Table of contents for Focus on nursing pharmacology / Amy M. Karch.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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Table of Contents
Preface
Pharmacology is a difficult course to teach in a standard nursing curriculum, whether it be a diploma, associate, baccalaureate, or graduate program. Teachers are difficult to find, and time and money often dictate that the invaluable content of such a course be incorporated into other courses. As a result, the content is often lost. At the same time, changes in medical care delivery¿more outpatient and home care, shorter hospital stays, and more selfcare¿have resulted in additional legal and professional responsibilities for nurses, making them more responsible for the safe and effective delivery of drug therapy. 
Pharmacology should not be such a formidable obstacle in the nursing curriculum. The study of drug therapy incorporates physiology, pathophysiology, chemistry, and nursing fundamentals¿subjects that are already taught in most schools. A textbook that approaches pharmacology as an understandable, teachable, and learnable subject would greatly facilitate the incorporation of this subject into nursing curricula. Yet many nursing pharmacology texts are large and burdensome, mainly because they have needed to cover not only the basic pharmacology but also the particulars included in each area considered.
The fourth edition of Focus on Nursing Pharmacology is based on the premise that students first need to have a solid and clearly focused concept of the principles of drug therapy before they can easily grasp the myriad details associated with individual drugs.
Armed with a fundamental knowledge of pharmacology, the student can appreciate and use the specific details that are so readily available in the many annually updated and published nursing drug guides, such as Lippincott¿s Nursing Drug Guide.
With this goal in mind, Focus on Nursing Pharmacology provides a concise, userfriendly, and uncluttered text for the modern student. This difficult subject is presented in a streamlined, understandable, teachable, and learnable manner. Because this book is designed to be used in conjunction with a handbook of current drug information it remains streamlined. This fourth edition of Focus on Nursing Pharmacology continues to emphasize ¿need-to-know¿ concepts.
The text reviews and integrates previously learned knowledge of physiology, chemistry, and nursing fundamentals into chapters focused on helping students conceptualize what is important to know about each group of drugs. Illustrations, side bars and tables sum up concepts to enhance learning. Special features further focus student learning on clinical application, critical thinking, patient safety, lifespan issues related to drug therapy, evidence-based practice, patient teaching, and case-study¿based critical thinking exercises that incorporate nursing process principles. The text incorporates study materials that conclude each chapter. Check Your Understanding provides both new- and old-format NCLEX-style review questions as well as study guide review questions to help the student master the material and prepare for the national licensing exam.
Focus on Teaching/Learning Activities
 
thePoint {Comp: Please use thePoint logo here.}
ThePoint (http://thepoint.lww.com/) is a web-based course and content management system that provides every resource instructors and students need in one easy-to-use site. ThePoint¿where teaching, learning, and technology click!
 Student Resources
Students can visit thePoint to access supplemental multimedia resources to enhance their learning experience, check the course syllabus, download content, upload assignments, and join an online study group. ThePoint offers a variety of free student resources, including Watch and Learn video clips, Practice and Learn activities, NCLEX-Style Student Review Questions, an Alternate-Format NCLEX Tutorial, and a Spanish-English Audioglossary. It also has free journal articles related to topics discussed in the Focus on Patient Safety boxes from the book. In addition, an online course is available that includes interactive activities.
 Instructor Resources
Advanced technology and superior content combine at thePoint to allow instructors to design and deliver online and offline courses, maintain grades and class rosters, and communicate with students. In addition to housing the material from the Instructor¿s Resource CD-ROM, thePoint also provides additional resources, including pre-lecture quizzes, guided lecture notes, topics for discussion, and assignments. 
ORGANIZATION
Focus on Nursing Pharmacology is organized following a "simple to complex" approach, much like the syllabus for a basic nursing pharmacology course. Because students learn best "from the bottom up," the text is divided into distinct parts.
