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Contents Preface xlv To the Instructor xlix About the Authors lxi Fiction 1 Reading a Story 3 Fable, Parable, and Tale 4 W. Somerset Maugham n The Appointment in Samarra 4 A servant tries to gallop away from Death in this brief sardonic fable retold in memorable form by a popular storyteller. Aesop n The North Wind and the Sun 5 The North Wind and the Sun argue who is stronger and decide to try their powers on an unsuspecting traveler. Bidpai n The Camel and His Friends 6 With friends like these, you can guess what the camel doesn't need. Chuang Tzu n Independence 8 The Prince of Ch'u asks the philosopher Chuang Tzu to become his advisor and gets a surprising reply in this classic Chinese fable. Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm n Godfather Death 9 Neither God nor the Devil came to the christening. In this stark folktale, a young man receives magical powers with a string attached. Plot 11 The Short Story 13 John Updike n A & P 14 In walk three girls in nothing but bathing suits, and Sammy finds himself no longer an aproned checkout clerk but an armored knight. Writing Effectively Writers on Writing John Updike n Why Write? 20 Writing About Plot Paying Attention to Plot 20 Checklist Analyzing Plot 21 Writing Assignment on Plot 22 More Topics for Writing 22 2 Point of View 23 William Faulkner n A Rose for Emily 28 Proud, imperious Emily Grierson defied the town from the fortress of her mansion. Who could have guessed the secret that lay within? Anne Tyler n Teenage Wasteland 35 With her troubled son, his teachers, and a peculiar tutor all giving her their own versions of what's going on with him, what's a mother to do? James Baldwin n Sonny's Blues 43 Two brothers in Harlem see life differently. The older brother is the sensible family man, but Sonny wants to be a jazz musician. Eudora Welty n A Worn Path 64 When the man said to old Phoenix, "you must be a hundred years old, and scared of nothing," he might have been exaggerating, but not by much. Writing Effectively Writers on Writing James Baldwin n Race and the African American Writer 70 Writing about Point of View How Point of View Shapes a Story 71 Checklist Understanding Point of View 71 Writing Assignment on Point of View 72 More Topics for Writing 72 3 Character 73 Katherine Anne Porter n The Jilting of Granny Weatherall 76 For sixty years Ellen Weatherall has fought back the memory of that terrible day, but now once more the priest waits in the house. Katherine Mansfield n Miss Brill 83 Sundays had long brought joy to solitary Miss Brill, until one fateful day when she happened to share a bench with two lovers in the park. Tobias Wolff n The Rich Brother 86 Blood may be thicker than water, but sometimes the tension between brothers is thicker than blood. Raymond Carver n Cathedral 98 He had never expected to find himself trying to describe a cathedral to a blind man. He hadn't even wanted to meet this odd, old friend of his wife. Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Raymond Carver n Commonplace but Precise Language 109 Writing About Character How Character Creates Action 110 Checklist Writing About Character 110 Writing Assignment on Character 110 More Topics for Writing 111 4 Setting 112 Kate Chopin n The Storm 115 Even with her husband away, Calixta feels happily, securely married. Why then should she not shelter an old admirer from the rain? Jack London n To Build a Fire 119 Seventy-five degrees below zero. Alone except for one mistrustful wolf dog, a man finds himself battling a relentless force. T. Coraghessan Boyle n Greasy Lake 130 Murky and strewn with beer cans, the lake appears a wasteland. On its shore three "dangerous characters" learn a lesson one grim night. Amy Tan n A Pair of Tickets 137 A young woman flies with her father to China to meet two half sisters she never knew existed. Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Amy Tan n Setting the Voice 150 Writing about Setting The Importance of Setting 151 Checklist Analyzing Setting 152 Writing Assignment on Setting 152 More Topics for Writing 152 5 Tone and Style 153 Ernest Hemingway n A Clean, Well-Lighted Place 156 All by himself each night, the old man lingers in the bright cafø. What does he need more than brandy? William Faulkner n Barn Burning 160 This time when Ab Snopes wields his blazing torch, his son Sarty faces a dilemma: whether to obey or defy the vengeful old man. Irony 172 O. Henry n The Gift of the Magi 174 A young husband and wife find ingenious ways to buy each other Christmas presents, in the classic story that defines the word "irony." Ha Jin n Saboteur 178 When the police unfairly arrest Mr. Chiu, he hopes for justice. After witnessing their brutality, he quietly plans revenge. Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Ernest Hemingway n The Direct Style 186 Writing About Tone and Style Be Style-Conscious 186 Checklist Thinking About Tone and Style 187 Writing Assignment on Tone and Style 187 More Topics for Writing 188 6 Theme 189 Stephen Crane n The Open Boat 191 In a lifeboat circled by sharks, tantalized by glimpses of land, a reporter scrutinizes Fate and learns about comradeship. Alice Munro n How I Met My Husband 208 When Edie meets the carnival pilot, her life gets more complicated than she expects. Luke 15:11/32 n The Parable of the Prodigal Son 220 A father has two sons. One demands his inheritance now and leaves to spend it with ruinous results. Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. n Harrison Bergeron 221 Are you handsome? Off with your eyebrows! Are you brainy? Let a transmitter sound thought-shattering beeps inside your ear. Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. n The Themes of Science Fiction 226 Writing about theme Stating the Theme 227 CheckList Determining a Story's Theme 228 Writing Assignment on Theme 228 More Topics for Writing 228 7 Symbol 229 John Steinbeck n The Chrysanthemums 231 Fenced-in Elisa feels emotionally starved; then her life promises to blossom with the arrival of the scissors-grinding man. Shirley Jackson n The Lottery 239 Splintered and faded, the sinister black box had worked its annual terror for longer than anyone in town could remember. Elizabeth Tallent n No One's a Mystery 245 A two-page story speaks volumes about an open-hearted girl and her married lover. Ursula K. Le Guin n The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas 248 Omelas is the perfect city. All of its inhabitants are happy. But everyone's prosperity depends on a hidden evil. writing effectively Writers on Writing Shirley Jackson n Biography of a Story 253 Writing About Symbols Recognizing Symbols 255 Checklist Thinking About Symbols 256 Writing Assignment on Symbols 256 Student Paper n an analysis of the symbolism in steinbeck's "the chrysanthemums" 256 More Topics for Writing 258 8 Evaluating a Story 260 Yiyun Li n A Thousand Years of Good Prayers 262 An elderly Chinese man wants to help his Americanized daughter find happiness, but are there too many secrets standing in the way? Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Yiyun Li n What I Could Not Write About Was Why I was Writing 271 Writing an Evaluation Judging a Story's Value 272 Checklist Evaluating a Story 273 Writing Assignment on Evaluating a story 273 More Topics for Writing 274 9 Reading Long Stories and Novels 275 Leo Tolstoy n The Death of Ivan Ilych 280 The supreme Russian novelist tells how a petty, ambitious judge, near the end of his wasted life, discovers a harrowing truth. Franz Kafka n The Metamorphosis 317 "When Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from troubled dreams, he found himself transformed in his bed into a monstrous insect." Kafka's famous opening sentence introduces one of the most chilling stories in world literature. Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Franz Kafka n Discussing The Metamorphosis 348 Writing About Long Stories and Novels Knowing What to Leave Out 349 Checklist Organizing Your Ideas for a Research Paper 349 Writing Assignment for a research paper 349 Student Research Paper n kafka's greatness More Topics for Writing 356 10 Critical Casebook: Flannery O'Connor 357 Flannery O'Connor n A Good Man Is Hard to Find 358 Wanted: The Misfit, a cold-blooded killer. An ordinary family vacation leads to horror; and one moment of redeeming grace. Flannery O'Connor n Revelation 368 Mrs. Turpin thinks herself Jesus' favorite child, until she meets a troubled college girl. Soon violence flares in a doctor's waiting room. Flannery O'Connor n Parker's Back 382 A tormented man tries to find his way to God and to his wife; by having himself tattooed. Flannery O'Connor on Writing From "on her own work" 396 on her catholic faith 398 From "the grotesque in southern fiction" 399 yearbook cartoons 401 Critics on Flannery O'Connor Robert H. Brinkmeyer, Jr. n Flannery O'Connor and Her Readers 402 J. O. Tate n A Good Source Is Not So Hard to Find: The Real Life Misfit 404 Mary Jane Schenck n Deconstructing "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" 407 Kathleen Feeley n The Mystery of Divine Direction: "Parker's Back" 408 Writing Effectively Writing About an Author How One Story Illuminates Another 409 Checklist Reading an Author in Depth 410 Writing Assignment on an Author 410 More Topics for Writing 410 11 Critical Casebook: Three Stories in Depth 412 Edgar Allan Poe 412 the tell-tale heart 413 The smoldering eye at last extinguished, a murderer finds that, despite all his attempts at a cover-up, his victim will be heard. Edgar Allan Poe on Writing the tale and its effect 417 on imagination 418 the philosophy of composition 418 Critics on "The Tell-Tale Heart" Daniel Hoffman n the father-figure in "the tell-tale heart" 419 Scott Peeples n "The Tell-Tale Heart" as a Love Story 421 John Chua n The Figure of the Double in Poe 421 Charlotte Perkins Gilman 424 the yellow wallpaper 424 A doctor prescribes a "rest cure" for his wife after the birth of their child. The new mother tries to settle in to life in the isolated and mysterious country house they have rented for the summer. The cure proves worse than the disease in this Gothic classic. Charlotte Perkins Gilman on Writing Why I Wrote "The Yellow Wallpaper" 435 Whatever Is 436 The Nervous Breakdown of Women 437 Critics on "The Yellow Wallpaper" Juliann Fleenor n Gender and Pathology in "The Yellow Wallpaper" 438 Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar n Imprisonment and Escape: The Psychology of Confinement 439 Elizabeth Ammons n Biographical Echoes in "The Yellow Wallpaper" 441 Alice Walker 443 everyday use 443 When successful Dee visits from the city, she has changed her name to reflect her African roots. Her mother and sister notice other things have changed, too. Alice Walker on Writing The Black Woman Writer in America 449 Reflections on Writing 451 Critics on "Everyday Use" Barbara T. Christian n "Everyday Use" and the Black Power Movement 453 Houston A. Baker and Charlotte Pierce-Baker n Stylish vs. Sacred in "Everyday Use" 455 Elaine Showalter n Quilt as Metaphor in "Everyday Use" 459 Writing Effectively Topics for Writing on "The Tell-Tale Heart" 461 Topics for Writing on "The Yellow Wallpaper" 461 Topics for Writing on "Everyday Use" 461 12 Stories for Further Reading 462 Chinua Achebe n Dead Men's Path 462 The new headmaster of the village school was determined to fight superstition, but the villagers did not agree. Anjana Appachana n The Prophecy 465 Seventeen years old and pregnant, Amrita doesn't know what to do, but before she visits the gynecologist, she consults a fortune teller. Margaret Atwood n Happy Endings 476 John and Mary meet. What happens next? This witty experimental story offers five different outcomes. Ambrose Bierce n An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge 479 At last, Peyton Farquhar's neck is in the noose. Reality mingles with dream in this classic story of the American Civil War. Jorge Luis Borges n The Gospel According to Mark 485 A young man from Buenos Aires is trapped by a flood on an isolated ranch. To pass the time he reads the Gospel to a family with unforeseen results. Willa Cather n Paul's Case 489 Paul's teachers can't understand the boy. Then one day, with stolen cash, he boards a train for New York and the life of his dreams. John Cheever n The Five-Forty-Eight 503 After their brief affair, Blake fired his secretary. He never expected she would seek revenge. Anton Chekhov n The Lady with the Pet Dog 512 Lonely and bored at a seaside resort, a couple seeks a merely casual affair. How could they know it might deepen and trouble their separate marriages? Kate Chopin n The Story of an Hour 523 "There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name." Sandra Cisneros n The House on Mango Street 525 Does where we live tell what we are? A little girl dreams of a new house, but things don't always turn out the way we want them to. Ralph Ellison n Battle Royal 526 A young black man is invited to deliver his high school graduation speech to a gathering of a Southern town's leading white citizens. What promises to be an honor turns into a nightmare of violence, humiliation, and painful self-discovery. Gabriel Garcøa Mørquez n The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World 536 Even in death, a mysterious stranger has a profound effect on all of the people in the village. Dagoberto Gilb n Look on the Bright Side 540 "You have to look on the bright side" is the motto of this story's narrator, but that gets harder and harder to do as things just keep on getting worse. Nathaniel Hawthorne n Young Goodman Brown 548 Urged on through deepening woods, a young Puritan sees; or dreams he sees; good villagers hasten toward a diabolic rite. Zora Neale Hurston n Sweat 558 Delia's hard work paid for her small house. Now her drunken husband Sykes has promised it to another woman. Kazuo Ishiguro n A Family Supper 566 Something very odd lurks beneath the surface of this family supper, and it might prove fatal. James Joyce n Araby 573 If only he can find her a token, she might love him in return. As night falls, a Dublin boy hurries to make his dream come true. Jamaica Kincaid n Girl 578 "Try to walk like a lady, and not like the slut you are so bent on becoming." An old-fashioned mother tells her daughter how to live. Jhumpa Lahiri n Interpreter of Maladies 579 Mr. Kapasi's life had settled into a quiet pattern; and then Mrs. Das and her family came into it. D. H. Lawrence n The Rocking-Horse Winner 593 Wild-eyed "as if something were going to explode in him," the boy predicts each winning horse, and gamblers rush to bet a thousand pounds. Bobbie Ann Mason n Shiloh 604 After the accident Leroy could no longer work as a truck driver. He hoped to make a new life with his wife, but she seemed strangely different. Joyce Carol Oates n Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? 