Place 156
All by himself each night, the old man lingers in the bright cafø. What does he need more than brandy? 
William Faulkner n Barn Burning 160
This time when Ab Snopes wields his blazing torch, his son Sarty faces a dilemma: whether to obey or defy the vengeful old man.
Irony 172
O. Henry n The Gift of the Magi 174
A young husband and wife find ingenious ways to buy each other Christmas presents, in the classic story that defines the word "irony."
Ha Jin n Saboteur 178
When the police unfairly arrest Mr. Chiu, he hopes for justice. After witnessing their brutality, he quietly plans revenge.
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Ernest Hemingway n The Direct Style 186
Writing About Tone and Style 
Be Style-Conscious 186
Thinking About Tone and Style 187
Writing Assignment on Tone and Style 187
More Topics for Writing 188
6	Theme 189
Stephen Crane n The Open Boat 191
In a lifeboat circled by sharks, tantalized by glimpses of land, a reporter scrutinizes Fate and learns about comradeship.
Alice Munro n How I Met My Husband 208
When Edie meets the carnival pilot, her life gets more complicated than she expects.
Luke 15:11/32 n The Parable of the Prodigal Son 220
A father has two sons. One demands his inheritance now and leaves to spend it with ruinous results.
Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. n Harrison Bergeron 221
Are you handsome? Off with your eyebrows! Are you brainy? Let a transmitter sound thought-shattering beeps inside your ear.
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. n The Themes of Science Fiction 226
Writing about theme 
Stating the Theme 227
Determining a Story's Theme 228
Writing Assignment on Theme 228
More Topics for Writing 228
7	Symbol 229
John Steinbeck n The Chrysanthemums 231
Fenced-in Elisa feels emotionally starved; then her life promises to blossom with the arrival of the scissors-grinding man.
Shirley Jackson n The Lottery 239
Splintered and faded, the sinister black box had worked its annual terror for longer than anyone in town could remember.
Elizabeth Tallent n No One's a Mystery 245
A two-page story speaks volumes about an open-hearted girl and her married lover.
Ursula K. Le Guin n The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas 248
Omelas is the perfect city. All of its inhabitants are happy. But everyone's prosperity depends on a hidden evil.
writing effectively
Writers on Writing 
Shirley Jackson n Biography of a Story 253
Writing About Symbols 
Recognizing Symbols 255
Thinking About Symbols 256
Writing Assignment on Symbols 256
Student Paper n an analysis of the symbolism in steinbeck's "the chrysanthemums" 256
More Topics for Writing 258
8	Evaluating a Story 260
Yiyun Li n A Thousand Years of Good Prayers 262
An elderly Chinese man wants to help his Americanized daughter find happiness, but are there too many secrets standing in the way?
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Yiyun Li n What I Could Not Write About Was Why I was Writing 271
Writing an Evaluation 
Judging a Story's Value 272
Evaluating a Story 273
Writing Assignment on Evaluating a story 273
More Topics for Writing 274
9	Reading Long Stories and Novels 275
Leo Tolstoy n The Death of Ivan Ilych 280
The supreme Russian novelist tells how a petty, ambitious judge, near the end of his wasted life, discovers a harrowing truth.
Franz Kafka n The Metamorphosis 317
"When Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from troubled dreams, he 
found himself transformed in his bed into a monstrous insect." Kafka's famous opening sentence introduces one of the most chilling stories in 
world literature.
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Franz Kafka n Discussing The Metamorphosis 348
Writing About Long Stories and Novels 
Knowing What to Leave Out 349
Organizing Your Ideas for a Research Paper 349
Writing Assignment for a research paper 349
Student Research Paper n kafka's greatness
More Topics for Writing 356
10	Critical Casebook: Flannery O'Connor 357
Flannery O'Connor n A Good Man Is Hard to Find 358
Wanted: The Misfit, a cold-blooded killer. An ordinary family vacation leads to horror; and one moment of redeeming grace.
Flannery O'Connor n Revelation 368
Mrs. Turpin thinks herself Jesus' favorite child, until she meets a troubled college girl. Soon violence flares in a doctor's waiting room.
Flannery O'Connor n Parker's Back 382
A tormented man tries to find his way to God and to his wife; by having himself tattooed.
Flannery O'Connor on Writing
From "on her own work" 396
on her catholic faith 398
From "the grotesque in southern fiction" 399
yearbook cartoons 401
Critics on Flannery O'Connor
Robert H. Brinkmeyer, Jr. n Flannery O'Connor and Her Readers 402
J. O. Tate n A Good Source Is Not So Hard to Find: The Real Life Misfit 404
Mary Jane Schenck n Deconstructing "A Good Man Is Hard
to Find" 407
Kathleen Feeley n The Mystery of Divine Direction: "Parker's Back" 408
Writing Effectively
Writing About an Author 
How One Story Illuminates Another 409
Reading an Author in Depth 410
Writing Assignment on an Author 410
More Topics for Writing 410
11	Critical Casebook: Three Stories in Depth 412
Edgar Allan Poe 412
the tell-tale heart 413
The smoldering eye at last extinguished, a murderer finds that, despite all his attempts at a cover-up, his victim will be heard.
Edgar Allan Poe on Writing
the tale and its effect 417
on imagination 418
the philosophy of composition 418
Critics on "The Tell-Tale Heart"
Daniel Hoffman n the father-figure in 
"the tell-tale heart" 419
Scott Peeples n "The Tell-Tale Heart" as a Love Story 421
John Chua n The Figure of the Double in Poe 421
Charlotte Perkins Gilman 424
the yellow wallpaper 424
A doctor prescribes a "rest cure" for his wife after the birth of their child. The new mother tries to settle in to life in the isolated and mysterious country house they have rented for the summer. The cure proves worse than the disease in this Gothic classic.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman on Writing
Why I Wrote "The Yellow Wallpaper" 435
Whatever Is 436
The Nervous Breakdown of Women 437
Critics on "The Yellow Wallpaper"
Juliann Fleenor n Gender and Pathology in "The Yellow Wallpaper" 438
Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar n Imprisonment and Escape: The Psychology of Confinement 439
Elizabeth Ammons n Biographical Echoes in "The Yellow Wallpaper" 441
Alice Walker 443
everyday use 443
When successful Dee visits from the city, she has changed her name to reflect her African roots. Her mother and sister notice other things have changed, too.
Alice Walker on Writing
The Black Woman Writer in America 449
Reflections on Writing 451
Critics on "Everyday Use"
Barbara T. Christian n "Everyday Use" and the Black Power Movement 453
Houston A. Baker and Charlotte Pierce-Baker n Stylish vs. Sacred in "Everyday Use" 455
Elaine Showalter n Quilt as Metaphor in 
"Everyday Use" 459
Writing Effectively
Topics for Writing on "The Tell-Tale Heart" 461
Topics for Writing on "The Yellow Wallpaper" 461
Topics for Writing on "Everyday Use" 461
12	Stories for Further Reading 462
Chinua Achebe n Dead Men's Path 462
The new headmaster of the village school was determined to fight superstition, but the villagers did not agree.
Anjana Appachana n The Prophecy 465
Seventeen years old and pregnant, Amrita doesn't know what to do, but before she visits the gynecologist, she consults a fortune teller.
Margaret Atwood n Happy Endings 476
John and Mary meet. What happens next? This witty experimental story offers five different outcomes.
