Table of contents for Fermented milks / edited by Adnan Tamime.

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Types of Fermented Milks (R.K. Robinson & A.Y. Tamime)
1.1	Background
1.2	Evolution of the process
	1.3 Diversity of fermented milks
1.4 Patterns of consumption
1.5 Manufacture of fermented milks
1.6 Conclusion
1.7 References
Chapter 2 Starter Cultures (A.Y. Tamime, A. Skriver & L.-E. Nilsson)
	2.1 Introduction
	2.2 Types and nomenclature of the starter organisms
		2.2.1 Traditional lactic acid bacteria (LAB)
		2.2.2 Non-traditional microflora
		2.2.3 Yeasts and moulds
	2.3 Partial characterisation of the starter microflora
		2.3.1 Carbohydrates metabolism Fermentation pathways Sugar transportation and hydrolysis Generation of energy
		2.3.2 Citrate metabolism
		2.3.3 Formation of acetate, formate, acetaldehyde and ethanol Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (Pdc) Pyruvate formate lyase Acetolactate formation Acetoin and diacetyl formation
		2.3.4 Production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) Structure and characterisation Chemical composition and biosynthesis Influence of EPS on texture Role of EPS on the microstructure of the gel
		2.3.5 Bacteriocins Classification of bacteriocins Class I ¿ characterisation, structural properties and 
 of action Class II - characterisations, structural properties and 
 of action Class III ¿ characterisation, structural properties and 
 of action Application of bacteriocins in fermented milks
	2.4 Developments of starter cultures
		2.4.1 Developments of new bacterial strains
		2.4.2 Blending of cultures
		2.4.3 Characterisation of cultures Acidification rate Texture determination Flavour assessment Miscellaneous factors
	2.5 Production and preservation of commercial type starter cultures
	2.6 On-site production and use of starter cultures
		2.6.1 Background
		2.6.2 In-line inoculation with freeze-dried or frozen concentrated 
		2.6.3 Automatic inoculation system (AISY)
	2.7 Future developments
	2.8 References
Chapter 3 Manufacture of Yoghurt (R.K. Robinson, J. Lucey & A.Y. Tamime) 
	3.1 Background
	3.2 The basic requirements for making yoghurt
		3.2.1 Introduction
		3.2.2 Milk as the base material
		3.2.3 Standardisation the fat content and fortification of the SNF
		3.2.4 Other ingredients
	3.3 Initial processing
	3.4 Fermentation
		3.4.1 Background
		3.4.2 Microbiology of the fermentation
	3.5 Coagulation of the milk
	3.6 Final processing
		3.6.1 Cooling
		3.6.2 Fruit/yoghurt blending
		3.6.3 Packaging
	3.7 Post-production problems
	3.8 Conclusion
	3.9 References
Chapter 4 Properties of Yoghurt and their Appraisal (R.K. Robinson & 
	4.1 Background
	4.2 Chemical Composition
		4.2.1 Primary constituents
		4.2.2 Secondary constituents
	4.3 Assessment of physical characteristics
		4.3.1 Physical nature of yoghurt
		4.3.2 Physical characteristics of set yoghurt	Rheology properties	Rheological measurements
4.3.3	Stirred and drinking yoghurts
 4.4 Colour
 4.5 Microbiological analysis
 4.6 Sensory properties and analysis
 	4.6.1 Sensory analysis of yoghurt
 	4.6.2 Attribute profiling of yoghurt
 4.7 Conclusion
 4.8 References
Chapter 5 Production of Drinking Products (L.-E. Nilsson, S. Lyck & A.Y. 
	5.1 Introduction
	5.2 Types of fermented drinking products
	5.3 Factors affecting the product quality
		5.3.1 Choice of milk
		5.3.2 Additives Stabilisers Sugar and sweeteners Fruit syrup and/or aroma Miscellaneous additives
		5.3.3 Deaeration
		5.3.4 Homogenisation
		5.3.5 Heat treatment
		5.3.6 Choice of starter culture
		5.3.7 Plant design
	5.4 Manufacturing technique for fresh fermented milk drinks - cold 
		5.4.1 Powder mixing equipment
		5.4.2 Temperature for mixing powders
		5.4.3 Miscellaneous treatments of the milk base
		5.4.4 Incubation tank(s)
		5.4.5 Cooling and miscellaneous treatments
		5.4.6 Buffer tank(s) and fruit concentrate/aroma mixing
		5.4.7 Packaging
	5.5 Manufacturing techniques for long-life fermented milk drinks ¿ 
		5.5.1 Production stages
		5.5.2 Preparation of stabiliser solution
		5.5.3 Cooling
		5.5.4 Addition of sweetening agents and fruit juice concentrate
		5.5.5 Final treatments of the fermented milk drink
	5.6 Quality assessment of low-pH fermented milk drinks
		5.6.1 Stability assessment
		5.6.2 Particle size distribution
		5.6.3 Viscosity measurements
		5.6.4 Zeta potential
		5.6.5 Sensory profiling
	5.7 Miscellaneous fermented milk drinks
		5.7.1 Background
		5.7.2 Ayran
		5.7.3 Dough
		5.7.4 Carbonated yoghurt drinks
	5.8 Conclusion
	5.9 References
Chapter 6 Production of Concentrated Products (B. Ozer)
 6.1 Introduction
 6.2 Processing techniques
 6.1.2 Centrifugation method (mechanical separation)
 6.1.4 Membrane methods
	6.3 Microbiology of labneh
 6.4 Organoleptic properties of labneh
 6.5 Rheology and microstructure of labneh
 6.6 Concluding remarks
 6.7 References
Chapter 7 Nordic/Scandinavian Fermented Milk Products (R. Fonden, K. 