613 Alone in the house, Connie finds herself helpless before the advances of a spellbinding imitation teenager, Arnold Friend. Tim O'Brien n The Things They Carried 625 What each soldier carried into the combat zone was largely determined by necessity, but each man's necessities differed. Tillie Olsen n I Stand Here Ironing 637 Deserted by her husband, forced to send away her child, a woman remembers how both she and her daughter managed to survive. Octavio Paz n My Life with the Wave 642 Meet the oddest couple ever, in this story by a Nobel Prize-winning poet. Leslie Marmon Silko n The Man to Send Rain Clouds 646 When old Teofilo dies, his friends give him a tribal burial to ensure that the rains will come for the pueblo. But can they also convince Father Paul to take part in the pagan ceremony? Helena Marøa Viramontes n The Moths 649 An angry adolescent performs a final act of love for the grandmother who made her feel "safe and guarded and not alone." Poetry 13 Reading a Poem 659 William Butler Yeats n The Lake Isle of Innisfree 661 Lyric Poetry 663 D. H. Lawrence n Piano 664 Adrienne Rich n Aunt Jennifer's Tigers 664 Narrative Poetry 665 Anonymous n Sir Patrick Spence 665 Robert Frost n "Out, Out; " 667 Dramatic Poetry 668 Robert Browning n My Last Duchess 668 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Adrienne Rich n Recalling "Aunt Jennifer's Tigers" 671 Writing a Paraphrase Can a Poem Be Paraphrased? 671 William Stafford n Ask Me 671 William Stafford n A Paraphrase of "Ask Me" 672 Checklist Paraphrasing a Poem 673 Writing Assignment on Paraphrasing 673 More Topics for Writing 673 14 Listening to a Voice 674 Tone 674 Theodore Roethke n My Papa's Waltz 674 Countee Cullen n For a Lady I Know 675 Anne Bradstreet n The Author to Her Book 676 Walt Whitman n To a Locomotive in Winter 677 Emily Dickinson n I like to see it lap the Miles 678 Benjamin Alire Søenz n To the Desert 679 Weldon Kees n For My Daughter 679 The Person in the Poem 680 Natasha Trethewey n White Lies 680 Edwin Arlington Robinson n Luke Havergal 682 Ted Hughes n Hawk Roosting 683 Suji Kwock Kim n Monologue for an Onion 684 William Wordsworth n I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud 685 Dorothy Wordsworth n Journal Entry 686 James Stephens n A Glass of Beer 686 Anne Sexton n Her Kind 687 William Carlos Williams n The Red Wheelbarrow 688 Irony 688 Robert Creeley n Oh No 688 W. H. Auden n The Unknown Citizen 690 Sharon Olds n Rites of Passage 691 John Betjeman n In Westminster Abbey 692 Sarah N. Cleghorn n The Golf Links 693 Edna St. Vincent Millay n Second Fig 693 Joseph Stroud n Missing 694 Thomas Hardy n The Workbox 694 For Review and Further Study William Blake n The Chimney Sweeper 695 David Lehman n Rejection Slip 696 William Stafford n At the Un-National Monument Along the Canadian Border 697 H. L. Hix n I Love the World, As Does Any Dancer 697 Richard Lovelace n To Lucasta 698 Wilfred Owen n Dulce et Decorum Est 698 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Wilfred Owen n War Poetry 699 Writing About Voice Listening to Tone 700 Checklist Analyzing Tone 701 Writing Assignment on Tone 701 Student Paper n Word Choice, Tone, and Point of View in Roethke's "My Papa's Waltz" 702 More Topics for Writing 705 15 Words 706 Literal Meaning: What a Poem Says First 706 William Carlos Williams n This Is Just to Say 707 Marianne Moore n Silence 708 Robert Graves n Down, Wanton, Down! 709 John Donne n Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You 709 The Value of a Dictionary 710 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow n Aftermath 711 John Clare n Mouse's Nest 712 J. V. Cunningham n Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead 713 Kelly Cherry n Advice to a Friend Who Paints 714 Carl Sandburg n Grass 714 Word Choice and Word Order 714 Robert Herrick n Upon Julia's Clothes 716 Kay Ryan n Blandeur 718 Thomas Hardy n The Ruined Maid 719 Richard Eberhart n The Fury of Aerial Bombardment 720 Wendy Cope n Lonely Hearts 721 For Review and Further Study E. E. Cummings n anyone lived in a pretty how town 722 Billy Collins n The Names 723 Anonymous n Carnation Milk 724 Kenneth Rexroth n Vitamins and Roughage 725 Gina Valdøs n English con Salsa 725 Lewis Carroll n Jabberwocky 726 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Lewis Carroll n Humpty Dumpty Explicates "Jabberwocky" 727 Writing About Diction Every Word Counts 728 Checklist Thinking About Word Choice 729 Writing Assignment on Word Choice 729 More Topics for Writing 730 16 Saying and Suggesting 731 John Masefield n Cargoes 732 William Blake n London 733 Wallace Stevens n Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock 735 Gwendolyn Brooks n Southeast Corner 735 Timothy Steele n Epitaph 736 E. E. Cummings n next to of course god america i 736 Robert Frost n Fire and Ice 737 Clare Rossini n Final Love Note 737 Jennifer Reeser n Winter-proof 738 Alfred, Lord Tennyson n Tears, Idle Tears 738 Richard Wilbur n Love Calls Us to the Things of This World 739 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Richard Wilbur n Concerning "Love Calls Us to the Things of This World" 740 Writing About Denotation and Connotation The Ways a Poem Suggests 741 Checklist Analyzing What a Poem Says and Suggests 742 Writing Assignment on Denotation and Connotation 742 More Topics for Writing 742 17 Imagery 743 Ezra Pound n In a Station of the Metro 743 Taniguchi Buson n The piercing chill I feel 743 T. S. Eliot n The winter evening settles down 745 Theodore Roethke n Root Cellar 745 Elizabeth Bishop n The Fish 746 Anne Stevenson n The Victory 748 Charles Simic n Fork 748 Emily Dickinson n A Route of Evanescence 749 Jean Toomer n Reapers 749 Gerard Manley Hopkins n Pied Beauty 750 About Haiku 750 Arakida Moritake n The falling flower 750 Matsuo Basho n Heat-lightning streak 751 Matsuo Basho n In the old stone pool 751 Taniguchi Buson n On the one-ton temple bell 751 Taniguchi Buson n I go 751 Kobayashi Issa n only one guy 752 Kobayashi Issa n Cricket 752 Haiku from Japanese Internment Camps 752 Suiko Matsushita n Rain shower from mountain 752 Neiji Ozawa n War forced us from California 752 Hakuro Wada n Even the croaking of frogs 752 Contemporary American Haiku 753 Etheridge Knight, Lee Gurga, Penny Harter, Jennifer Brutschy, John Ridland, Connie Bensley, Adelle Foley, Garry Gay 754 For Review and Further Study John Keats n Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art 754 Walt Whitman n The Runner 754 T. E. Hulme n Image 754 William Carlos Williams n El Hombre 755 Chana Bloch n Tired Sex 755 Robert Bly n Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter 755 Rita Dove n Silos 755 Louise Gløck n Mock Orange 756 Billy Collins n Embrace 756 John Haines n Winter News 757 Stevie Smith n Not Waving but Drowning 757 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Ezra Pound n The Image 758 Writing About Imagery Analyzing Images 758 Checklist Thinking About Imagery 759 Writing Assignment on Imagery 760 Student Paper n Elizabeth Bishop's Use of Imagery in "The Fish" 760 More Topics for Writing 765 18 Figures of Speech 766 Why Speak Figuratively? 