Ambrose Bierce n An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge 479
At last, Peyton Farquhar's neck is in the noose. Reality mingles with dream in this classic story of the American Civil War.
Jorge Luis Borges n The Gospel According to Mark 485
A young man from Buenos Aires is trapped by a flood on an isolated ranch. To pass the time he reads the Gospel to a family with unforeseen results.
Willa Cather n Paul's Case 489
Paul's teachers can't understand the boy. Then one day, with stolen cash, he boards a train for New York and the life of his dreams.
John Cheever n The Five-Forty-Eight 503
After their brief affair, Blake fired his secretary. He never expected she would seek revenge.
Anton Chekhov n The Lady with the Pet Dog 512
Lonely and bored at a seaside resort, a couple seeks a merely casual 
affair. How could they know it might deepen and trouble their 
separate marriages?
Kate Chopin n The Story of an Hour 523
"There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name."
Sandra Cisneros n The House on Mango Street 525
Does where we live tell what we are? A little girl dreams of a new house, but things don't always turn out the way we want them to.
Ralph Ellison n Battle Royal 526
A young black man is invited to deliver his high school graduation speech
to a gathering of a Southern town's leading white citizens. What promises
to be an honor turns into a nightmare of violence, humiliation, and painful self-discovery.
Gabriel Garcøa Mørquez n The Handsomest Drowned Man in
the World 536
Even in death, a mysterious stranger has a profound effect on all of the people in the village.
Dagoberto Gilb n Look on the Bright Side 540
"You have to look on the bright side" is the motto of this story's narrator, but that gets harder and harder to do as things just keep on getting worse.
Nathaniel Hawthorne n Young Goodman Brown 548
Urged on through deepening woods, a young Puritan sees; or dreams he sees; good villagers hasten toward a diabolic rite.
Zora Neale Hurston n Sweat 558
Delia's hard work paid for her small house. Now her drunken husband Sykes has promised it to another woman.
Kazuo Ishiguro n A Family Supper 566
Something very odd lurks beneath the surface of this family supper, and it might prove fatal.
James Joyce n Araby 573
If only he can find her a token, she might love him in return. As night falls,
a Dublin boy hurries to make his dream come true.
Jamaica Kincaid n Girl 578
"Try to walk like a lady, and not like the slut you are so bent on becoming." An old-fashioned mother tells her daughter how to live.
Jhumpa Lahiri n Interpreter of Maladies 579
Mr. Kapasi's life had settled into a quiet pattern; and then Mrs. Das and her family came into it.
D. H. Lawrence n The Rocking-Horse Winner 593
Wild-eyed "as if something were going to explode in him," the boy predicts each winning horse, and gamblers rush to bet a thousand pounds.
Bobbie Ann Mason n Shiloh 604
After the accident Leroy could no longer work as a truck driver. He hoped to make a new life with his wife, but she seemed strangely different.
Joyce Carol Oates n Where Are You Going, Where Have 
You Been? 613
Alone in the house, Connie finds herself helpless before the advances of a spellbinding imitation teenager, Arnold Friend.
Tim O'Brien n The Things They Carried 625
What each soldier carried into the combat zone was largely determined by necessity, but each man's necessities differed. 
Tillie Olsen n I Stand Here Ironing 637
Deserted by her husband, forced to send away her child, a woman remembers how both she and her daughter managed to survive.
Octavio Paz n My Life with the Wave 642
Meet the oddest couple ever, in this story by a Nobel Prize-winning poet.
Leslie Marmon Silko n The Man to Send Rain Clouds 646
When old Teofilo dies, his friends give him a tribal burial to ensure that the rains will come for the pueblo. But can they also convince Father Paul to take part in the pagan ceremony?
Helena Marøa Viramontes n The Moths 649
An angry adolescent performs a final act of love for the grandmother who made her feel "safe and guarded and not alone."
13	Reading a Poem 659
William Butler Yeats n The Lake Isle of Innisfree 661
Lyric Poetry 663
D. H. Lawrence n Piano 664
Adrienne Rich n Aunt Jennifer's Tigers 664
Narrative Poetry 665
Anonymous n Sir Patrick Spence 665
Robert Frost n "Out, Out; " 667
Dramatic Poetry 668
Robert Browning n My Last Duchess 668
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Adrienne Rich n Recalling "Aunt Jennifer's Tigers" 671
Writing a Paraphrase 
Can a Poem Be Paraphrased? 671
William Stafford n Ask Me 671
William Stafford n A Paraphrase of "Ask Me" 672
Paraphrasing a Poem 673
Writing Assignment on Paraphrasing 673
More Topics for Writing 673
14	Listening to a Voice 674
Tone 674
Theodore Roethke n My Papa's Waltz 674
Countee Cullen n For a Lady I Know 675
Anne Bradstreet n The Author to Her Book 676
Walt Whitman n To a Locomotive in Winter 677
Emily Dickinson n I like to see it lap the Miles 678
Benjamin Alire Søenz n To the Desert 679
Weldon Kees n For My Daughter 679
The Person in the Poem 680
Natasha Trethewey n White Lies 680
Edwin Arlington Robinson n Luke Havergal 682
Ted Hughes n Hawk Roosting 683
Suji Kwock Kim n Monologue for an Onion 684
William Wordsworth n I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud 685
Dorothy Wordsworth n Journal Entry 686
James Stephens n A Glass of Beer 686
Anne Sexton n Her Kind 687
William Carlos Williams n The Red Wheelbarrow 688
Irony 688
Robert Creeley n Oh No 688
W. H. Auden n The Unknown Citizen 690
Sharon Olds n Rites of Passage 691
John Betjeman n In Westminster Abbey 692
Sarah N. Cleghorn n The Golf Links 693
Edna St. Vincent Millay n Second Fig 693
Joseph Stroud n Missing 694
Thomas Hardy n The Workbox 694
For Review and Further Study 
William Blake n The Chimney Sweeper 695
David Lehman n Rejection Slip 696
William Stafford n At the Un-National Monument Along the Canadian Border 697
H. L. Hix n I Love the World, As Does Any Dancer 697
Richard Lovelace n To Lucasta 698
Wilfred Owen n Dulce et Decorum Est 698
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Wilfred Owen n War Poetry 699
Writing About Voice 
Listening to Tone 700
Analyzing Tone 701
Writing Assignment on Tone 701
Student Paper n Word Choice, Tone, and Point of View in Roethke's "My Papa's Waltz" 702
More Topics for Writing 705
15	Words 706
Literal Meaning: What a Poem Says First 706
William Carlos Williams n This Is Just to Say 707
Marianne Moore n Silence 708
Robert Graves n Down, Wanton, Down! 709
John Donne n Batter my heart, three-personed God, 
for You 709
The Value of a Dictionary 710
