Table of contents for High stakes and stakeholders : oil conflict and security in Nigeria / by Kenneth Omeje.

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Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
Table			 v
Preface		vi
Acknowledgements	ix
List of Abbreviations	xi
1	Introduction
1.1	Conceptual Background 	 1
1.2	High Stakes and Stakeholders: An Anatomy of the Rentier Space	 5
Note			10
References	10
2	The Domestic Security Environment and Perspectives on the Nigerian Oil Conflict
2.1	Conceptualizing Security and the Domestic Security Environment 	12
2.2	The Nigerian Oil Conflict: Conceptualization and Analytical Views 	14
2.2.1	A Conceptualization of the Conflict 	14
2.2.2	The Contending Analytical Views and Perspectives 	16
2.3	A General Discussion of Contending Perspectives on the Oil Conflict	19
Note			20
References 	21
3 The Historical and Institutional Contexts of the Oil Conflict
3.1	Introduction	23
3.2	Nigeria: A General Profile 	23
3.3	The Niger Delta Area: Environmental and Socio-Demographic Background	29
3.4	Crude Oil Discovery and Development of the Oil Industry 	31
3.5	The Development of Oil-Related Legislation and Policies: An 	
	Historical Perspective 	33
3.5.1	The Colonial Phase 	33
3.5.2 The Post-Colonial Phase 	35
3.6	The Legislation Related to Oil and the Environment 	42
3.7	The Institutional and Ecological Bases of the Conflict ¿ Perspectives and Responses of the Local People 	45
3.7.1	The Institutional Aspects 	45
3.7.2	The Ecological and Social Aspects 	49
3.7.3	Grassroots¿ Responses and Militia Violence	56
3.8	Summary and Conclusion 	61
Notes			62
References 	66
4 TNOCs¿ Responsiveness to Domestic Threats ¿ Shell
4.1	Introduction	 71
4.2	A Background to the Oil Activities of Shell in Nigeria	 71
4.3	Shell¿s Oil Operations and Security Threats 	 73
4.4	Shell¿s Security Policy in a Global Organizational Framework	 75
4.5	Responsiveness to Threats	 77
4.5.1	The ¿Spy¿ Police and Reliance on the State¿s Security Forces	 77
 4.5.2	Community Relations, Development Provisioning and Surveillance Contracts	 81
4.5.3	Environmental Action 	 91
4.6	Summary and Conclusion 	 94
Notes			 95
References 	 97
5 Relatively at Ease: ExxonMobil¿s Oil Operations and Security Threats 
5.1	Introduction	100
5.2	A Background to the Oil Activities of ExxonMobil in Nigeria 	100
5.3	ExxonMobil¿s Oil Operations and Security Threats 	103
5.4	ExxonMobil¿s Security Policy and Responsiveness to Threats 	103
5.5	Responsiveness to Threats	104
5.5.1	Police and Non-Violent Corporate Security Action 	104
5.5.2	Securitization of Development 	106
5.5.3	Environmental Concerns 	112
5.6	Summary and Conclusion 	115
Notes			115
References 	117
6	Chevron¿s Oil Operations and Security Threats: Doing Business in the ¿Battle Frontline¿ 
6.1	Introduction	120
6.2	A Background to the Oil Activities of ChevronTexaco in Nigeria	121
6.3	Chevron¿s Oil Operations and Security Threats 	123
6.4	ChevronTexaco¿s Security Policy and Responsiveness to Threats 	124
6.5	Oil Operations and Environmental Responsibility	125
6.6	Responsiveness to Threats	128
6.6.1	Corporate Defence Programme, Security Contracts and Reliance on the 
	State¿s Security Forces	128
6.6 .2	Securitization of Development	132
6.7	Summary and Conclusion 	133
Notes			134
References	135
 
7	The State and Management of the Oil Conflict
7.1	Introduction 	138
7.2	Characterizing of the Nigerian State 	138
7.3	The State¿s Management of the Conflict: A Conflict Control Approach 	140
7.4	The State¿s Management of the Conflict: Securitization of Development 	145
7.4.1	The Oil Mineral Producing Areas Development Commission	
	(OMPADEC) 	146
7.4.2	The Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) 	148
7.5	¿Extra-Oil¿ Frontiers of Conflict in the Niger Delta: The Role of the State 	152
7.5.1	The Odi Incident 	155
7.5.2	Beyond Odi: Ramifying Trends and Consequences 	157
7.5.3	The Institutional Context	158
7.6	Summary and Conclusion 	160
Notes			161
References 	163
8	Key Oil Stakeholders, Security and Security Sector Reform: Discussion and Conclusion
8.1	An Overview of Emerging Issues, Perspectives and Practices 	167
8.1.2	TNOCs¿ Responsiveness and Management of Security Threats	169
8.1.3	The State¿s Management of the Oil Conflict and Lapses of the Prevailing Security Regime 	173
8.2	Proposing a Conflict Resolution and Security Reform Framework 	174
8.3	Agenda for Future Research 	178
Notes			180
References 	181
Bibliography 	182
Index			195

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Petroleum industry and trade -- Nigeria.