766 Alfred, Lord Tennyson n The Eagle 767 William Shakespeare n Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? 768 Howard Moss n Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day? 768 Metaphor and Simile 768 Emily Dickinson n My Life had stood / a Loaded Gun 770 Alfred, Lord Tennyson n Flower in the Crannied Wall 771 William Blake n To see a world in a grain of sand 771 Sylvia Plath n Metaphors 771 N. Scott Momaday n Simile 772 Emily Dickinson n It dropped so low / in my Regard 772 Craig Raine n A Martian Sends a Postcard Home 773 Other Figures of Speech 775 James Stephens n The Wind 775 Margaret Atwood n You fit into me 778 John Ashbery n The Cathedral Is 778 George Herbert n The Pulley 778 Dana Gioia n Money 779 Charles Simic n My Shoes 779 For Review and Further Study Robert Frost n The Silken Tent 780 April Lindner n Low Tide 781 Jane Kenyon n The Suitor 781 Robert Frost n The Secret Sits 782 A. R. Ammons n Coward 782 Kay Ryan n Turtle 782 Heather McHugh n Language Lesson, 1976 782 Robinson Jeffers n Hands 783 Robert Burns n Oh, my love is like a red, red rose 784 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Robert Frost n The Importance of Poetic Metaphor 784 Writing About Metaphors How Metaphors Enlarge a Poem's Meaning 785 Checklist Analyzing Metaphor 785 Writing Assignment on Figures of Speech 785 More Topics for Writing 786 19 Song 787 Singing and Saying 787 Ben Jonson n To Celia 788 Anonymous n The Cruel Mother 789 William Shakespeare n O Mistress Mine 790 Edwin Arlington Robinson n Richard Cory 792 Paul Simon n Richard Cory 792 Ballads 793 Anonymous n Bonny Barbara Allan 793 Dudley Randall n Ballad of Birmingham 793 Blues 797 Bessie Smith with Clarence Williams n Jailhouse Blues 798 W. H. Auden n Funeral Blues 799 Rap 799 Run D.M.C. n from Peter Piper 800 For Review and Further Study John Lennon and Paul McCartney n Eleanor Rigby 801 Bob Dylan n The Times They Are a-Changin' 802 Aimee Mann n Deathly 804 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Paul McCartney n Creating "Eleanor Rigby" 805 Writing About Song Lyrics Poetry's Close Kinship with Song 806 Checklist Looking at Lyrics as Poetry 806 Writing Assignment on Song Lyrics 807 More Topics for Writing 807 20 Sound 808 Sound as Meaning 808 Alexander Pope n True Ease in Writing comes from Art, not Chance 809 William Butler Yeats n Who Goes with Fergus? 811 John Updike n Recital 811 William Wordsworth n A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal 812 Emanuel di Pasquale n Rain 812 Aphra Behn n When maidens are young 812 Alliteration and Assonance 812 A. E. Housman n Eight O'Clock 814 James Joyce n All day I hear 814 Alfred, Lord Tennyson n The splendor falls on castle walls 815 Rime 815 William Cole n On my boat on Lake Cayuga 816 James Reeves n Rough Weather 818 Hilaire Belloc n The Hippopotamus 819 Ogden Nash n The Panther 819 William Butler Yeats n Leda and the Swan 820 Gerard Manley Hopkins n God's Grandeur 820 Fred Chappell n Narcissus and Echo 821 Robert Frost n Desert Places 822 Reading and Hearing Poems Aloud 823 Michael Stillman n In Memoriam John Coltrane 824 William Shakespeare n Full fathom five thy father lies 825 Chryss Yost n Lai with Sounds of Skin 825 T. S. Eliot n Virginia 825 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing T. S. Eliot n The Music of Poetry 826 Writing About Sound Listening to the Music 827 Checklist Writing About a Poem's Sound 827 Writing Assignment on Sound 828 More Topics for Writing 828 21 Rhythm 829 Stresses and Pauses 829 Gwendolyn Brooks n We Real Cool 833 Alfred, Lord Tennyson n Break, Break, Break 834 Ben Jonson n Slow, slow, fresh fount, keep time with my salt tears 834 Sir Thomas Wyatt n With serving still 835 Dorothy Parker n Røsumø 836 Meter 836 Max Beerbohm n On the imprint of the first English edition of The Works of Max Beerbohm 836 Thomas Campion n Rose-cheeked Laura, come 842 Edna St. Vincent Millay n Counting-out Rhyme 843 Jacqueline Osherow n Song for the Music in the Warsaw Ghetto 844 A. E. Housman n When I was one-and-twenty 844 William Carlos Williams n Smell! 845 Walt Whitman n Beat! Beat! Drums! 845 David Mason n Song of the Powers 846 Langston Hughes n Dream Boogie 846 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Gwendolyn Brooks n Hearing "We Real Cool" 847 Writing About Rhythm Freeze-Framing the Sound 848 Checklist Scanning a Poem 848 Writing Assignment on Rhythm 849 More Topics for Writing 849 22 Closed Form 850 Formal Patterns 851 John Keats n This living hand, now warm and capable 851 Robert Graves n Counting the Beats 853 John Donne n Song ("Go and catch a falling star") 854 Phillis Levin n Brief Bio 856 The Sonnet 856 William Shakespeare n Let me not to the marriage of true minds 857 Michael Drayton n Since there's no help, come let us kiss and part 858 Edna St. Vincent Millay n What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why 858 Robert Frost n Acquainted with the Night 859 Kim Addonizio n First Poem for You 860 Mark Jarman n Unholy Sonnet: Hands Folded 860 Timothy Steele n Summer 861 A. E. Stallings n Sine Qua Non 861 R. S. Gwynn n Shakespearean Sonnet 862 The Epigram 862 Alexander Pope, Sir John Harrington, Robert Herrick, William Blake, E. E. Cummings, Langston Hughes, J. V. Cunningham, John Frederick Nims, Stevie Smith, Brad Leithauser, Dick Davis, Anonymous, Hilaire Belloc, Wendy Cope n A Selection of Epigrams 863/865 W. H. Auden, Edmund Clerihew Bentley, Cornelius J. Ter Maat n Clerihews 865/866 Other Forms 866 Robert Pinsky n ABC 866 Dylan Thomas n Do not go gentle into that good night 867 Robert Bridges n Triolet 867 Elizabeth Bishop n Sestina 868 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing A. E. Stallings n On Form and Artifice 870 Writing About Form Turning Points 871 Checklist Thinking About a Sonnet 871 Writing Assignment on a Sonnet 872 More Topics for Writing 872 23 Open Form 873 Denise Levertov n Ancient Stairway 873 E. E. Cummings n Buffalo Bill 's 877 W. S. Merwin n For the Anniversary of My Death 877 William Carlos Williams n The Dance 878 Stephen Crane n The Heart 879 Walt Whitman n Cavalry Crossing a Ford 879 Ezra Pound n Salutation 880 Wallace Stevens n Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird 880 Prose Poetry 882 Carolyn Forchø n The Colonel 883 Charles Simic n The Magic Study of Happiness 883 Visual Poetry 884 George Herbert n Easter Wings 884 John Hollander n Swan and Shadow 885 Terry Ehret n from Papyrus 886 Dorthi Charles n Concrete Cat 887 Found Poetry 888 Ronald Gross n Yield 888 Seeing the Logic of Open Form Verse 889 E. E. Cummings n in Just- 889 Carole Satyamurti n I Shall Paint My Nails Red 890 Alice Fulton n Failure 890 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Walt Whitman n The Poetry of the Future 891 Writing About Free Verse Lining Up for Free Verse 892 Checklist Analyzing Line Breaks in Free Verse 892 Writing Assignment on Open Form 893 More Topics for Writing 893 24 Symbol 894 T. S. Eliot n The Boston Evening Transcript 895 Emily Dickinson n The Lightning is a yellow Fork 896 Thomas Hardy n Neutral Tones 897 Matthew 13:24/30 n The Parable of the Good Seed 898 George