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow n Aftermath 711
John Clare n Mouse's Nest 712
J. V. Cunningham n Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More 
lies dead 713
Kelly Cherry n Advice to a Friend Who Paints 714
Carl Sandburg n Grass 714
Word Choice and Word Order 714
Robert Herrick n Upon Julia's Clothes 716
Kay Ryan n Blandeur 718
Thomas Hardy n The Ruined Maid 719
Richard Eberhart n The Fury of Aerial Bombardment 720
Wendy Cope n Lonely Hearts 721
For Review and Further Study 
E. E. Cummings n anyone lived in a pretty how town 722
Billy Collins n The Names 723
Anonymous n Carnation Milk 724
Kenneth Rexroth n Vitamins and Roughage 725
Gina Valdøs n English con Salsa 725
Lewis Carroll n Jabberwocky 726
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Lewis Carroll n Humpty Dumpty Explicates "Jabberwocky" 727
Writing About Diction 
Every Word Counts 728
Thinking About Word Choice 729
Writing Assignment on Word Choice 729
More Topics for Writing 730
16	Saying and Suggesting 731
John Masefield n Cargoes 732
William Blake n London 733
Wallace Stevens n Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock 735
Gwendolyn Brooks n Southeast Corner 735
Timothy Steele n Epitaph 736
E. E. Cummings n next to of course god america i 736
Robert Frost n Fire and Ice 737
Clare Rossini n Final Love Note 737
Jennifer Reeser n Winter-proof 738
Alfred, Lord Tennyson n Tears, Idle Tears 738
Richard Wilbur n Love Calls Us to the Things of 
This World 739
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Richard Wilbur n Concerning "Love Calls Us to the Things of This World" 740
Writing About Denotation and Connotation 
The Ways a Poem Suggests 741
Analyzing What a Poem Says and Suggests 742
Writing Assignment on Denotation and 
Connotation 742
More Topics for Writing 742
17	Imagery 743
Ezra Pound n In a Station of the Metro 743
Taniguchi Buson n The piercing chill I feel 743
T. S. Eliot n The winter evening settles down 745
Theodore Roethke n Root Cellar 745
Elizabeth Bishop n The Fish 746
Anne Stevenson n The Victory 748
Charles Simic n Fork 748
Emily Dickinson n A Route of Evanescence 749
Jean Toomer n Reapers 749
Gerard Manley Hopkins n Pied Beauty 750
About Haiku 750
Arakida Moritake n The falling flower 750
Matsuo Basho n Heat-lightning streak 751
Matsuo Basho n In the old stone pool 751
Taniguchi Buson n On the one-ton temple bell 751
Taniguchi Buson n I go 751
Kobayashi Issa n only one guy 752
Kobayashi Issa n Cricket 752
Haiku from Japanese Internment Camps 752
Suiko Matsushita n Rain shower from mountain 752
Neiji Ozawa n War forced us from California 752
Hakuro Wada n Even the croaking of frogs 752
Contemporary American Haiku 753
Etheridge Knight, Lee Gurga, Penny Harter, Jennifer Brutschy, 
John Ridland, Connie Bensley, Adelle Foley, Garry Gay 754
For Review and Further Study 
John Keats n Bright star! would I were steadfast as 
thou art 754
Walt Whitman n The Runner 754
T. E. Hulme n Image 754
William Carlos Williams n El Hombre 755
Chana Bloch n Tired Sex 755
Robert Bly n Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter 755
Rita Dove n Silos 755
Louise Gløck n Mock Orange 756
Billy Collins n Embrace 756
John Haines n Winter News 757
Stevie Smith n Not Waving but Drowning 757
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Ezra Pound n The Image 758
Writing About Imagery 
Analyzing Images 758
Thinking About Imagery 759
Writing Assignment on Imagery 760
Student Paper n Elizabeth Bishop's Use of Imagery 
in "The Fish" 760
More Topics for Writing 765
18	Figures of Speech 766
Why Speak Figuratively? 766
Alfred, Lord Tennyson n The Eagle 767
William Shakespeare n Shall I compare thee to a 
summer's day? 768
Howard Moss n Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day? 768
Metaphor and Simile 768
Emily Dickinson n My Life had stood / a Loaded Gun 770
Alfred, Lord Tennyson n Flower in the Crannied Wall 771
William Blake n To see a world in a grain of sand 771
Sylvia Plath n Metaphors 771
N. Scott Momaday n Simile 772
Emily Dickinson n It dropped so low / in my Regard 772
Craig Raine n A Martian Sends a Postcard Home 773
Other Figures of Speech 775
James Stephens n The Wind 775
Margaret Atwood n You fit into me 778
John Ashbery n The Cathedral Is 778
George Herbert n The Pulley 778
Dana Gioia n Money 779
Charles Simic n My Shoes 779
For Review and Further Study 
Robert Frost n The Silken Tent 780
April Lindner n Low Tide 781
Jane Kenyon n The Suitor 781
Robert Frost n The Secret Sits 782
A. R. Ammons n Coward 782
Kay Ryan n Turtle 782
Heather McHugh n Language Lesson, 1976 782
Robinson Jeffers n Hands 783
Robert Burns n Oh, my love is like a red, red rose 784
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Robert Frost n The Importance of Poetic Metaphor 784
Writing About Metaphors 
How Metaphors Enlarge a Poem's Meaning 785
Analyzing Metaphor 785
Writing Assignment on Figures of Speech 785
More Topics for Writing 786
19	Song 787
Singing and Saying 787
Ben Jonson n To Celia 788
Anonymous n The Cruel Mother 789
William Shakespeare n O Mistress Mine 790
Edwin Arlington Robinson n Richard Cory 792
Paul Simon n Richard Cory 792
Ballads 793
Anonymous n Bonny Barbara Allan 793
Dudley Randall n Ballad of Birmingham 793
Blues 797
Bessie Smith with Clarence Williams n Jailhouse Blues 798
W. H. Auden n Funeral Blues 799
Rap 799
Run D.M.C. n from Peter Piper 800
For Review and Further Study 
John Lennon and Paul McCartney n Eleanor Rigby 801
Bob Dylan n The Times They Are a-Changin' 802
Aimee Mann n Deathly 804
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Paul McCartney n Creating "Eleanor Rigby" 805
Writing About Song Lyrics 
Poetry's Close Kinship with Song 806
Looking at Lyrics as Poetry 806
Writing Assignment on Song Lyrics 807
More Topics for Writing 807
20	Sound 808
Sound as Meaning 808
Alexander Pope n True Ease in Writing comes from Art, 
not Chance 809
William Butler Yeats n Who Goes with Fergus? 811
John Updike n Recital 811
William Wordsworth n A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal 812
Emanuel di Pasquale n Rain 812
Aphra Behn n When maidens are young 812
Alliteration and Assonance 812
A. E. Housman n Eight O'Clock 814
James Joyce n All day I hear 814
Alfred, Lord Tennyson n The splendor falls on castle walls 815
Rime 815
William Cole n On my boat on Lake Cayuga 816
James Reeves n Rough Weather 818
Hilaire Belloc n The Hippopotamus 819
Ogden Nash n The Panther 819
William Butler Yeats n Leda and the Swan 820
Gerard Manley Hopkins n God's Grandeur 820
Fred Chappell n Narcissus and Echo 821
Robert Frost n Desert Places 822
