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Table of Contents List of Figures Acknowledgments Introduction to Conflict and Battlefield Archaeology How do you know it's a battlefield? G. Michael Pratt Mustering Landscapes: What historic battlefields share in common. John & Patricia Carman Characteristics of Ancient Battlefields: Battle of Varus (9 AD). Achim Rost Finding battery positions at Wilson's Creek, Missouri. Carl G. Carlson-Drexler Battlefield viewsheds or what the general saw: Lookout Mountain Battlefield Chattanooga, Tennessee. Elsa Heckman What the musket ball can tell: Monmouth State Battlefield, New Jersey. Daniel Sivilich "Listen to the Minie balls:" Identifying firearms in battlefield archaeology. Douglas Scott and Lucien Haag Total Roman Defeat at the Battle of Varus (9 AD). Suszanne Wilbers-Rost English Battlefields 991-1685. Glenn Foard Arrows Point to Mass Graves: Finding the dead from the Battle of Towton, AD 1461. Tim Sutherland & Simon Richardson Indian Resistance in New Spain The AD 1541 Battlefield of Peñol de Nochistl . Charles Haecker, Esther Oster, A. Medrano Enriquez, and Michael L. Elliott Tatars, Cossacks, and the Polish Army - the Battle of Zboriv. Adrian Mandzy The Camden Battlefield and the American Revolution. Steven B. Smith & James D. Legg Volume II Apache Victory against the U.S. Dragoons, the Battle of Cieneguilla, New Mexico. David Johnson The Confederate Cantonment at Evansport, Virginia. Joseph Balicki Fort Davidson Battlefield, Missouri. Steve Dasovich and Warren Busch The Confederate Forward Line, Battle of Nashville, Tennessee. Carl Kuttruff Seven Eventful Days in Paraguay - Reconnoitering the War of the Triple Alliance. Tony Pollard Buffalo Soldiers versus the Apache - The battle in Hembrillo Basin, New Mexico. Karl Laumbach Scars of "The Great War." Western Flanders, Belgium. Mathieu de Meyer and Pedro Pyep Pointe-du-Hoc Battlefield, Normandy, France. Richard Burt. James Bradford, Bruce Dickson, Mark E. Everett, Robert Warden & David Woodcock "For You the War is Over" Finding the Great Escape Tunnel at Stalag Luft III. Peter Doyle, Lawrence Babits, and Jamie Pringle Hill 209, The Last Stand of Operation Manchu, Korea. Jay Silverstein, John Byrd, and Lyle Otineru Conclusions: Toward a Unified View of the Archaeology of Fields of Conflict List of Figures Figure 1. The battlefields and sites discussed on a world map. 2 The 1995 & 1997 Fallen Timbers Surveys: Results and Interpretation. 3 EM 38 Results: EM-1, Fallen Timbers. 4 Fallen Timbers: Distribution of buttons 1995-2001. 5 Wawashkamo Survey Results. 6 Buffington Island: Survey areas and artifact distribution, northernmost survey areas. 7. An early medieval site: Assandun 1016 AD. Low open ground by a river. 8. A medieval site: Bouvines 1214 AD. High open ground near settlement and monastery, beside a Roman road 9. An early modern site: Oudenaarde 1708 AD. Low open ground away from settlement. 10. An ancient site: Plataea 479 BC. Low open ground overlooked by settlements. 11. A 19th century site: Sorauren 1813 AD. Heavily featured space including two rivers, hills and valleys and settlements. 12. Roman legionary of Augustan time with equipment (following Horn 1987, Fig. 1). Red (or black in print?) are those items that were found in Kalkriese. 13. Distribution of pieces of the equipment that were not fixed to the soldier (for example lances, spears, "pila", blades of swords, shields). 14. Distribution of pieces of the equipment which was tightly connected to the soldiers. Also shown: drainage ditch and postholes of the wall. The first attempt of mapping such artifacts was made for the trenches No. 1 to 19. 15. Cumulative Viewshed for Shell Fragments Fired by Backof's Missouri Battery (US). Circled Area Denotes Most Likely Battery Position 16. Cumulative Viewshed for Missouri Bar Shot Recovered at Wilson's Creek. Circled Area Denotes Possible Position of Bledsoe's Missouri Battery (CS). 17. Cumulative Viewshed for Confederate Shell Fragments. Circled Areas Denote Possible Positions of Bledsoe's Missouri Battery (CS) and Reid's Fort Smith Battery (CS). 18. Western Slope of Lookout Mountain with Highlighted Troop Positions. 19. Viewshed from General Geary's Initial Position on Lookout Mountain. 20. Viewshed from the Mid-Point of General Geary's advance. 21. Viewshed from Perspective of Wood and Grose's Troops. 22. Viewshed from the 34th Mississippi's Position. 23. Steatite musket ball and buck shot mold. 24. Musket ball terminology. 25. Examples of musket balls with different diameters. 