Herbert n The World 899 Edwin Markham n Outwitted 900 John Ciardi n A Box Comes Home 900 Robert Frost n The Road Not Taken 901 Christina Rossetti n Uphill 902 Christian Wiman n Po ÿstolka 902 For Review and Further Study William Carlos Williams n The Term 903 Ted Kooser n Carrie 904 Jane Hirshfield n Tree 904 Jon Stallworthy n An Evening Walk 905 Lorine Niedecker n Popcorn-can cover 905 Wallace Stevens n Anecdote of the Jar 905 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing William Butler Yeats n Poetic Symbols 906 Writing About Symbols Reading a Symbol 907 Checklist Analyzing a Symbol 907 Writing Assignment on Symbolism 908 More Topics for Writing 908 25 Myth and Narrative 909 Robert Frost n Nothing Gold Can Stay 911 D. H. Lawrence n Bavarian Gentians 911 William Wordsworth n The World Is Too Much with Us 912 H. D. n Helen 913 Archetype 913 Louise Bogan n Medusa 914 John Keats n La Belle Dame Sans Merci 915 Personal Myth 917 William Butler Yeats n The Second Coming 917 Gregory Orr n Two Lines from the Brothers Grimm 918 Diane Thiel n Memento Mori in Middle School 918 Myth and Popular Culture 920 Charles Martin n Taken Up 921 Andrea Hollander Budy n Snow White 922 Anne Sexton n Cinderella 923 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Anne Sexton n Transforming Fairy Tales 923 Writing About Myth Demystifying Myth 926 Checklist Thinking About Myth 927 Writing Assignment on Myth 927 Student Paper n The Bonds Between Love and Hatred in H. D.'s "Helen" 928 More Topics for Writing 932 26 Poetry and Personal Identity 933 Sylvia Plath n Lady LazarUs 934 Rhina Espaillat n Bilingual/Bilingøe 937 Culture, Race, and Ethnicity 938 Claude McKay n America 938 Samuel Menashe n The Shrine Whose Shape I Am 939 Francisco X. Alarcøn n The X in My Name 940 Judith Ortiz Cofer n QuiNceaøera 940 Amy Uyematsu n Deliberate 941 Yusef Komunyakaa n Facing It 942 Gender 943 Anne Stevenson n Sous-Entendu 943 Emily Grosholz n Listening 944 Donald Justice n Men at Forty 945 Adrienne Rich n Women 945 For Review and Further Study Shirley Geok-lin Lim n Learning to love America 946 Andrew Hudgins n Elegy for My Father, Who Is Not Dead 946 Alastair Reid n Speaking a Foreign Language 947 Philip Larkin n Aubade 948 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Rhina Espaillat n Being a Bilingual Writer 949 Writing About the poetry of Personal Identity Poetic Voice and Personal Identity 951 Checklist Writing About Voice and Personal Identity 951 Writing Assignment on Personal Identity 952 More Topics for Writing 952 27 Translation 953 Is Poetic Translation Possible? 953 World Poetry 953 Li Po n Drinking Alone Beneath the Moon (Chinese text) 954 Li Po n (Yueh Hsia Tu ChO) Moon-Beneath Alone Drink (literal translation) 955 Translated by Arthur Waley n Drinking Alone by Moonlight 955 Comparing Translations 956 Horace n Carpe Diem Ode (Latin text) 956 Horace n seize the Day (literal translation) 956 Translated by Edwin Arlington Robinson n Horace to Leuconoe 957 Translated by James Michie n Don't Ask 957 Translated by A. E. Stallings n A New Year's Toast 958 Omar Khayyam n Rubai (Persian text) 958 Omar Khayyam n Rubai (literal translation) 958 Translated by Edward FitzGerald n A Book of Verses underneath the Bough 959 Translated by Robert Graves and Omar Ali-Shah n Our Day's Portion 959 Translated by Dick Davis n I Need a Bare Sufficiency 959 Parody 960 Anonymous n We four lads from Liverpool are 961 Wendy Cope n From Strugnell's Rubaiyat 961 Hugh Kingsmill n What, still alive at twenty-two? 962 Bruce Bennett n The Lady Speaks Again 962 Gene Fehler n If Richard Lovelace Became a Free Agent 962 Aaron Abeyta n thirteen ways of looking at a tortilla 963 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Arthur Waley n The Method of Translation 965 Writing a Parody Parody Is the Sincerest Form of Flattery 966 Checklist Writing a Parody 966 Writing Assignment on Parody 967 More Topics for Writing 967 28 Poetry in Spanish: Literature of Latin America 968 Sor Juana n Asegura la Confianza de que OculturÁ de todo un Secreto 970 Translated by Diane Thiel n She Promises to Hold a Secret in Confidence 970 Sor Juana n Presente en que el Cariøo Hace Regalo la Llaneza 970 Translated by Diane Thiel n A Simple Gift Made Rich by Affection 970 Pablo Neruda n Muchos Somos 971 Translated by Alastair Reid n We Are Many 971 Pablo Neruda n Cien Sonetos de Amor (V) 973 Translated by Stephen Tapscott n One Hundred Love Sonnets (V) 973 Jorge Luis Borges n Amorosa AnticipaciÓn 974 Translated by Robert Fitzgerald n Anticipation of Love 975 Jorge Luis Borges n Los Engimas 975 Translated by John Updike n The Enigmas 976 Octavio Paz n Con los ojos cerrados 977 Translated by Eliot Weinberger n With eyes closed 977 Octavio Paz n Certeza 977 Translated by Charles Tomlinson n Certainty 977 Surrealism in Latin American Poetry 978 Frida Kahlo n The Two Fridas 979 Cøsar Vallejo n La CÓlera que quiebra al hombre en niøos 979 Translated by Thomas Merton n Anger 980 Contemporary Mexican Poetry 981 Josø Emilio Pacheco n Alta TraiciÓn 981 Translated by Alastair Reid n High Treason 981 Francisco Hernøndez n Bajo cero 981 Translated by Carolyn Forchø n Below Zero 982 Tedi Løpez Mills n Convalecencia 982 Translated by Tedi Løpez Mills n Convalescence 982 Writers on Writing Octavio Paz n In Search of the Present 983 Writers on Translating Alastair Reid n Translating Neruda 983 Writing Assignment on Spanish Poetry 984 More Topics for Writing 984 29 Recognizing Excellence 985 Anonymous n O Moon, when I gaze on thy beautiful face 987 Grace Treasone n Life 987 Emily Dickinson n A Dying Tiger / moaned for Drink 987 Rod McKuen n Thoughts on Capital Punishment 990 William Stafford n Traveling Through the Dark 991 Wallace McRae n Reincarnation 992 Recognizing Excellence 993 William Butler Yeats n Sailing to Byzantium 994 Arthur Guiterman n On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness 996 Percy Bysshe Shelley n Ozymandias 996 Robert Hayden n The Whipping 997 Elizabeth Bishop n One Art 998 W. H. Auden n September 1, 1939 999 Walt Whitman n O Captain! My Captain! 1002 Paul Laurence Dunbar n We Wear the Mask 1004 Emma Lazarus n The New Colossus 1005 Edgar Allan Poe n Annabel Lee 1006 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Edgar Allan Poe n A Long Poem Does Not Exist 1007 Writing an Evaluation You Be the Judge 1007 Checklist Evaluating a Poem 1007 Writing Assignment on Evaluating a Poem 1008 More Topics for Writing 1008 30 What Is Poetry? 1009 Archibald MacLeish n Ars Poetica 1009 Dante, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Hardy, Emily Dickinson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, Mina Loy, T. S. Eliot, W. H. Auden, J. V. Cunningham, Elizabeth Bishop, Jorge Luis Borges, Octavio Paz, William Stafford, Robert Bly n Some Definitions of Poetry 1010/1011 Ha Jin n Missed Time 1012 31 Two Critical Casebooks: Emily Dickinson and Langston Hughes 1013 Emily Dickinson 1013 Success is counted sweetest 1014 I taste a liquor never brewed 1014 Wild Nights / Wild Nights! 