Reading and Hearing Poems Aloud 823
Michael Stillman n In Memoriam John Coltrane 824
William Shakespeare n Full fathom five thy father lies 825
Chryss Yost n Lai with Sounds of Skin 825
T. S. Eliot n Virginia 825
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
T. S. Eliot n The Music of Poetry 826
Writing About Sound 
Listening to the Music 827
Writing About a Poem's Sound 827
Writing Assignment on Sound 828
More Topics for Writing 828
21	Rhythm 829
Stresses and Pauses 829
Gwendolyn Brooks n We Real Cool 833
Alfred, Lord Tennyson n Break, Break, Break 834
Ben Jonson n Slow, slow, fresh fount, keep time with my salt tears 834
Sir Thomas Wyatt n With serving still 835
Dorothy Parker n Røsumø 836
Meter 836
Max Beerbohm n On the imprint of the first English edition of The Works of Max Beerbohm 836
Thomas Campion n Rose-cheeked Laura, come 842
Edna St. Vincent Millay n Counting-out Rhyme 843
Jacqueline Osherow n Song for the Music in the Warsaw Ghetto 844
A. E. Housman n When I was one-and-twenty 844
William Carlos Williams n Smell! 845
Walt Whitman n Beat! Beat! Drums! 845
David Mason n Song of the Powers 846
Langston Hughes n Dream Boogie 846
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Gwendolyn Brooks n Hearing "We Real Cool" 847
Writing About Rhythm 
Freeze-Framing the Sound 848
Scanning a Poem 848
Writing Assignment on Rhythm 849
More Topics for Writing 849
22	Closed Form 850
Formal Patterns 851
John Keats n This living hand, now warm and capable 851
Robert Graves n Counting the Beats 853
John Donne n Song ("Go and catch a falling star") 854
Phillis Levin n Brief Bio 856
The Sonnet 856
William Shakespeare n Let me not to the marriage of 
true minds 857
Michael Drayton n Since there's no help, come let us kiss 
and part 858
Edna St. Vincent Millay n What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why 858
Robert Frost n Acquainted with the Night 859
Kim Addonizio n First Poem for You 860
Mark Jarman n Unholy Sonnet: Hands Folded 860
Timothy Steele n Summer 861
A. E. Stallings n Sine Qua Non 861
R. S. Gwynn n Shakespearean Sonnet 862
The Epigram 862
Alexander Pope, Sir John Harrington, Robert Herrick, William Blake,
E. E. Cummings, Langston Hughes, J. V. Cunningham, John Frederick Nims, Stevie Smith, Brad Leithauser, Dick Davis, Anonymous, Hilaire Belloc, Wendy Cope n A Selection 
of Epigrams 863/865
W. H. Auden, Edmund Clerihew Bentley, Cornelius J. Ter Maat n Clerihews 865/866
Other Forms 866
Robert Pinsky n ABC 866
Dylan Thomas n Do not go gentle into that good night 867
Robert Bridges n Triolet 867
Elizabeth Bishop n Sestina 868
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
A. E. Stallings n On Form and Artifice 870
Writing About Form 
Turning Points 871
Thinking About a Sonnet 871
Writing Assignment on a Sonnet 872
More Topics for Writing 872
23	Open Form 873
Denise Levertov n Ancient Stairway 873
E. E. Cummings n Buffalo Bill 's 877
W. S. Merwin n For the Anniversary of My Death 877
William Carlos Williams n The Dance 878
Stephen Crane n The Heart 879
Walt Whitman n Cavalry Crossing a Ford 879
Ezra Pound n Salutation 880
Wallace Stevens n Thirteen Ways of Looking at a 
Blackbird 880
Prose Poetry 882
Carolyn Forchø n The Colonel 883
Charles Simic n The Magic Study of Happiness 883
Visual Poetry 884
George Herbert n Easter Wings 884
John Hollander n Swan and Shadow 885
Terry Ehret n from Papyrus 886
Dorthi Charles n Concrete Cat 887
Found Poetry 888
Ronald Gross n Yield 888
Seeing the Logic of Open Form Verse 889
E. E. Cummings n in Just- 889
Carole Satyamurti n I Shall Paint My Nails Red 890
Alice Fulton n Failure 890
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Walt Whitman n The Poetry of the Future 891
Writing About Free Verse 
Lining Up for Free Verse 892
Analyzing Line Breaks in Free Verse 892
Writing Assignment on Open Form 893
More Topics for Writing 893
24	Symbol 894
T. S. Eliot n The Boston Evening Transcript 895
Emily Dickinson n The Lightning is a yellow Fork 896
Thomas Hardy n Neutral Tones 897
Matthew 13:24/30 n The Parable of the Good Seed 898
George Herbert n The World 899
Edwin Markham n Outwitted 900
John Ciardi n A Box Comes Home 900
Robert Frost n The Road Not Taken 901
Christina Rossetti n Uphill 902
Christian Wiman n Po ÿstolka 902
For Review and Further Study
William Carlos Williams n The Term 903
Ted Kooser n Carrie 904
Jane Hirshfield n Tree 904
Jon Stallworthy n An Evening Walk 905
Lorine Niedecker n Popcorn-can cover 905
Wallace Stevens n Anecdote of the Jar 905
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
William Butler Yeats n Poetic Symbols 906
Writing About Symbols 
Reading a Symbol 907
Analyzing a Symbol 907
Writing Assignment on Symbolism 908
More Topics for Writing 908
25	Myth and Narrative 909
Robert Frost n Nothing Gold Can Stay 911
D. H. Lawrence n Bavarian Gentians 911
William Wordsworth n The World Is Too Much with Us 912
H. D. n Helen 913
Archetype 913
Louise Bogan n Medusa 914
John Keats n La Belle Dame Sans Merci 915
Personal Myth 917
William Butler Yeats n The Second Coming 917
Gregory Orr n Two Lines from the Brothers Grimm 918
Diane Thiel n Memento Mori in Middle School 918
Myth and Popular Culture 920
Charles Martin n Taken Up 921
Andrea Hollander Budy n Snow White 922
Anne Sexton n Cinderella 923
Writing Effectively 
Writers on Writing 
Anne Sexton n Transforming Fairy Tales 923
Writing About Myth 
Demystifying Myth 926
Thinking About Myth 927
Writing Assignment on Myth 927
Student Paper n The Bonds Between Love and Hatred 
in H. D.'s "Helen" 928
More Topics for Writing 932
26	Poetry and Personal Identity 933
Sylvia Plath n Lady LazarUs 934
Rhina Espaillat n Bilingual/Bilingøe 937
Culture, Race, and Ethnicity 938
Claude McKay n America 938
Samuel Menashe n The Shrine Whose Shape I Am 939
Francisco X. Alarcøn n The X in My Name 940
Judith Ortiz Cofer n QuiNceaøera 940
Amy Uyematsu n Deliberate 941
Yusef Komunyakaa n Facing It 942
Gender 943
Anne Stevenson n Sous-Entendu 943
Emily Grosholz n Listening 944
Donald Justice n Men at Forty 945
Adrienne Rich n Women 945
For Review and Further Study 
Shirley Geok-lin Lim n Learning to love America 946
Andrew Hudgins n Elegy for My Father, Who Is 
Not Dead 946
Alastair Reid n Speaking a Foreign Language 947
Philip Larkin n Aubade 948
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Rhina Espaillat n Being a Bilingual Writer 949
Writing About the poetry of Personal Identity 
Poetic Voice and Personal Identity 951
Writing About Voice and Personal Identity 951
Writing Assignment on Personal Identity 952
More Topics for Writing 952
27	Translation 953
Is Poetic Translation Possible? 953