 Leporanta & Ulla Svensson)
 7.1 Historical aspects
 7.1.1 Introduction
7.1.2 Historical background
 7.2 Traditional Scandinavian products
 	7.2.1 Classification
 	7.2.2 Tätmjölk
 	7.2.3 Surmjölk
 	7.2.4 Filbunke
 	7.2.5 Buttermilk
 	7.2.6 Skyr
 	7.2.7 The microflora of starter cultures
 	7.2.8 Safety of traditional Scandinavian fermented milks
 7.3 Some aspects of commercially available products
 7.4 Specific characteristics/technology of Scandinavian fermented milk 
 	7.4.1 Långfil
 	7.4.2 Viili
 	7.4.3 Filmjölk
 	7.4.4 Cultured buttermilk
 	7.4.5 Skyr
 	7.4.6 Ymer
 7.5 Conclusions and future perspectives
 7.6 References
Chapter 8 Production of Kefir, Koumiss and Other Related Products (Monika 
 Wszolek, Beata Kupiec-Teahan, Helle Skov Guldager & A.Y. 
 8.1 Introduction
 8.2 Kefir
 	8.2.1 Historical background
 	8.2.2 Kefir grains Appearance and chemical composition Microflora of kefir grains Associative growth Commercially developed kefir starter cultures
 8.2.3 Biochemistry of fermentation Microbial metabolism Metabolic pathway of yeast fermentations Production of exopolysaccharides
 8.2.4 Production systems of kefir Production of kefir grains and starter cultures Manufacturing stages of commercial kefir Concluding remarks
8.2.5 Quality appraisals of kefir Chemical composition and microbiological quality Nutritional value Therapeutic properties Sensory properties Product faults
 8.3 Koumiss, Koumyss, Kumiss, Kumys, Kumyz, Kimiz, Coomys
 	8.3.1 Introduction
 	8.3.2 Microflora of koumiss
 	8.3.3 Production systems of koumiss Traditional process Industrialised process(s)
 	8.3.4 Compositional quality and nutritional properties
 8.4 Miscellaneous products
 8.5 Future developments
 8.6 References
Chapter 9 Miscellaneous Fermented milk Products (S. Lyck, L.-E. Nilsson & 
 9.1 Introduction
 9.2 Culture/sour/fermented cream
 	9.2.1 Background
 	9.2.2 Production methods Stirred-type (cold distribution) Set-type (cold distribution) Long shelf-life (ambient distribution)
 9.3 Pasteurised stirred and fruit flavoured yoghurt
 9.4 Frozen yoghurt
 	9.4.1 Background
 	9.4.2 Frozen yoghurt with live bacteria Frozen yoghurt with high yoghurt content Frozen yoghurt with low yoghurt content Direct fermentation of the ice cream mix Unfermented mixes
 	9.4.3 Frozen yoghurt without live bacteria
 9.5 Dried Yoghurt
 	9.5.1 Introduction
 	9.5.2 Method of manufacture
 9.6 Yoghurt-based desserts
 	9.6.1 Yoghurt mousse Stabilisation of aerated dairy desserts Method of production
 	9.6.2 Demoulded-type yoghurt Long shelf-life product Short shelf-life product
	9.7 Conclusion
	9.8 References
Chapter 10 Mechanisation, Automation and Future Developments (Helena 
	10.1 Introduction
	10.2 Structure and different levels of automation
	10.3 Hardware development
		10.3.1 Programmable logic controllers (PLC)
		10.3.2 Communication and valve tops
		10.3.3 Programme controller (PC) and servers
	10.4 Building up a totally integrated plant and automated system
		10.4.1 Local process control and user interface
		10.4.2 Process line control
		10.4.3 Plant control and management
	10.5 The yoghurt production process
		10.5.1 Quality control and interlocking
		10.5.2 Strict batch control by recipe management
		10.5.3 Logging production data
		10.5.4 Traceability Legal demands Commercial and market demands Standards Traceability solution
		10.5.5 Analysing the production
		10.5.6 Analysing the product and the process
		10.5.7 Security
		10.5.8 Remote connection
	10.6 Future developments
	10.7 References

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Fermented milk.