1015 I Felt a Funeral, in my Brain 1015 I'm Nobody! Who are you? 1016 I dwell in Possibility 1016 The Soul selects her own Society 1016 Some keep the Sabbath going to Church 1017 After great pain, a formal feeling comes 1017 This is my letter to the World 1017 I heard a Fly buzz / when I died 1018 I started Early / Took my Dog 1018 Because I could not stop for Death 1019 The Bustle in a House 1019 Tell all the Truth but tell it slant 1019 Emily Dickinson on Emily Dickinson n Recognizing Poetry 1020 n Self-Description 1021 Critics on Emily Dickinson Thomas Wentworth Higginson n Meeting Emily Dickinson 1023 Thomas H. Johnson n The Discovery of Emily Dickinson's Manuscripts 1024 Richard Wilbur n The Three Privations of Emily Dickinson 1025 Cynthia Griffin Wolff n Dickinson and Death (A Reading of "Because I could not stop for Death") 1026 Judith Farr n A Reading of "My Life had stood / a Loaded Gun" 1028 Langston Hughes 1030 The Negro Speaks of Rivers 1030 Mother to Son 1031 Dream Variations 1031 I, Too 1032 The Weary Blues 1032 Song for a Dark Girl 1033 Prayer 1033 Ballad of the Landlord 1034 Ku Klux 1034 End 1035 Theme for English B 1035 Subway Rush Hour 1036 Sliver 1036 Harlem [Dream Deferred] 1037 As Befits a Man 1037 Langston Hughes on Langston Hughes n The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain 1038 n The Harlem Renaissance 1039 Critics on Langston Hughes Arnold Rampersad n Hughes as an Experimentalist 1041 Rita Dove and Marilyn Nelson n Langston Hughes and Harlem 1042 Darryl Pinckney n Black Identity in Langston Hughes 1044 Peter Townsend n Langston Hughes and Jazz 1045 Onwuchekwa Jemie n A Reading of "Dream Deferred" 1047 Topics for Writing About Emily Dickinson 1048 Topics for Writing About Langston hughes 1048 32 Critical Casebook: T. S. Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" 1049 T. S. Eliot 1049 the love song of j. alfred prufrock 1051 Publishing "Prufrock" n letters 1058 The Reviewers on Prufrock 1058 Unsigned n Review from Times Literary Supplement 1058 Unsigned n Review from Literary World 1058 Unsigned n Review from New Statesman 1058 Conrad Aiken n From "Divers Realists," The Dial 1059 Babette Deutsch n from "Another Impressionist," The New Republic 1059 Marianne Moore n From "A Note on T. S. Eliot's Book," Poetry 1059 May Sinclair n From "Prufrock and Other Observations: A Criticism," The Little Review 1060 T. S. Eliot on Writing n Poetry and Emotion 1061 n The Objective Correlative 1062 n The Difficulty of Poetry 1062 Critics on "Prufrock" Denis Donoghue n One of the Irrefutable Poets 1064 Christopher Ricks n What's in a Name? 1065 Philip R. Headings n The Pronouns in the Poem: "One," "You," and "I" 1066 Maud Ellmann n Will There Be Time? 1067 Burton Raffel n "Indeterminacy" in Eliot's Poetry 1068 John Berryman n Prufrock's Dilemma 1069 M. L. Rosenthal n Adolescents Singing 1072 Topics for Writing 1073 33 Poems for Further Reading 1074 Anonymous n Lord Randall 1075 Anonymous n The Three Ravens 1076 Anonymous n The Twa Corbies 1077 Anonymous (Navajo Mountain Chant) n Last Words of the Prophet 1077 Matthew Arnold n Dover Beach 1078 John Ashbery n At North Farm 1079 Margaret Atwood n Siren Song 1079 W. H. Auden n As I Walked Out One Evening 1081 W. H. Auden n Musøe des Beaux Arts 1083 Elizabeth Bishop n Filling Station 1084 William Blake n The Tyger 1086 William Blake n The Sick Rose 1087 Eavan Boland n Anorexic 1088 Gwendolyn Brooks n The Mother 1089 Gwendolyn Brooks n the preacher: ruminates behind the sermon 1090 Elizabeth Barrett Browning n How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways 1091 Robert Browning n Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister 1091 Geoffrey Chaucer n Merciless Beauty 1093 G. K. Chesterton n The Donkey 1094 Lucille Clifton n Homage to my hips 1095 Samuel Taylor Coleridge n Kubla Khan 1096 Billy Collins n Care and Feeding 1097 Hart Crane n My Grandmother's Love Letters 1098 E. E. Cummings n somewhere i have never travelled,gladly beyond 1099 Marisa de los Santos n Perfect Dress 1100 John Donne n Death be not proud 1101 John Donne n The Flea 1102 John Donne n A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning 1102 John Dryden n To the Memory of Mr. Oldham 1104 T. S. Eliot n Journey of the Magi 1104 Louise Erdrich n Indian Boarding School: The Runaways 1106 B. H. Fairchild n A Starlit Night 1107 Robert Frost n Birches 1107 Robert Frost n Mending Wall 1107 Robert Frost n Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening 1110 Allen Ginsberg n A Supermarket in California 1110 Thom Gunn n The Man with Night Sweats 1111 Donald Hall n Names of Horses 1112 Thomas Hardy n The Convergence of the Twain 1113 Thomas Hardy n The Darkling Thrush 1115 Thomas Hardy n Hap 1116 Robert Hayden n Those Winter Sundays 1117 Seamus Heaney n Digging 1117 Anthony Hecht n Adam 1119 George Herbert n Love 1121 Robert Herrick n To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time 1122 Gerard Manley Hopkins n Spring and Fall 1122 Gerard Manley Hopkins n No worst, there is none 1123 Gerard Manley Hopkins n The Windhover 1123 A. E. Housman n Loveliest of trees, the cherry now 1124 A. E. Housman n To an Athlete Dying Young 1124 Randall Jarrell n The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner 1125 Robinson Jeffers n To the Stone-cutters 1126 Ben Jonson n On My First Son 1126 Donald Justice n On the Death of Friends in Childhood 1127 John Keats n Ode on a Grecian Urn 1127 John Keats n When I have fears that I may cease to be 1129 John Keats n To Autumn 1130 Ted Kooser n Abandoned Farmhouse 1131 Philip Larkin n Home is so Sad 1132 Philip Larkin n Poetry of Departures 1133 Irving Layton n The Bull Calf 1134 Denise Levertov n The Ache of Marriage 1135 Philip Levine n They Feed They Lion 1136 Shirley Geok-lin Lim n Riding into California 1137 Robert Lowell n Skunk Hour 1138 Andrew Marvell n To His Coy Mistress 1139 Edna St. Vincent Millay n Recuerdo 1140 John Milton n How soon hath time 1141 John Milton n When I consider how my light is spent 1142 Marianne Moore n Poetry 1142 Frederick Morgan n The Master 1143 Marilyn Nelson n A Strange Beautiful Woman 1144 Howard Nemerov n The War in the Air 1145 Lorine Niedecker n Poet's Work 1145 Yone Noguchi n A Selection of Hokku 1146 Sharon Olds n The One Girl at the Boys' Party 1147 Wilfred Owen n Anthem for Doomed Youth 1148 Linda Pastan n Ethics 1148 Robert Phillips n Running on Empty 1149 Sylvia Plath n Daddy 1150 Edgar Allan Poe n A Dream within a Dream 1153 Alexander Pope n A little Learning is a dang'rous Thing 1153 Ezra Pound n The River-Merchant's Wife: a Letter 1154 Dudley Randall n A Different Image 1155 John Crowe Ransom n Piazza Piece 1155 Henry Reed n Naming of Parts 1156 Adrienne Rich n Living in Sin 1157 Edwin Arlington Robinson n Miniver Cheevy 1158 Theodore Roethke n Elegy for Jane 1159 Mary Jo Salter n Welcome to Hiroshima 1160 William Shakespeare n When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes 1162 William Shakespeare n Not marble nor the gilded monuments 1162 William Shakespeare n That time of year thou mayst in me behold 1163 William Shakespeare n My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun 1164 Louis Simpson n American Poetry 1164 David R. Slavitt n Titanic 1164 Christopher Smart n For I will consider my Cat Jeoffry 1165 William Jay Smith n American Primitive 1167 Cathy Song n Stamp Collecting 1168 William Stafford n The Farm on the Great Plains 1169 Wallace Stevens n The Emperor of Ice-Cream 1170 Jonathan Swift n A Description of the Morning 1171 Larissa Szporluk n Vertigo 1172 Sara