World Poetry 953
Li Po n Drinking Alone Beneath the Moon 
(Chinese text) 954
Li Po n (Yueh Hsia Tu ChO) Moon-Beneath Alone Drink (literal translation) 955
Translated by Arthur Waley n Drinking Alone by 
Moonlight 955
Comparing Translations 956
Horace n Carpe Diem Ode (Latin text) 956
Horace n seize the Day (literal translation) 956
Translated by Edwin Arlington Robinson n Horace to Leuconoe 957
Translated by James Michie n Don't Ask 957
Translated by A. E. Stallings n A New Year's Toast 958
Omar Khayyam n Rubai (Persian text) 958
Omar Khayyam n Rubai (literal translation) 958
Translated by Edward FitzGerald n A Book of Verses underneath the Bough 959
Translated by Robert Graves and Omar Ali-Shah n Our Day's Portion 959
Translated by Dick Davis n I Need a Bare Sufficiency 959
Parody 960
Anonymous n We four lads from Liverpool are 961
Wendy Cope n From Strugnell's Rubaiyat 961
Hugh Kingsmill n What, still alive at twenty-two? 962
Bruce Bennett n The Lady Speaks Again 962
Gene Fehler n If Richard Lovelace Became a Free Agent 962
Aaron Abeyta n thirteen ways of looking at a tortilla 963
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Arthur Waley n The Method of Translation 965
Writing a Parody 
Parody Is the Sincerest Form of Flattery 966
Writing a Parody 966
Writing Assignment on Parody 967
More Topics for Writing 967
28	Poetry in Spanish: Literature of Latin America 968
Sor Juana n Asegura la Confianza de que OculturÁ de todo un Secreto 970
Translated by Diane Thiel n She Promises to Hold a Secret in Confidence 970
Sor Juana n Presente en que el Cariøo Hace Regalo la Llaneza 970
Translated by Diane Thiel n A Simple Gift Made Rich by Affection 970
Pablo Neruda n Muchos Somos 971
Translated by Alastair Reid n We Are Many 971
Pablo Neruda n Cien Sonetos de Amor (V) 973
Translated by Stephen Tapscott n One Hundred 
Love Sonnets (V) 973
Jorge Luis Borges n Amorosa AnticipaciÓn 974
Translated by Robert Fitzgerald n Anticipation of Love 975
Jorge Luis Borges n Los Engimas 975
Translated by John Updike n The Enigmas 976
Octavio Paz n Con los ojos cerrados 977
Translated by Eliot Weinberger n With eyes closed 977
Octavio Paz n Certeza 977
Translated by Charles Tomlinson n Certainty 977
Surrealism in Latin American Poetry 978
Frida Kahlo n The Two Fridas 979
Cøsar Vallejo n La CÓlera que quiebra al hombre 
en niøos 979
Translated by Thomas Merton n Anger 980
Contemporary Mexican Poetry 981
Josø Emilio Pacheco n Alta TraiciÓn 981
Translated by Alastair Reid n High Treason 981
Francisco Hernøndez n Bajo cero 981
Translated by Carolyn Forchø n Below Zero 982
Tedi Løpez Mills n Convalecencia 982
Translated by Tedi Løpez Mills n Convalescence 982
Writers on Writing 
Octavio Paz n In Search of the Present 983
Writers on Translating 
Alastair Reid n Translating Neruda 983
Writing Assignment on Spanish Poetry 984
More Topics for Writing 984
29	Recognizing Excellence 985
Anonymous n O Moon, when I gaze on thy beautiful face 987
Grace Treasone n Life 987
Emily Dickinson n A Dying Tiger / moaned for Drink 987
Rod McKuen n Thoughts on Capital Punishment 990
William Stafford n Traveling Through the Dark 991
Wallace McRae n Reincarnation 992
Recognizing Excellence 993
William Butler Yeats n Sailing to Byzantium 994
Arthur Guiterman n On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness 996
Percy Bysshe Shelley n Ozymandias 996
Robert Hayden n The Whipping 997
Elizabeth Bishop n One Art 998
W. H. Auden n September 1, 1939 999
Walt Whitman n O Captain! My Captain! 1002
Paul Laurence Dunbar n We Wear the Mask 1004
Emma Lazarus n The New Colossus 1005
Edgar Allan Poe n Annabel Lee 1006
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Edgar Allan Poe n A Long Poem Does Not Exist 1007
Writing an Evaluation 
You Be the Judge 1007
Evaluating a Poem 1007
Writing Assignment on Evaluating a Poem 1008
More Topics for Writing 1008
30	What Is Poetry? 1009
Archibald MacLeish n Ars Poetica 1009
Dante, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Hardy, Emily Dickinson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, Mina Loy, T. S. Eliot, W. H. Auden, J. V. Cunningham, Elizabeth Bishop, 
Jorge Luis Borges, Octavio Paz, William Stafford, Robert Bly n 
Some Definitions of Poetry 1010/1011
Ha Jin n Missed Time 1012
31	Two Critical Casebooks:
Emily Dickinson and Langston Hughes 1013
Emily Dickinson 1013
Success is counted sweetest 1014
I taste a liquor never brewed 1014
Wild Nights / Wild Nights! 1015
I Felt a Funeral, in my Brain 1015
I'm Nobody! Who are you? 1016
I dwell in Possibility 1016
The Soul selects her own Society 1016
Some keep the Sabbath going to Church 1017
After great pain, a formal feeling comes 1017
This is my letter to the World 1017
I heard a Fly buzz / when I died 1018
I started Early / Took my Dog 1018
Because I could not stop for Death 1019
The Bustle in a House 1019
Tell all the Truth but tell it slant 1019
Emily Dickinson on Emily Dickinson
n Recognizing Poetry 1020
n Self-Description 1021
Critics on Emily Dickinson 
Thomas Wentworth Higginson n Meeting Emily Dickinson 1023
Thomas H. Johnson n The Discovery of Emily Dickinson's Manuscripts 1024
Richard Wilbur n The Three Privations of Emily Dickinson 1025
Cynthia Griffin Wolff n Dickinson and Death (A Reading of "Because I could not stop for Death") 1026
Judith Farr n A Reading of "My Life had stood / a Loaded Gun" 1028
Langston Hughes 1030
The Negro Speaks of Rivers 1030
Mother to Son 1031
Dream Variations 1031
I, Too 1032
The Weary Blues 1032
Song for a Dark Girl 1033
Prayer 1033
Ballad of the Landlord 1034
Ku Klux 1034
End 1035
Theme for English B 1035
Subway Rush Hour 1036
Sliver 1036
Harlem [Dream Deferred] 1037
As Befits a Man 1037
Langston Hughes on Langston Hughes
n The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain 1038
n The Harlem Renaissance 1039
Critics on Langston Hughes
Arnold Rampersad n Hughes as an Experimentalist 1041
Rita Dove and Marilyn Nelson n Langston Hughes 
and Harlem 1042
Darryl Pinckney n Black Identity in Langston Hughes 1044
Peter Townsend n Langston Hughes and Jazz 1045
Onwuchekwa Jemie n A Reading of "Dream Deferred" 1047
Topics for Writing About Emily Dickinson 1048
Topics for Writing About Langston hughes 1048
32	Critical Casebook: T. S. Eliot's "The Love Song 
of J. Alfred Prufrock" 1049
T. S. Eliot 1049
the love song of j. alfred prufrock 1051
Publishing "Prufrock"
n letters 1058
The Reviewers on Prufrock 1058
Unsigned n Review from Times Literary Supplement 1058
Unsigned n Review from Literary World 1058
Unsigned n Review from New Statesman 1058
Conrad Aiken n From "Divers Realists," The Dial 1059
