Table of contents for Biofuels for transport : global potential and implications for energy and agriculture / Worldwatch Institute.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES, TABLES, AND SIDEBARS	V
LIST OF ACRONYMS	VII
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS	IX
PREFACE	XI
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY	XIV
PART I. STATUS AND GLOBAL TRENDS	1
Chapter 1. Current Status of the Biofuel Industry and Markets	1
1.1 A Global Overview	1
1.2 History of Biofuel Production Programs	2
1.3 Current Biofuel Production	3
1.4 World Petroleum Use and Implications for Biofuels	5
1.5 Recent Developments in the Biofuel Industry	6
Chapter 2. Liquid Biofuels¿A Primer	10
2.1 Introduction	10
2.2 Carbohydrate-derived Biofuels	10
2.3 Lipid-derived Biofuels	13
2.4 Production Costs for Biofuels	15
Chapter 3. First-Generation Feedstock	19
3.1 Introduction	19
3.2 Relative Feedstock Yields	19
3.3 Sugar Crops	21
3.4 Starch Crops	23
3.5 Oilseed Crops	25
3.6 Other Potential Oil Sources for Biodiesel	28
3.7 Potential and Limitations of Current Feedstock	30
3.8 Conclusion	34
PART II. NEW TECHNOLOGIES, CROPS, AND PROSPECTS	35
Chapter 4. Next-Generation Feedstock	35
4.1 Introduction	35
4.2 Basic Characteristics of Cellulosic Biomass	35
4.3 Biomass Residues and Organic Wastes	37
4.4 Increasing Cellulose Yields from Grain and/or Oilseed Crops	42
4.5 Double-Cropping Approaches	43
4.6 Energy Crops	44
4.7 Habitat and Mono-crop Issues	46
4.8 Conclusion	47
Chapter 5. New Technologies for Converting Biomass into Liquid Fuels	48
5.1 Introduction	48
5.2 Basic Conversion Technology Options	48
5.3 Converting Lignocellulosic Fibers and Wastes into Liquid Fuels	50
5.4 Emerging Developments in Conversion Technology	54
5.5 ¿Mature¿ Applications of Cellulosic Conversion Technologies	58
5.6 The Biorefinery Concept	59
5.7 Near-Term Prospects for Cellulosic Liquid Fuels	60
5.8 Conclusion	61
Chapter 6. Long-Term Biofuel Production Potentials	62
6.1 Introduction	62
6.2 Bioenergy in the World Energy Mix	62
6.3 Biomass Residues and Organic Wastes	65
6.4 Energy Crops and Land Availability	68
6.5 Global Scenarios for Biomass Production	72
6.6 Competing Uses for Biomass	76
6.7 Conclusion	77
PART III. KEY ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES	80
Chapter 7. Economic and Energy Security	80
7.1 Introduction	80
7.2 Rising Demand for Liquid Fuels	80
7.3 The Biofuels Alternative	84
7.4 Subsidies	87
7.5 Biofuels and the Agricultural Market	89
7.6 The Economic Promise of Next-Generation Biofuels	91
7.7 Increasing Efficiency and Demand-Reduction Strategies	92
7.8 Conclusion	93
Chapter 8. Implications for Agriculture and Rural Development	95
8.1. Introduction	95
8.2. Expanding Markets for Agricultural Products	95
8.3 Creating Agricultural Employment	98
8.4 Substituting for Agricultural Subsidies	100
8.5 Biofuel Processing: Adding Value to Agricultural Harvests	101
8.6 Biofuels for Local Use	103
8.7 Industry Concentration and the Distribution of Profits	104
8.8 Food vs. Fuel	107
8.9 Conclusion	108
Chapter 9. International Trade in Biofuels	110
9.1 Introduction	110
9.2 Current Biofuel Trade	110
9.3 Competitive Advantage and the Biofuels Trade	112
9.4 Policies Affecting International Biofuel Trade	113
9.5 Social and Environmental Issues and the Biofuel Trade	119
9.6 Risks and Opportunities for Market Development	119
9.7 Technical and Logistical Risks of Biofuel Trade	120
9.8 Consistent Fuel Standards for International Biofuel Trade	121
9.9 Conclusion	123
PART IV. KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES	125
Chapter 10. Energy Balances of Current and Future Biofuels	125
10.1 Introduction	125
10.2 Measuring Energy Performance	125
10.3 Analysis of Energy Inputs	129