Part I begins with an overview of basic nursing pharmacology, including such new challenges as bioterrorism, street drugs, herbal therapies, and the information overload; each of the other parts begins with a review of the physiology of the system affected by the specific drugs being discussed. This review refreshes the information for the student and provides a quick and easy reference when reading about drug actions.
Part II of the text introduces the drug classes, starting with the chemotherapeutic agentsboth antimicrobial and antineoplastic drugs. Because the effectiveness of these drugs depends on their interference with the most basic element of body physiology¿the cell¿students can easily understand the pharmacology of this class. Mastering the pharmacotherapeutic effects of this drug class helps establish a firm grasp of the basic principles taught in Part I. Once the easiest pharmacologic concepts are understood, the student is prepared to move on to the more challenging physiologic and pharmacologic concepts.
Part III focuses on drugs affecting the immune system, because recent knowledge about the immune system has made it the cornerstone of modern therapy. All of the immune system drugs act in ways that the immune system would itself act if it were able. Recent immunologic research has contributed to a much greater understanding of this system, making it important to position information about drugs affecting this system close to the beginning of the text, instead of at the end as has been the custom.
Parts IV and V of the text address drugs that affect the nervous system, the basic functioning system of the body. Following the nervous system, and closely linked with it in Part VI, is the endocrine system. The sequence of these parts introduces students to the concept of control, teaches them about the interrelatedness of these two systems, and prepares them for understanding many aspects of shared physiologic function and the inevitable linking of the two systems into one: the neuroendocrine system.
Parts VII, VIII and IX discuss drugs affecting the reproductive, cardiovascular, and renal systems, respectively. The sequencing of cardiovascular and renal drugs is logical because most of the augmenting cardiovascular drugs (such as diuretics) affect the renal system. 
Part X covers drugs that act on the respiratory system, which provides the link between the left and right ventricles of the heart. 
Part XI addresses drugs acting on the gastrointestinal system. The gastrointestinal system stands on its own; it does not share any actions with any other system.
TEXT FEATURES
The features in this text are skillfully designed to support the text discussion, encouraging the student to look at the whole patient and to focus on the essential information that is important to learn about each drug class. Important features in the fourth edition focus on incorporating basic nursing skills, patient safety, critical thinking, and application of the material learned to the clinical scenario, helping the student to understand the pharmacology material.
SPECIAL ELEMENTS AND LEARNING AIDS
Each chapter opens with a list of learning objectives for that chapter, helping the student to understand what the key learning points will be. A list of featured drugs and key terms is also found on the opening chapter page. Focus Points appear periodically throughout each chapter to summarize important concepts. The text of each chapter ends with a bulleted list of Points to Remember, which summarizes important concepts. This is followed by a series of review exercises, Check Your Understanding, which includes NCLEX-style questions in the new format to focus student learning on the seminal information presented in the chapter.
¿ In the Nursing Considerations section of each chapter, italics highlight the rationale for each nursing intervention, helping the student to apply the information in a clinical situation. Elsewhere in the text, the rationale is consistently provided for therapeutic drug actions, contraindications and adverse effects. In the Drug List at the beginning of each chapter, a special icon appears next to the drug that is considered the prototype drug of each class. In each chapter, Pharmacokinetic Tables spotlight the pharmacokinetic information for each prototype drug. A Glossary found in the back of the book, defines all of the key terms listed in each chapter.
¿ Drugs in Focus are summary tables that clearly identify the drugs within a class, highlighting them by generic and trade names, usual dosage, and indications. A special icon appears in these tables next to each drug that is considered to be the prototype for its specific class.
¿ Web Links alert the student to electronic sources of drug information and sources of drug therapy information for specific diseases.
¿ Focus on Clinical Skills points to accurate drug administration practices and the salient and sometimes life-preserving nursing interventions for a specific drug or drug therapy.
¿ Focus on the Evidence boxes compile information based on research to identify the best nursing practices associated with specific drug therapy.