Babette Deutsch n from "Another Impressionist," The New Republic 1059
Marianne Moore n From "A Note on T. S. Eliot's Book," 
Poetry 1059
May Sinclair n From "Prufrock and Other Observations: 
A Criticism," The Little Review 1060
T. S. Eliot on Writing
n Poetry and Emotion 1061
n The Objective Correlative 1062
n The Difficulty of Poetry 1062
Critics on "Prufrock"
Denis Donoghue n One of the Irrefutable Poets 1064
Christopher Ricks n What's in a Name? 1065
Philip R. Headings n The Pronouns in the Poem: "One," "You," and "I" 1066
Maud Ellmann n Will There Be Time? 1067
Burton Raffel n "Indeterminacy" in Eliot's Poetry 1068
John Berryman n Prufrock's Dilemma 1069
M. L. Rosenthal n Adolescents Singing 1072
Topics for Writing 1073
33	Poems for Further Reading 1074
Anonymous n Lord Randall 1075
Anonymous n The Three Ravens 1076
Anonymous n The Twa Corbies 1077
Anonymous (Navajo Mountain Chant) n Last Words of 
the Prophet 1077
Matthew Arnold n Dover Beach 1078
John Ashbery n At North Farm 1079
Margaret Atwood n Siren Song 1079
W. H. Auden n As I Walked Out One Evening 1081
W. H. Auden n Musøe des Beaux Arts 1083
Elizabeth Bishop n Filling Station 1084
William Blake n The Tyger 1086
William Blake n The Sick Rose 1087
Eavan Boland n Anorexic 1088
Gwendolyn Brooks n The Mother 1089
Gwendolyn Brooks n the preacher: ruminates behind 
the sermon 1090
Elizabeth Barrett Browning n How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways 1091
Robert Browning n Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister 1091
Geoffrey Chaucer n Merciless Beauty 1093
G. K. Chesterton n The Donkey 1094
Lucille Clifton n Homage to my hips 1095
Samuel Taylor Coleridge n Kubla Khan 1096
Billy Collins n Care and Feeding 1097
Hart Crane n My Grandmother's Love Letters 1098
E. E. Cummings n somewhere i have never travelled,gladly beyond 1099
Marisa de los Santos n Perfect Dress 1100
John Donne n Death be not proud 1101
John Donne n The Flea 1102
John Donne n A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning 1102
John Dryden n To the Memory of Mr. Oldham 1104
T. S. Eliot n Journey of the Magi 1104
Louise Erdrich n Indian Boarding School: The Runaways 1106
B. H. Fairchild n A Starlit Night 1107
Robert Frost n Birches 1107
Robert Frost n Mending Wall 1107
Robert Frost n Stopping by Woods on a Snowy 
Evening 1110
Allen Ginsberg n A Supermarket in California 1110
Thom Gunn n The Man with Night Sweats 1111
Donald Hall n Names of Horses 1112
Thomas Hardy n The Convergence of the Twain 1113
Thomas Hardy n The Darkling Thrush 1115
Thomas Hardy n Hap 1116
Robert Hayden n Those Winter Sundays 1117
Seamus Heaney n Digging 1117
Anthony Hecht n Adam 1119
George Herbert n Love 1121
Robert Herrick n To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time 1122
Gerard Manley Hopkins n Spring and Fall 1122
Gerard Manley Hopkins n No worst, there is none 1123
Gerard Manley Hopkins n The Windhover 1123
A. E. Housman n Loveliest of trees, the cherry now 1124
A. E. Housman n To an Athlete Dying Young 1124
Randall Jarrell n The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner 1125
Robinson Jeffers n To the Stone-cutters 1126
Ben Jonson n On My First Son 1126
Donald Justice n On the Death of Friends in Childhood 1127
John Keats n Ode on a Grecian Urn 1127
John Keats n When I have fears that I may cease to be 1129
John Keats n To Autumn 1130
Ted Kooser n Abandoned Farmhouse 1131
Philip Larkin n Home is so Sad 1132
Philip Larkin n Poetry of Departures 1133
Irving Layton n The Bull Calf 1134
Denise Levertov n The Ache of Marriage 1135
Philip Levine n They Feed They Lion 1136
Shirley Geok-lin Lim n Riding into California 1137
Robert Lowell n Skunk Hour 1138
Andrew Marvell n To His Coy Mistress 1139
Edna St. Vincent Millay n Recuerdo 1140
John Milton n How soon hath time 1141
John Milton n When I consider how my light is spent 1142
Marianne Moore n Poetry 1142
Frederick Morgan n The Master 1143
Marilyn Nelson n A Strange Beautiful Woman 1144
Howard Nemerov n The War in the Air 1145
Lorine Niedecker n Poet's Work 1145
Yone Noguchi n A Selection of Hokku 1146
Sharon Olds n The One Girl at the Boys' Party 1147
Wilfred Owen n Anthem for Doomed Youth 1148
Linda Pastan n Ethics 1148
Robert Phillips n Running on Empty 1149
Sylvia Plath n Daddy 1150
Edgar Allan Poe n A Dream within a Dream 1153
Alexander Pope n A little Learning is a dang'rous Thing 1153
Ezra Pound n The River-Merchant's Wife: a Letter 1154
Dudley Randall n A Different Image 1155
John Crowe Ransom n Piazza Piece 1155
Henry Reed n Naming of Parts 1156
Adrienne Rich n Living in Sin 1157
Edwin Arlington Robinson n Miniver Cheevy 1158
Theodore Roethke n Elegy for Jane 1159
Mary Jo Salter n Welcome to Hiroshima 1160
William Shakespeare n When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes 1162
William Shakespeare n Not marble nor the gilded 
monuments 1162
William Shakespeare n That time of year thou mayst in 
me behold 1163
William Shakespeare n My mistress' eyes are nothing like
the sun 1164
Louis Simpson n American Poetry 1164
David R. Slavitt n Titanic 1164
Christopher Smart n For I will consider my Cat Jeoffry 1165
William Jay Smith n American Primitive 1167
Cathy Song n Stamp Collecting 1168
William Stafford n The Farm on the Great Plains 1169
Wallace Stevens n The Emperor of Ice-Cream 1170
Jonathan Swift n A Description of the Morning 1171
Larissa Szporluk n Vertigo 1172
Sara Teasdale n The Flight 1173
Alfred, Lord Tennyson n Dark house, by which once more 
I stand 1173
Alfred, Lord Tennyson n Ulysses 1174
Dylan Thomas n Fern Hill 1176
John Updike n Ex-Basketball Player 1177
Derek Walcott n The Virgins 1178
Edmund Waller n Go, Lovely Rose 1179
Walt Whitman n Song of the Open Road 1180
Walt Whitman n I Hear America Singing 1181
Richard Wilbur n The Writer 1181
C. K. Williams n Elms 1182
William Carlos Williams n Spring and All 1183
William Carlos Williams n To Waken an Old Lady 1184
William Wordsworth n Composed upon Westminster Bridge 1185
James Wright n A Blessing 1186
James Wright n Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio 1186
Mary Sidney Wroth n In This Strange Labyrinth 1187
Sir Thomas Wyatt n They flee from me that sometime did 
me sekË 1188
William Butler Yeats n Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop 1189
William Butler Yeats n The Magi 1190
William Butler Yeats n When You Are Old 1190
Bernice Zamora n Penitents 1191
34	Lives of the Poets 1192
35	Reading a Play 1223
A Play in Its Elements 1225
Susan Glaspell n Trifles 1225
Was Minnie Wright to blame for the death of her husband? While the menfolk try to unravel a mystery, two women in the kitchen turn up revealing clues.
