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CONTENTS Preface Acknowledgements Chapter 1: RESEARCH AND CRITICAL EVALUATION Follow the Seven Steps of Research, but be Flexible! STEP ONE: Define Your Research Question STEP TWO: Ask for Help STEP THREE: Develop a Research Strategy and Locate Resources Find Books Find Journal, Magazine, and Newspaper Articles Find Specialized Resources Find Web Resources STEP FOUR: Use Effective Searching Techniques Use Boolean Searching to Combine Concepts and Search Synonyms Use Keyword Searching Use Subject Heading or Descriptor Searching: Use Other Tricks To Narrow Search Results Limit setting Truncation Proximity searching STEP FIVE: Read critically, synthesize, and seek meaning STEP SIX: Understand the Scholarly Communication Process and Cite Sources STEP SEVEN: Critically Evaluate Sources Use Filters Use Context to Decipher Meaning and Evaluate Examine Your Assumptions Evaluate Authority Determine Purpose and Scholarly Nature Investigate Accuracy Note Currency Determine Relevance Use Higher-Order Thinking Skills to Select Resources Be Engaged Chapter Two: FINDING BOOKS AND EBOOKS Books and Scholarly Research Use Books as a Shortcut Use a Subject Encyclopedia to Start Your Research Find a Subject Encyclopedia Use Your Library Online Catalog Ask a Reference Librarian Consult a Reference Book of Reference Books Use Bibliographies and Web Guides to Locate Key Resources Find bibliographies and web subject guides Use Reference Books to Locate Quick Factual Information General Encyclopedias Subject Dictionaries Directories Atlases and Gazetteers Handbooks and Manuals Almanacs and Yearbooks Chronologies Find Reference Books Find Print Reference Books Find Library-Owned Electronic Reference Books Find Free Electronic Reference Books Use Scholarly Books for a Broad and Deep Overview Supplement Scholarly Books with Popular and Trade Books Find Scholarly and Popular Books Use Your Library Online Catalog Search the Catalog Broaden or Narrow Your Search Browse the Stacks and the Catalog Use Other Library Catalogs Use Worldcat or RedLightGreen Use Ebooks for Research Do Not Read the Entire Book Don?t Use Books if? Use Filtering Devices to Deal with Information Overload Use a Bibliography or Subject Encyclopedia. Ask Your Professor or Instructor Use the List of References at the Back of A Book or Article Critically Evaluate Books Examine the Author Note the Currency Evaluate the Publisher Determine the Content Check the Bibliography Compare and Corroborate Use Reviews to Evaluate A Book Find Online and Print Book Reviews Chapter Three: SCHOLARLY AND POPULAR ARTICLES Identify and Use Scholarly Journal Articles Use Magazine and Newspaper Articles when Appropriate Choose Databases to Search for Articles Use Large Multi-disciplinary Aggregators to Find Articles Use Federated Search Engines to Find Articles Use Specialized Article Databases to Find Articles Develop Effective Search Strategies Use ?Boolean? Searching Break Your Search into Major Concepts. Develop Synonyms for Each Concept Combine Synonyms With ?Or? And Different Concepts With ?And? Use Truncation to Catch Word Endings or Alternative Spellings Limit Your Search to Retrieve More Relevant Results Limit search to subject heading or descriptor Limit your search to phrases Limit search by year published Limit search by language Limit search by publication type Locate Articles Use a Full-Text Database. Search an Article Database and Click on The Linking Symbol Search an Article Database and Use the Library Online Catalog Use Open Access Journals, Preprint Servers, and Institutional Repositories/University Web Sites Open Access Journals Preprints Preprint Servers Institutional Repositories Evaluate Articles Determine Purpose and Scholarly Nature Evaluate Authority Determine Possible Bias Use Filters as Evaluation Tools Investigate Accuracy, Consistency, and Content Note Currency Determine Relevance Examine Your Assumptions Use Multiple Sources Understand the Role of Informal Information Sources Personal Web Page Blog Wiki Chapter 4 PRIMARY SOURCES: ONLINE TOOLS AND DIGITIZED COLLECTIONS What Are Primary Sources? Understand the Types of Primary Sources Unpublished sources: archives and manuscripts Published texts Other types of primary sources Oral histories Visual and audio documents Machine readable data sets Realia or artifacts Plan your Research Strategy Research secondary sources first Make a list of key people, dates, and terms Determine What Type of primary Source to Use Find digitized primary source collections on the web Use large digital library collections to find primary sources Use archive search engines to find digitized collections Use indexes and archive search engines to find archives in other countries Find primary sources using the online library catalog Visit your special collections department Find historical newspaper and magazine articles Use a full-text database Use an online newspaper or magazine index Use a print newspaper or magazine