¿ Herbal and Alternative Therapies displays highlight known interactions with specific herbs or alternative therapies that could affect the actions of the drugs being discussed.
¿ Focus on Patient Safety points alert the student to potentially serious drug¿drug interactions, name confusions to watch for, common dosing errors associated with specific drugs, and reported unsafe drug practices.
¿ Dosage Calculations reviews are designed to help the student hone calculation and measurement skills while learning about the drugs for which dosages might need to be calculated.
¿ Drug Therapy Across the Life Span tables concisely summarize points to consider when using the drugs of each class with children, adults, and older adults.
¿ Similarly, where appropriate, discussion of gender and cultural considerations encourages the student to think about cultural awareness and to consider the patient as a unique individual with a special set of characteristics that not only influence variations in drug effectiveness but could influence a patient¿s perspective on drug therapy.
¿ Critical Thinking Scenarios tie each chapter¿s content together by presenting clinical scenarios about a patient using a particular drug from the class being discussed. Included in the case study are hints to guide critical thinking about the case and a discussion of drug- and nondrug-related nursing considerations for that particular patient and situation. Most importantly, the case study provides a plan of nursing care specifically developed for that patient and specifically based on the nursing process. The care plan is followed by a checklist of patient teaching points designed for the patient presented in the case study. This approach helps the student to see how assessment and the collected data are applied in the clinical situation.
¿ Check Your Understanding sections present NCLEX-style questions, including alternate format questions, to help the student prepare for that exam. Other questions and activities in this section are designed to help students test their knowledge of the information that has been learned in the chapter.
TO THE STUDENT USING THIS TEXT
As you begin your study of pharmacology, don't be overwhelmed or confused by all of the details. The study of drugs fits perfectly into your study of the human body¿anatomy, physiology, chemistry, nutrition, psychology, and sociology. Approach the study of pharmacology from the perspective of putting all of the pieces together; this can be not only fun but challenging! Work to understand the concepts and all of the details will fall into place, be easy to remember, and apply to 
the clinical situation. This understanding will help you in creating the picture of the whole patient as you are learning to provide comprehensive nursing care. This text is designed to help you accomplish all of this in a simple and concise manner. Good luck!
Amy M. Karch, RN, MS
HOW TO USE Focus on Nursing Pharmacology, 4e
The fourth edition of Focus on Nursing Pharmacology offers an abundance of learning tools to help you focus on what you need to know to administer, monitor, and teach patients about safe and effective drug therapy.
The Drug List at the beginning of each chapter contains featured drugs that appear throughout the chapter. An icon appears next to prototype drugs found in the list.
<pick-up, p. 489>
Learning Objectives let students know what they're going to learn in each and every chapter.
<pick-up, p. 249>
>Drug Therapy Across the Lifespan boxes summarize the important differences in drug effects in children, adults, and older adults.
<pick-up Box 10.2, p.139>
Drugs in Focus tables provide a quick guide to drug dosages, routes, and usual indications. 
<pick-up Table 26.5, p. 429>
Focus Point boxes summarize important content and concepts throughout the chapters. <pick-up, p. 497>
Nursing Considerations contain the rationale for each nursing intervention, helping the student to apply the information in a clinical situation.
 <pick-up, p. 495>
Focus on Patient Safety material alerts student to potentially serious drug¿drug interactions, drug name confusions, and common dosing errors
<pick-up, p. 165>
Focus on the Evidence boxes help students identify the best nursing practices associated with specific drug therapies.
<pick-up Box 14.3, , p. 207 and Box 18.5, p. 290>
Prototype Summaries inform the student about the indications, actions, pharmacokinetics, half-life, and adverse effects of the most typical drug in a drug class. <pick-up, p. 336>
 Focus on Calculations are designed to help the student practice and refine math skills. 
<pick-up Box 20.2, p. 316>
Focus on Clinical Skills provide accurate drug administration practices and nursing interventions for a specific drug or drug therapy.