Teasdale n The Flight 1173 Alfred, Lord Tennyson n Dark house, by which once more I stand 1173 Alfred, Lord Tennyson n Ulysses 1174 Dylan Thomas n Fern Hill 1176 John Updike n Ex-Basketball Player 1177 Derek Walcott n The Virgins 1178 Edmund Waller n Go, Lovely Rose 1179 Walt Whitman n Song of the Open Road 1180 Walt Whitman n I Hear America Singing 1181 Richard Wilbur n The Writer 1181 C. K. Williams n Elms 1182 William Carlos Williams n Spring and All 1183 William Carlos Williams n To Waken an Old Lady 1184 William Wordsworth n Composed upon Westminster Bridge 1185 James Wright n A Blessing 1186 James Wright n Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio 1186 Mary Sidney Wroth n In This Strange Labyrinth 1187 Sir Thomas Wyatt n They flee from me that sometime did me sekË 1188 William Butler Yeats n Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop 1189 William Butler Yeats n The Magi 1190 William Butler Yeats n When You Are Old 1190 Bernice Zamora n Penitents 1191 34 Lives of the Poets 1192 Drama 35 Reading a Play 1223 A Play in Its Elements 1225 Susan Glaspell n Trifles 1225 Was Minnie Wright to blame for the death of her husband? While the menfolk try to unravel a mystery, two women in the kitchen turn up revealing clues. Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Susan Glaspell n Creating Trifles 1241 Writing About Conflict Conflict Resolution 1242 Checklist Analyzing Conflict 1243 Writing Assignment on Conflict 1243 Student Paper n Outside Trifles 1244 More Topics for Writing 1248 36 Modes of Drama: Tragedy and Comedy 1249 Tragedy 1249 Christopher Marlowe n scene From Doctor Faustus (act 2, scene 1) 1251 In this scene from the classic drama, a brilliant scholar sells his soul to the devil. How smart is that? Comedy 1257 David Ives n Sure Thing 1259 Bill wants to pick up Betty in a cafe, but he makes every mistake in the book. Luckily, he not only gets a second chance, but a third and a fourth as well. Jane Martin n Beauty 1269 We've all wanted to be someone else at one time or another. But what would happen if we got our wish? Writing Effectively Writers on Writing David Ives n On the One-Act Play 1274 Writing About Comedy Getting Serious About Comedy 1275 Checklist Writing About a Comedy 1276 Writing Assignment on Comedy 1276 More Topics for Writing 1276 37 Critical Casebook: Sophocles 1277 The Theater of Sophocles 1277 Staging 1278 The Civic Role of Greek Drama 1280 Aristotle's Concept of Tragedy 1282 Sophocles 1283 Plays The Origins of Oedipus the King 1284 Sophocles n Oedipus the King (Translated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald) 1285 "Who is the man proclaimed / by Delphi's prophetic rock / as the bloody handed murderer / the doer of deeds that none dare name? / . . . Terrribly close on his heels are the Fates that never miss." The Background of Antigonø 1323 Sophocles n AntigonÊ (Translated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald) 1324 In one of the great plays of classical Greek drama, a daughter of Oedipus strives to give the body of her slain brother a proper burial. Soon she finds herself in conflict with a king. Critics on Sophocles Aristotle n Defining Tragedy 1353 Sigmund Freud n The Destiny of Oedipus 1354 E. R. Dodds n On Misunderstanding Oedipus 1355 A. E. Haigh n The Irony of Sophocles 1356 David Wiles n The Chorus as Democrat 1358 Patricia M. Lines n AntigonÊ's Flaw 1358 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Robert Fitzgerald n Translating Sophocles into English 1361 Writing About Greek Tragedy Some Things Change. Some Things Don't 1362 Checklist Analyzing Greek Tragedy 1362 Writing Assignment on Sophocles 1362 More Topics for Writing 1363 38 Critical Casebook: Shakespeare 1364 The Theater of Shakespeare 1365 William Shakespeare 1366 Plays A Note on Othello 1367 William Shakespeare n Othello, the Moor of Venice 1368 Here is a story of jealousy, that "green-eyed monster which doth mock / The meat it feeds on"; of a passionate, suspicious man and his blameless wife, of a serpent masked as a friend. The Background of Hamlet 1470 William Shakespeare n Hamlet, Prince of Denmark 1472 In perhaps the most celebrated play in English, a ghost demands that young Prince Hamlet avenge his father's "most foul and unnatural murder." But how can Hamlet be sure that the apparition is indeed his father's spirit? The Background of A Midsummer Night's Dream 1590 William Shakespeare n A Midsummer Night's Dream 1592 "The course of true love never did run smooth" is the right motto for this romantic comedy in which love, magic, and mistaken identity combine for madcap results. Critics on Shakespeare Anthony Burgess n An Asian Culture Looks at Shakespeare 1658 A. C. Bradley n Hamlet's Melancholy 1659 Rebecca West n Hamlet and Ophelia 1660 Jan Kott n Producing Hamlet 1662 Joel Wingard n Reader-Response Issues in Hamlet 1663 W. H. Auden n Iago as a Triumphant Villain 1664 Maud Bodkin n Lucifer in Shakespeare's Othello 1665 Virginia Mason Vaughan n Black and White in Othello 1665 Clare Asquith n Shakespeare's Language as a Hidden Political Code 1666 Germaine Greer n Shakespeare's "Honest Mirth" 1667 Linda Bamber n Female Power in A Midsummer Night's Dream 1668 Writing Effectively Writers on Writing Ben Jonson n On His Friend and Rival William Shakespeare 1669 Writing About Shakespeare Breaking the Language Barrier 1670 Checklist Reading a Shakespearean Play 1670 Writing Assignment on Tragedy 1671 Student Paper n Othello: Tragedy or Soap Opera? 1671 More Topics for Writing 1676 39 The Modern Theater 1677 Realism and Naturalism 1677 Henrik Ibsen n A Doll's House (Translated by James McFarlane) 1679 The founder of modern drama portrays a troubled marriage. Helmer, the bank manager, regards his wife Nora as a chuckleheaded pet; not knowing the truth may shatter his smug world. Writers on Writing Henrik Ibsen n Correspondence on the Final Scene of A Doll's House 1735 Tragicomedy and the Absurd 1736 Milcha Sanchez-Scott n The Cuban Swimmer 1739 Nineteen-year-old Margarita Suørez wants to win a Southern California distance swimming race. Is her family behind her? Quite literally! Writers on Writing Milcha Sanchez-Scott n Writing The Cuban Swimmer 1752 Writing Effectively Writing About Dramatic Realism What's so Realistic About Realism? 