26. Diameter distribution of musket balls associated with the Battle of Monmouth. 27. Buck and Ball. 28. Ramrod marks on a musket ball. 29. a. Hemispherical-shaped, impacted musket ball, b. Reproduction musket ball fired into tree. 30. Musket ball that appears to have hit the barrel of another musket. 31. Ricocheted musket ball. 32. Pulled musket balls with extraction screw marks. 33. Impacted musket ball that appears to also have been hit by two musket balls. 34. Musket ball with front incisor impression. 35. Modern musket balls with human chewing marks. 36. Musket ball with human canine and incisor teeth impressions. 37. Musket ball chewed by a pig. 38. Artifact 90M16RP4 with possible rodent gnawing marks 39. "Pewter" musket ball. 40. Seventeenth century musket balls from Zboriv, Ukraine. 41. Cylinder-shaped shot. 42. Intentionally mutilated musket balls. 43 Musket ball with imbedded iron wire. 44. Musket balls molded together. 45. a. Wedge-shaped, b. cubic-shaped artillery canister shot. 46. Fused "musket balls" (canister shot). 47. Several fused artillery canister shot. 48. a. Reproduction lead dice and lead cube, b. possible lead dice in the making. 49. Gun flint wrap and "French honey" gun flint. 50. Features that remain on a cartridge case after firing aid in the identification of the firearm type. 51. A variety of firing pin imprints shown on .38, .44, and .50-caliber cartridge cases. 52. Photomicrograph of two different percussion caps with identical toolmarks indicating they were fired on the same gun. 53. A World War I artillery impact crater at Crossroads near Ieper, Belgium. 54. Method of artillery crater analysis as portrayed in a World War II manual and still used today. 55. Research area of the "Kalkriese-Project" with surveyed fields, sites with Roman finds and the field "Oberesch". 56.Excavated trenches, wall with drainage ditch and bone pits at the "Oberesch". 57. Rest of the wall and v-shaped drainage ditch under a thick layer of "Plaggenesch" during the excavation. 58. Iron weapons (spear- and lanceheads, catapult bolts, fragment of a sword blade). 59. Bone pit with fragments of animal and human bones. In the centre of the pit a human skull. 60. Graph of numbers of Registered versus unregistered battlefields in England by century. 61. Newman & Cammidge's fieldwalking survey of Marston Moor battlefield in the 1970s). 62. Roberts' metal detecting survey of Marston Moor battlefield in the 1980s. 63. Captain Grant's survey of Edgehill battlefield in the late 1970s . 64. Captain Grant's data integrated with historic terrain evidence. 65. Calibre of shot from 17th century fields of conflict in England. 66. Medieval arrowheads recovered as part of the Towton Battlefield Archaeological Survey Project 67. Locations of the medieval arrowheads recorded during the survey. 68. Fluxgate gradiometer (magnetic) survey of part of the Towton battlefield. 69. Plan and profile of Trench 1 showing locations of human bones. 70. Semi-articulated human radius and ulna, recorded in Trench 1. 71. Copper engraving by Theodor de Bry, showing the European version of the A.D. 1541 battle of Peñol de Nochistl n. 72. Detail of Codex Telleriano-Remensis, which illustrates a major event of A.D. 1541, that is, the battle of Peñol de Nochistl n. 73. Compostela Map, which illustrates the various locations of native uprisings during the Mixtón War. 74. Detail of the Compostela Map, which depicts the defense and attack of Peñol de Nochistl n. 75. Topographic map showing the locations of Cerro El Tuiche and the present-day town of Nochistl n de Mejía. 76. Cerro El Tuiche, believed by researchers to be synonymous with Peñol de Nochistl n. 77. Crossbow bolt heads, recently discovered at Cerro El Tuiche as a result of an archaeological reconnaissance survey. 78. Spatial distribution of Seventeenth Century military ordnance at Zboriv. 79. Seventeenth Century Tatar arrowhead recovered at Zboriv. 80. Examples of Seventeenth Century bullets recovered at Zboriv. 81. Early type of paper cartridge used with bullets with flanges (after Saint Remy). 82. Single cavity bullet mold for the creation of extended sprue ordnance (Berestechko, Ukraine). 83. Modern Topographic Map of Battlefield Showing Boundaries and Easements. 84. Colonel H. L. Landers Map of the Battle of Camden Showing Combatants. 85. Map of Lead Shot Density at Camden Battlefield (SCIAA). 86. Map of the Distribution of Weapon and Accoutrement Parts at Camden Battlefield. 87. Map of the Distribution of Canister Balls at Camden Battlefield. 88. Initial Deployment of Combatants on Modern Topographic Map at Camden Battlefield. 