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Susan Glaspell n Creating Trifles 1241
Writing About Conflict 
Conflict Resolution 1242
Analyzing Conflict 1243
Writing Assignment on Conflict 1243
Student Paper n Outside Trifles 1244
More Topics for Writing 1248
36	Modes of Drama: Tragedy and Comedy 1249
Tragedy 1249
Christopher Marlowe n scene From Doctor Faustus 
(act 2, scene 1) 1251
In this scene from the classic drama, a brilliant scholar sells his soul to the devil. How smart is that?
Comedy 1257
David Ives n Sure Thing 1259
Bill wants to pick up Betty in a cafe, but he makes every mistake in the book. Luckily, he not only gets a second chance, but a third and a fourth as well.
Jane Martin n Beauty 1269
We've all wanted to be someone else at one time or another. But what would happen if we got our wish?
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
David Ives n On the One-Act Play 1274
Writing About Comedy 
Getting Serious About Comedy 1275
Writing About a Comedy 1276
Writing Assignment on Comedy 1276
More Topics for Writing 1276
37	Critical Casebook: Sophocles 1277
The Theater of Sophocles 1277
Staging 1278
The Civic Role of Greek Drama 1280
Aristotle's Concept of Tragedy 1282
Sophocles 1283
The Origins of Oedipus the King 1284
Sophocles n Oedipus the King (Translated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald) 1285
"Who is the man proclaimed / by Delphi's prophetic rock / as the bloody handed murderer / the doer of deeds that none dare name? / . . . Terrribly close on his heels are the Fates that never miss."
The Background of Antigonø 1323
Sophocles n AntigonÊ (Translated by Dudley Fitts and 
Robert Fitzgerald) 1324
In one of the great plays of classical Greek drama, a daughter of Oedipus strives to give the body of her slain brother a proper burial. Soon she finds herself in conflict with a king.
Critics on Sophocles
Aristotle n Defining Tragedy 1353
Sigmund Freud n The Destiny of Oedipus 1354
E. R. Dodds n On Misunderstanding Oedipus 1355
A. E. Haigh n The Irony of Sophocles 1356
David Wiles n The Chorus as Democrat 1358
Patricia M. Lines n AntigonÊ's Flaw 1358
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Robert Fitzgerald n Translating Sophocles into English 1361
Writing About Greek Tragedy 
Some Things Change. Some Things Don't 1362
Analyzing Greek Tragedy 1362
Writing Assignment on Sophocles 1362
More Topics for Writing 1363
38	Critical Casebook: Shakespeare 1364
The Theater of Shakespeare 1365
William Shakespeare 1366
A Note on Othello 1367
William Shakespeare n Othello, the Moor of Venice 1368
Here is a story of jealousy, that "green-eyed monster which doth mock / The meat it feeds on"; of a passionate, suspicious man and his blameless wife, of a serpent masked as a friend.
The Background of Hamlet 1470
William Shakespeare n Hamlet, Prince of Denmark 1472
In perhaps the most celebrated play in English, a ghost demands that young Prince Hamlet avenge his father's "most foul and unnatural murder." But how can Hamlet be sure that the apparition is indeed his father's spirit?
The Background of A Midsummer Night's Dream 1590
William Shakespeare n A Midsummer Night's Dream 1592
"The course of true love never did run smooth" is the right motto for this romantic comedy in which love, magic, and mistaken identity combine for madcap results.
Critics on Shakespeare
Anthony Burgess n An Asian Culture Looks at 
Shakespeare 1658
A. C. Bradley n Hamlet's Melancholy 1659
Rebecca West n Hamlet and Ophelia 1660
Jan Kott n Producing Hamlet 1662
Joel Wingard n Reader-Response Issues in Hamlet 1663
W. H. Auden n Iago as a Triumphant Villain 1664
Maud Bodkin n Lucifer in Shakespeare's Othello 1665
Virginia Mason Vaughan n Black and White in 
Othello 1665
Clare Asquith n Shakespeare's Language as a Hidden Political Code 1666
Germaine Greer n Shakespeare's "Honest Mirth" 1667
Linda Bamber n Female Power in A Midsummer Night's 
Dream 1668
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing 
Ben Jonson n On His Friend and Rival William Shakespeare 1669
Writing About Shakespeare 
Breaking the Language Barrier 1670
Reading a Shakespearean Play 1670
Writing Assignment on Tragedy 1671
Student Paper n Othello: Tragedy or Soap Opera? 1671
More Topics for Writing 1676
39	The Modern Theater 1677
Realism and Naturalism 1677
Henrik Ibsen n A Doll's House (Translated by James McFarlane) 1679
The founder of modern drama portrays a troubled marriage. Helmer, the bank manager, regards his wife Nora as a chuckleheaded pet; not knowing the truth may shatter his smug world.
Writers on Writing 
Henrik Ibsen n Correspondence on the Final Scene of 
A Doll's House 1735
Tragicomedy and the Absurd 1736
Milcha Sanchez-Scott n The Cuban Swimmer 1739
Nineteen-year-old Margarita Suørez wants to win a Southern California distance swimming race. Is her family behind her? Quite literally!
Writers on Writing 
Milcha Sanchez-Scott n Writing The Cuban Swimmer 1752
Writing Effectively
Writing About Dramatic Realism 
What's so Realistic About Realism? 1753
Writing About a Realist Play 1754
Writing Assignment on Realism 1754
Student Essay n Helmer vs. Helmer 1755
More Topics for Writing 1758
40	Evaluating a Play 1759
Writing an Evaluation of a Play 
Judging a Play 1760
Evaluating a Play 1761
Writing Assignment on Evaluation 1761
More Topics for Writing 1761
41	Plays for Further Reading 1763
Arthur Miller n Death of a Salesman 1763
Willy Loman has bright dreams for himself and his two sons, but he is an aging salesman whose only assets are a shoeshine and a smile. A modern classic about the downfall of an ordinary American.
Writers on Writing 
Arthur Miller n Tragedy and the Common Man 1833
Tennessee Williams n The Glass Menagerie 1836
Painfully shy and retiring, shunning love, Laura dwells in a world as fragile as her collection of tiny figurines; until one memorable night a gentleman comes to call.
Writers on Writing 
Tennessee Williams n How to Stage The Glass Menagerie 1883
42	New Voices in American Drama 1886
Rita Dove n The Darker Face of the Earth 1886
The timelessness of the great myths is displayed as a Pulitzer Prize-winning poet sets the Oedipus story on a South Carolina plantation before the Civil War.
Writers on Writing 
Rita Dove n The Inspiration for The Darker Face of the 
Earth 1958
Beth Henley n Am I Blue 1959
His friends want to give John Polk a good time for his eighteenth birthday, but he finds something much more valuable instead.
Writers on Writing 
Beth Henley n A Playwright Is Born 1975
David Henry Hwang n The Sound of a Voice 1978
A strange man arrives at a solitary woman's home in the remote countryside. As they fall in love, they discover disturbing secrets about one another's past.