1753 Checklist Writing About a Realist Play 1754 Writing Assignment on Realism 1754 Student Essay n Helmer vs. Helmer 1755 More Topics for Writing 1758 40 Evaluating a Play 1759 Writing an Evaluation of a Play Judging a Play 1760 Checklist Evaluating a Play 1761 Writing Assignment on Evaluation 1761 More Topics for Writing 1761 41 Plays for Further Reading 1763 Arthur Miller n Death of a Salesman 1763 Willy Loman has bright dreams for himself and his two sons, but he is an aging salesman whose only assets are a shoeshine and a smile. A modern classic about the downfall of an ordinary American. Writers on Writing Arthur Miller n Tragedy and the Common Man 1833 Tennessee Williams n The Glass Menagerie 1836 Painfully shy and retiring, shunning love, Laura dwells in a world as fragile as her collection of tiny figurines; until one memorable night a gentleman comes to call. Writers on Writing Tennessee Williams n How to Stage The Glass Menagerie 1883 42 New Voices in American Drama 1886 Rita Dove n The Darker Face of the Earth 1886 The timelessness of the great myths is displayed as a Pulitzer Prize-winning poet sets the Oedipus story on a South Carolina plantation before the Civil War. Writers on Writing Rita Dove n The Inspiration for The Darker Face of the Earth 1958 Beth Henley n Am I Blue 1959 His friends want to give John Polk a good time for his eighteenth birthday, but he finds something much more valuable instead. Writers on Writing Beth Henley n A Playwright Is Born 1975 David Henry Hwang n The Sound of a Voice 1978 A strange man arrives at a solitary woman's home in the remote countryside. As they fall in love, they discover disturbing secrets about one another's past. Writers on Writing David Henry Hwang n Multicultural Theater 1991 Terrence McNally n Andre's Mother 1992 After Andre's funeral the four people who loved him most walk into Central Park together. Three of them talk about their grief, but Andre's mother remains silent about her son, dead of AIDS. Writers on Writing Terrence McNally n How to Write a Play 1995 August Wilson n Fences 1996 A proud man's love for his wife and children is choked by his rigidity and self-righteousness, in this powerful drama by one of the great American playwrights of our time. Writers on Writing August Wilson n A Look into Black America 2047 Writing 43 Writing About Literature 2051 Reading Actively 2051 Robert Frost n Nothing Gold Can Stay 2052 Planning Your Essay 2053 Prewriting: Discovering Ideas 2054 Sample Student Prewriting Exercises 2054/2058 Developing a Literary Argument 2057 Checklist Developing a Literary Argument 2060 Writing a Rough Draft 2060 Sample Student Paper n (Rough Draft) 2061 Revising 2063 Checklist Revision Steps 2067 Some Final Advice on Rewriting 2068 Sample Student Paper n (Final Draft) 2069 Using Critical Sources and Maintaining Academic Integrity 2072 The Form of Your Finished Paper 2072 Spell-Check and Grammar-Check Programs 2073 Anonymous (after a poem by Jerrold H. Zar) n A Little Poem Regarding Computer Spell Checkers 2074 44 Writing About a Story 2075 Reading Actively 2075 Thinking About a Story 2077 Preparing to Write: Discovering Ideas 2077 Sample Student Prewriting Exercises 2077/2080 Writing a First Draft 2080 Checklist Writing a Rough Draft 2081 Revising 2081 Checklist Revision 2083 What's Your Purpose? Some Common Approaches to Writing About Fiction 2083 explication 2083 Sample Student Paper n (explication) 2085 analysis 2088 Sample Student Paper n (analysis) 2089 the card report 2092 Sample Student Card Report 2093 comparison and contrast 2095 Sample Student Paper n (comparison and contrast) 2096 Topics for Writing 2098 45 Writing About a Poem 2101 Getting Started 2101 Reading Actively 2101 Robert Frost n Design 2102 Thinking About a Poem 2102 Preparing to Write: Discovering Ideas 2103 Sample Student Prewriting Exercises 2103/2106 Writing a First Draft 2106 Checklist Writing a Rough Draft 2107 Revising 2108 Checklist Revision 2110 Some Common Approaches to Writing About Poetry 2110 explication 2110 Sample Student Paper n (explication) 2111 a critic's explication of frost's "design" 2114 analysis 2115 Sample Student Paper n (analysis) 2116 comparison and contrast 2118 Abbie Huston Evans n Wing-Spread 2118 Sample Student Paper n (comparison and contrast) 2119 How to Quote a Poem 2121 Topics for Writing 2123 Robert Frost n In White 2124 46 Writing About a Play 2126 Reading a Play 2126 Some Methods of Writing About Drama 2127 explication 2128 analysis 2128 comparison and contrast 2128 card report 2128 Sample Student Card Report 2130 a drama review 2132 Sample Student Drama Review 2133 How to Quote a Play 2134 Topics for Writing 2135 47 Writing a Research Paper 2138 Getting Started 2138 Choosing a Topic 2139 Finding Research Sources 2139 Finding Print Resources 2139 Using Online Databases 2140 Finding Reliable Web Sources 2140 Checklist Finding Sources 2141 Using Visual Images 2142 Checklist Using Visual Images 2143 Evaluating Sources 2143 evaluating Print Resources 2143 evaluating Web Resources 2144 Checklist Evaluating Sources 2144 Organizing Your Research 2145 Refining Your Thesis 2147 Organizing Your Paper 2147 Writing and Revising 2148 Guarding Academic Integrity 2149 Papers for Sale Are Papers that "F"ail 2149 A Warning Against Internet Plagiarism 2149 Acknowledging Sources 2149 Quoting a Source 2150 Citing Ideas 2150 Documenting Sources Using MLA Style 2151 List of Sources 2152 Parenthetical References 2152 Works Cited List 2152 Citing Print Sources in MLA Style 2153 Citing Internet Sources in MLA Style 2154 Sample Works Cited List 2155 Endnotes and Footnotes 2156 Concluding Thoughts 2158 Reference Guide for Citations 2159 48 Writing as Discovery: Keeping a Journal 2166 The Rewards of Keeping a Journal 2166 Sample Journal Entry 2168 Sample Student Journal 2169 49 Writing an Essay Exam 2172 50 Critical Approaches to Literature 2177 Formalist Criticism 2178 Cleanth Brooks n The Formalist Critic 2178 Michael Clark n Light and Darkness in "Sonny's Blues" 2179 Robert Langbaum n On Robert Browning's "My Last Duchess" 2180 Biographical Criticism 2182 Virginia Llewellyn Smith n Chekhov's Attitude to Romantic Love 2183 Brett C. Millier n On Elizabeth Bishop's "One Art" 2185 Emily Toth n The Source for Alcøø LaballiÈre in "The Storm" 2186 Historical Criticism 2187 Hugh Kenner n Imagism 2187 Joseph Moldenhauer n "To His Coy Mistress" and the Renaissance Tradition 2189 Kathryn Lee Seidel n The Economics of zora neal hurston's "Sweat" 2190 Psychological Criticism 2192 Sigmund Freud n The Nature of Dreams 2193 Gretchen Schulz and R. J. R. Rockwood n Fairy Tale Motifs in "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" 2194 Harold Bloom n Poetic Influence 2195 Mythological Criticism 2196 Carl Jung n The Collective Unconscious and Archetypes 2197 Northrop Frye n Mythic Archetypes 2198 Edmond Volpe n Myth in Faulkner's "Barn Burning" 2198 Sociological Criticism 2200 Georg Lukacs n Content Determines Form 2201 Daniel P. Watkins n Money and Labor in "The Rocking-Horse Winner" 2201 Alfred Kazin n Walt Whitman and Abraham Lincoln 2203 Gender Criticism 2204 Elaine Showalter n Toward a Feminist Poetics 2204 Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar n The Freedom of Emily Dickinson 2205 Nina Pelikan Straus n Transformations in The Metamorphosis 2206 Reader-Response Criticism 2207 Stanley Fish n An Eskimo "A Rose for Emily" 2208 Robert Scholes n "How Do We Make a Poem?" 2209 Michael J. Colacurcio n The End of Young Goodman Brown 2211 Deconstructionist Criticism 2212 Roland Barthes n The Death of the Author 2213 Barbara Johnson n Rigorous Unreliability 2213 Geoffrey Hartman n On Wordsworth's "A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal" 2214 Cultural Studies 2216 Vincent B. Leitch n Poststructuralist Cultural Critique 2217 Mark Bauerlein n What Is Cultural Studies? 2218 Camille Paglia n A Reading of William Blake's "The Chimney Sweeper" 2220 Glossary of Literary Terms G1 Literary Acknowledgments A1 Photo Acknowledgments A16 Index of Major Themes I1 Index of First Lines of Poetry Ixx Index of Authors and Titles Ixx Index of Literary Terms Ixx Writing Resources in Literature (inside front cover) Authors in Literature (inside back cover)
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Literature -- Collections.