89. Sketch of the battle from Francisco testimony at Court of Inquiry. 90. Artifact distribution at the Battle of Cieneguilla. 91. Sample of metal points from the battle site. 92. Metal tinklers and tinkler manufacturing debris. 93. 1847 Musketoon tools and side plate. 94. Military spurs. 95. Battle layout. 96. The Northern Virginia front 1861/1862. 97. Sketch of Virginia and the Rebel Camps and Batteries, in Front of Gen. Joe Hooker's Division in Charles County, Maryland. 98. Detail of Map of Northern Eastern Virginia and Vicinity of Washington. 99. Map showing Confederate camps and batteries in the vicinity of Evansport . 100. The cantonment and batteries at Evansport. 101. Fort Davidson showing current day entrance (not original) near the northwest corner of the fort. 102. Map Drawn by Sergeant H.C. Wilkinson, 47th Missouri Volunteer Infantry, participant of the Battle of Fort Davidson. 103. Photograph of the Immanuel Lutheran Church, taken in the early 1900s. Even today, the church has not changed in appearance since its construction in 1863. 104. Test unit along the south side of Immanuel Lutheran Church, 2001. 105. Left, Minnie Ball from the trap door unit; Right, die fragment from test unit 4. 106. A portion of the 1864 map of the Battle of Nashville. 107. A portion of the project area showing the intersection of Granny White Pike and Gale Lane. 108. Plan of the excavations showing the exploratory backhoe trenches, and the four sections of the Confederate entrenchment that were excavated. 109. Plans of the four excavated sections of the Confederate entrenchment showing the hearth locations and the artifact scatter in the base of those trenches. 110. Trench sections. 111. Paraguay and her lost territories. 112. Detail of Argentinean assault on Curupaity from an 1893 painting by Candido López. 113. Allied officers pose in the ruins of the church at Humait (see also fig. 6). 114. Private museum in Paso de Patria displaying the wide variety of artefacts commonly picked up from the battlefields and related sites. 115. A surviving trench at Curupaity (photo T. Pollard). 116. The ruined church at Humait with bust of Lopéz. 117. A rare contemporary illustration of the Tacuari. 118. Troop movements relating to the Victorio campaign. 119. Carrol enters the basin. 120. Carrol pinned down overnight. 121. The standoff. 122. The flanking action. 123: The possible A19-extension (green) and three alternative routes projected on top of a German trench map from July 1917. 124: Duckboards at the Turco excavation site. 125: Two rectangular wooden platforms excavated at High Command Redoubt. 126: A view at a part of the frontline (Cross Roads). 127: The entrance and the room of the shallow dugout, probably an ammunition store. 128: The remains from one of the three Royal Sussex soldiers. 129: An overview of the wartime aerial photographs (red and blue) and trenches (orange) which have been put into the inventory up to January 2005 in the area around Ypres. 130. AutoCAD drawing of Lieutenant George Kerchner's map based on the Neptune Monograph. 131. Command Post plan. 132. Partially complete 3D model of Command Post. 133. Magnetic (top left panel) and GPR horizontal profiles across the strike of a possible buried concrete trench. 134. EMI signature of U-shaped target C14. 135. Contemporary air photograph, taken in 1944, showing the location of Hut 122 in the North Compound, Stalag Luft III. 136. Map view of the surveyed section of the North Compound, Stalag Luft III 137. Plan of Hut 122, the excavation site, and the geophysical lines. 138. a. GPR 50 MHz frequency Profile with 0.25m trace spacing; b, interpretation from in-line 2, 6.5 m west of Hut 122 perimeter. 139. View of entrance shaft through sump, showing the concrete 'sill'. 140. The entrance slab to 'Dick' and its lifting hook. 141. The tunnel gallery, showing the wood stains and 'klim' tin airline. 142. Map of the North and South Korea, showing MIA locations and Naktong Bulge. 143. Operation Manchu. 144. The AGRS sketch map. 145. Artifacts from Hill 209. 146. The ROK monument to the Battle of the Naktong Bulge 147. Model of Pakjin Hill and showing the relation of foxholes and recovered remains. List of Tables Table 1 Parameters for studying battlefields. 2 Battlefield landscapes and features by period. 3. Cartridge cases and guns represented by gun type and caliber. 4. Summary of the results in the nine selected areas. 5 The 'Great Escape' tunnels.
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Battlefields -- History.
Archaeology and history.