 <pick-up Box 16.3, p. 253>
Herbal and Alternative Therapies are highlighted so students are aware of how these alternative therapies can interact with traditional medications.
<pick-up Box 21-4, p. 339>
Critical Thinking Scenarios appear at the end of each chapter and encourage students to imagine a true-to-life patient situation, to develop and follow through on a nursing plan of care, and to create a checklist of teaching points related to a specific drug therapy. <pick-up, pp. 481-482>
Check Your Understanding sections give students NCLEX-style questions.
 <pick-up, p. 133-134>
Contents 
Part I Introduction to Nursing Pharmacology
1. Introduction to Drugs
2. Drugs and the Body
3. Toxic Effects of Drugs
4. Nursing Management
5. Dosage Calculations
6. Drug Therapy in the 21st Century
Part II Chemotherapeutic Agents
7. Introduction to Cell Physiology
8. Anti-infective Agents
9. Antibiotics
10. Antiviral Agents
11. Antifungal Agents
12. Antiprotozoal Agents
13. Anthelmintic Agents
14. Antineoplastic Agents
Part III Drugs Acting on the Immune System
15. Introduction to the Immune Response and Inflammation
16. Anti-inflammatory Agents
17. Immune Modulators
18. Vaccines and Sera
Part IV Drugs Acting on the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
19. Introduction to Nerves and the Nervous System
20. Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Agents
21. Antidepressant Agents
22. Psychotherapeutic Agents
23. Antiepileptic Agents
24. Antiparkinsonism Agents
25. Muscle Relaxants
26. Narcotics and Antimigraine Agents
27. General and Local Anesthetic Agents
28. Neuromuscular Junction Blocking Agents
Part V Drugs Acting on the Autonomic Nervous System
29. Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System
30. Adrenergic Agents
31. Adrenergic Blocking Agents
32. Cholinergic Agents
33. Anticholinergic Agents
Part VI Drugs Acting on the Endocrine System
34. Introduction to the Endocrine System
35. Hypothalamic and Pituitary Agents
36. Adrenocortical Agents
37. Thyroid and Parathyroid Agents
38. Antidiabetic Agents
Part VII Drugs Acting on the Reproductive System
39. Introduction to the Reproductive System
40. Drugs Affecting the Female Reproductive System
41. Drugs Affecting the Male Reproductive System
Part VIII Drugs Acting on the Cardiovascular System
42. Introduction to the Cardiovascular System
43. Drugs Affecting Blood Pressure
44. Cardiotonic Agents
45. Antiarrhythmic Agents
46. Antianginal Agents
47. Lipid-Lowering Agents
48. Drugs Affecting Blood Coagulation
49. Drugs Used to Treat Anemias
Part IX Drugs Acting on the Renal System
50. Introduction to the Kidneys and the Urinary Tract
51. Diuretic Agents
52. Drugs Affecting the Urinary Tract and the Bladder
Part X Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System
53. Introduction to the Respiratory System
54. Drugs Acting on the Upper Respiratory Tract
55. Drugs Used to Treat Obstructive Pulmonary Disorders
Part XI Drugs Acting on the Gastrointestinal System
56. Introduction to the Gastrointestinal System
57. Drugs Affecting Gastrointestinal Secretions
58. Laxative and Antidiarrheal Agents
59. Emetic and Antiemetic Agents
Glossary 
Answer Key
Appendices
A. Parenteral Agents
B. Topical Agents
C. Ophthalmic Agents
D. Vitamins
E. Alternative and Complementary Therapies
F. Diagnostic Agents
G. Canadian Drug Information
H. Canadian Drug Regulations
I. Canadian Recommended Immunization Schedules
Index

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Pharmacology.
Nursing.
Pharmaceutical Preparations -- Nurses' Instruction.
Drug Therapy -- Nurses' Instruction.
Pharmacology -- Nurses' Instruction.