10.4 Improvements in Efficiency and Fossil Energy Balance	131
10.5 Conclusion	132
Chapter 11. Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Stability	134
11.1 Introduction	134
11.2 Biofuels and the Global Climate	134
11.3 Life-Cycle Impacts of Current-Generation Biofuels	141
11.4 Reducing the Climate Impact	146
11.5 Trade-offs	151
11.6 Conclusion	154
Chapter 12. Environmental Impacts of Feedstock Production	156
12.1 Introduction	156
12.2 Environmental Costs of Oil Exploration and Extraction	156
12.3 Biofuel Feedstock Production and Land-Use Changes	158
12.4 Effects on Soil Quality	165
12.5 Water Use and Pollution	168
12.6 Air Quality and Atmosphere	171
12.7 Conclusion	171
Chapter 13. Environmental Impacts of Processing, Transport, and Use	174
13.1 Introduction	174
13.2 Environmental Costs of Petroleum Refining and Use	174
13.3 Biofuel Impacts: Refining	177
13.4 Biofuel Transport and Storage	180
13.5 Biofuel Combustion	181
13.6 Conclusion	187
PART V. MARKET INTRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY STRATEGIES	188
Chapter 14. Infrastructure Requirements	188
14.1 Introduction	188
14.2 Centralized vs. Distributed Production	188
14.3 Investment Requirements for Feedstock Transport and Processing	190
14.4 Investment Requirements for Biofuel Transport, Storage, and Delivery	193
14.5 International Transport Considerations	199
14.6 Conclusion	200
Chapter 15. Vehicle and Engine Technologies	202
15.1 Introduction	202
15.2 Ethanol	202
15.3 Biodiesel	207
15.4 Other Biofuels	209
15.5 Biofuels and Advanced Propulsion Systems	212
15.6 Conclusion	212
Chapter 16. Transfer of Technology and Expertise	213
16.1 Introduction	213
16.2 The Technology Change and Transfer Process	213
16.3 Biofuel Technology Change and Transfer	214
16.4 Development of a National Biofuels Strategy	215
16.5 Role of Government and the Private Sector in Biofuel Technology Transfer	216
16.6 Large-Scale Biofuels Technological Change and Transfer: The Case of Pro lcool	218
16.7 Conclusion	222
PART VI. THE POLICY FRAMEWORK	224
Chapter 17. Biofuel Policies Around the World	224
17.1 Introduction	224
17.2 Regional, National, and Local Policies	225
17.3 Policy Lessons to Date and Remaining Barriers	231
17.4 Relevant International Policy Instruments and Initiatives	234
17.5 Relevant International Environmental Instruments	236
17.6 Conclusion	238
Chapter 18. Standards and Certification Schemes	240
18.1 Introduction	240
18.2 The Need for Sustainability Standards and Certification	240
18.3 Relevant Standards and Certification Schemes	241
18.4 Implications of the WTO Policy Framework for Biofuel Certification: International Trade and Equity	244
18.5 Key Observations on Biofuel Standards and Certification	247
18.6 Outstanding Issues to Be Addressed	247
18.7 Conclusion	249
PART VII. RECOMMENDATIONS	251
Chapter 19. Recommendations for Decisionmakers	251
19.1 Introduction	251
19.2 Developing the Biofuel Market	252
19.3 National and International Research, Development, and Demonstration	253
19.4 Incentives for Rapid Deployment of Advanced, Low-Impact Biofuels and Technologies	256
19.5 Infrastructure Development	257
19.6 Optimizing Ecological Impacts	258
19.7 Maximizing Rural Development Benefits	260
19.8 Encourage Sustainable Trade in Biofuels	260
19.9 Key Overarching Recommendations	262
COUNTRY STUDIES	264
1.	Biofuels for Transportation in China	264
2.	Biofuels for Transportation in India	267
3.	Biofuels for Transportation in Tanzania	269
4.	Biofuels for Transportation in Brazil	272
5.	Biofuels for Transportation in Germany	275
APPENDICES	278
GLOSSARY OF TERMS	291
BIBLIOGRAPHY	299
ENDNOTES	341

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Biomass energy.
Waste products as fuel.