Writers on Writing 
David Henry Hwang n Multicultural Theater 1991
Terrence McNally n Andre's Mother 1992
After Andre's funeral the four people who loved him most walk into Central Park together. Three of them talk about their grief, but Andre's mother remains silent about her son, dead of AIDS.
Writers on Writing 
Terrence McNally n How to Write a Play 1995
August Wilson n Fences 1996
A proud man's love for his wife and children is choked by his rigidity and 
self-righteousness, in this powerful drama by one of the great American playwrights of our time.
Writers on Writing
August Wilson n A Look into Black America 2047
43	Writing About Literature 2051
Reading Actively 2051
Robert Frost n Nothing Gold Can Stay 2052
Planning Your Essay 2053
Prewriting: Discovering Ideas 2054
Sample Student Prewriting Exercises 2054/2058
Developing a Literary Argument 2057
Developing a Literary Argument 2060
Writing a Rough Draft 2060
Sample Student Paper n (Rough Draft) 2061
Revising 2063
Revision Steps 2067
Some Final Advice on Rewriting 2068
Sample Student Paper n (Final Draft) 2069
Using Critical Sources and Maintaining Academic Integrity 2072
The Form of Your Finished Paper 2072
Spell-Check and Grammar-Check Programs 2073
Anonymous (after a poem by Jerrold H. Zar) n A Little Poem Regarding Computer Spell Checkers 2074
44	Writing About a Story 2075
Reading Actively 2075
Thinking About a Story 2077
Preparing to Write: Discovering Ideas 2077
Sample Student Prewriting Exercises 2077/2080
Writing a First Draft 2080
Writing a Rough Draft 2081
Revising 2081
Revision 2083
What's Your Purpose? Some Common Approaches to Writing About Fiction 2083
explication 2083
Sample Student Paper n (explication) 2085
analysis 2088
Sample Student Paper n (analysis) 2089
the card report 2092
Sample Student Card Report 2093
comparison and contrast 2095
Sample Student Paper n (comparison and contrast) 2096
Topics for Writing 2098
45	Writing About a Poem 2101
Getting Started 2101
Reading Actively 2101
Robert Frost n Design 2102
Thinking About a Poem 2102
Preparing to Write: Discovering Ideas 2103
Sample Student Prewriting Exercises 2103/2106
Writing a First Draft 2106
Writing a Rough Draft 2107
Revising 2108
Revision 2110
Some Common Approaches to Writing About Poetry 2110
explication 2110
Sample Student Paper n (explication) 2111
a critic's explication of frost's "design" 2114
analysis 2115
Sample Student Paper n (analysis) 2116
comparison and contrast 2118
Abbie Huston Evans n Wing-Spread 2118
Sample Student Paper n (comparison and contrast) 2119
How to Quote a Poem 2121
Topics for Writing 2123
Robert Frost n In White 2124
46	Writing About a Play 2126
Reading a Play 2126
Some Methods of Writing About Drama 2127
explication 2128
analysis 2128
comparison and contrast 2128
card report 2128
Sample Student Card Report 2130
a drama review 2132
Sample Student Drama Review 2133
How to Quote a Play 2134
Topics for Writing 2135
47	Writing a Research Paper 2138
Getting Started 2138
Choosing a Topic 2139
Finding Research Sources 2139
Finding Print Resources 2139
Using Online Databases 2140
Finding Reliable Web Sources 2140
Finding Sources 2141
Using Visual Images 2142
Using Visual Images 2143
Evaluating Sources 2143
evaluating Print Resources 2143
evaluating Web Resources 2144
Evaluating Sources 2144
Organizing Your Research 2145
Refining Your Thesis 2147
Organizing Your Paper 2147
Writing and Revising 2148
Guarding Academic Integrity 2149
Papers for Sale Are Papers that "F"ail 2149
A Warning Against Internet Plagiarism 2149
Acknowledging Sources 2149
Quoting a Source 2150
Citing Ideas 2150
Documenting Sources Using MLA Style 2151
List of Sources 2152
Parenthetical References 2152
Works Cited List 2152
Citing Print Sources in MLA Style 2153
Citing Internet Sources in MLA Style 2154
Sample Works Cited List 2155
Endnotes and Footnotes 2156
Concluding Thoughts 2158
Reference Guide for Citations 2159
48	Writing as Discovery: Keeping a Journal 2166
The Rewards of Keeping a Journal 2166
Sample Journal Entry 2168
Sample Student Journal 2169
49	Writing an Essay Exam 2172
50	Critical Approaches to Literature 2177
Formalist Criticism 2178
Cleanth Brooks n The Formalist Critic 2178
Michael Clark n Light and Darkness in "Sonny's Blues" 2179
Robert Langbaum n On Robert Browning's "My Last 
Duchess" 2180
Biographical Criticism 2182
Virginia Llewellyn Smith n Chekhov's Attitude to Romantic Love 2183
Brett C. Millier n On Elizabeth Bishop's "One Art" 2185
Emily Toth n The Source for Alcøø LaballiÈre in 
"The Storm" 2186
Historical Criticism 2187
Hugh Kenner n Imagism 2187
Joseph Moldenhauer n "To His Coy Mistress" and the Renaissance Tradition 2189
Kathryn Lee Seidel n The Economics of zora neal hurston's "Sweat" 2190
Psychological Criticism 2192
Sigmund Freud n The Nature of Dreams 2193
Gretchen Schulz and R. J. R. Rockwood n Fairy Tale Motifs in "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" 2194
Harold Bloom n Poetic Influence 2195
Mythological Criticism 2196
Carl Jung n The Collective Unconscious and 
Archetypes 2197
Northrop Frye n Mythic Archetypes 2198
Edmond Volpe n Myth in Faulkner's "Barn Burning" 2198
Sociological Criticism 2200
Georg Lukacs n Content Determines Form 2201
Daniel P. Watkins n Money and Labor in "The Rocking-Horse Winner" 2201
Alfred Kazin n Walt Whitman and Abraham Lincoln 2203
Gender Criticism 2204
Elaine Showalter n Toward a Feminist Poetics 2204
Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar n The Freedom of 
Emily Dickinson 2205
Nina Pelikan Straus n Transformations in 
The Metamorphosis 2206
Reader-Response Criticism 2207
Stanley Fish n An Eskimo "A Rose for Emily" 2208
Robert Scholes n "How Do We Make a Poem?" 2209
Michael J. Colacurcio n The End of Young Goodman Brown 2211
Deconstructionist Criticism 2212
Roland Barthes n The Death of the Author 2213
Barbara Johnson n Rigorous Unreliability 2213
Geoffrey Hartman n On Wordsworth's "A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal" 2214
Cultural Studies 2216
Vincent B. Leitch n Poststructuralist Cultural Critique 2217
Mark Bauerlein n What Is Cultural Studies? 2218
Camille Paglia n A Reading of William Blake's "The Chimney Sweeper" 2220
	Glossary of Literary Terms G1
Literary Acknowledgments A1
Photo Acknowledgments A16
Index of Major Themes I1
Index of First Lines of Poetry Ixx
Index of Authors and Titles Ixx
Index of Literary Terms Ixx
Writing Resources in Literature (inside front cover) 
Authors in Literature (inside back cover) 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Literature -- Collections.