index Find a specific type of newspaper Use special microform collections of primary sources Critically Evaluate Primary Sources Creator bias Time and place Internal consistency External consistency Omissions Selectivity Researcher bias Multiple sources An ongoing process Chapter Five: BIOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH Develop a Strategy Find Critical Essays and Brief Factual Information Use a Full-Text Database for Critical Essays and Factual Information Use Specialized Directories, Dictionaries, and Encyclopedias Find Published Autobiographies and Biographies Search the Library Online Catalog to Locate an Autobiography or Biography Search Larger Online Catalogs to Locate An Autobiography Or Biography Find Biographical Writings by Lesser-Known individuals Search the Library Online Catalog for Lesser-Known Individuals Search the Online Library Catalog for Anthologies or Bibliographies Critically Evaluate Autobiographies and Biographies Critical Reviews Authenticity Authority/Objectivity Expertise of Biographer Comparison to Other Accounts Motivation of Author Researcher Bias Find Diaries Use the Online Library Catalog to Find Diaries Search Larger Online Catalogs to Locate Diaries Search Online Collections of Diaries Find Anthologies and Bibliographies of Diaries Anthologies Anthologies with Companion Microfilm collections Bibliographies Critically Evaluate Diaries Authenticity and Authorship External Consistency Internal Consistency Sincerity Physicality Omissions Researcher bias Find Oral Histories Search Oral History Web Sites Search the Online Catalog to Find Oral Histories Critically Evaluate Oral Histories Understand the Social Lens Of The Narrator Determine the Mission of The Interviewer Check for Internal Consistency Check for External Consistency Determine the Purpose Of The Oral History Validate Biographical Writings Using Secondary Sources Use Biographical Websites with Caution Web Sites with Authoritative Biographies Web Sites that Link to Collections of Biographical Resources Critically Evaluate Biographical Web Sites Purpose Authority Objectivity and Accuracy Currency Connections to Other Pages Longevity Chapter 6: LEGAL RESEARCH Find Primary and Secondary Legal Resources Find Case Law Use Effective Techniques for Searching Legal Databases If you have the names of the parties If you have the legal citation If you have some information about a case If you are looking for cases on a legal topic Use Secondary Sources to Find Related Cases and Analysis on Points of Law Newspaper articles. Legal encyclopedias and American Law Reports: Law review articles Books Understand Citations to Court Cases Use a Legal Dictionary to Decipher Legal Terms Find Supreme Court Cases Find Lower Federal Court Cases United States Courts of Appeal (Circuit Courts) United States District Courts (Trial Courts) Find State Court Cases Determine Whether a Case is Still ?Good Law? Critically Evaluate Legal Resources Determine Purpose and Scholarly Nature Evaluate Authority Determine Possible Bias Use Multiple Sources Investigate Accuracy, Consistency, and Content Note Currency Determine Relevance Examine Your Assumptions Chapter Seven: GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS AND STATISTICS Find Federal Agency Documents Use a Specialized Search Engine to Locate Agency Documents Use a Search Engine to Locate a Specific Agency Find Historical Federal Agency Documents Find Presidential Information Sources Use Executive Branch Web Sites to Locate Information Find Executive Orders, Presidential Messages, Proclamations, and Other Documents Issued by the President Find Federal Budgetary Information Locate Information in Presidential Libraries Locate Foreign Relations Documents Find Declassified Documents Find Legislative Information Understand How a Bill Becomes a Law Find a Bill Find the Committee(s) that is Working on the Bill Find a Hearing Find a Committee Print Find a Committee Report Find Congressional Debates Find a Public Law Trace the Legislative History of a Law Use Congressional Agencies to Gather Documentation Congressional Research Service General Accounting Office Congressional Budget Office Find Historical Congressional Documents Using the U.S. Serial Set Find Government Documents from Other Countries and Resources From Intergovernmental Organizations Critically Evaluate Government Documents Determine authenticity check for external consistency and use multiple sources examine motivation of author or organization Note researcher bias Examine expertise of author Look for omissions Find Statistics Use Statistical Abstracts to Locate Statistics Use statistical databases to Locate Statistics Find Historical Statistics Use Secondary Sources to Locate Difficult to Find Statistics Critically Evaluate Statistics Chapter Eight: CITING SOURCES, AVOIDING PLAGIARISM, AND ORGANIZING REFERENCES Develop a System for Taking Notes Paraphrase or Summarize Carefully Limit Use of Direct Quotations Avoid Overuse of Citations Steer Clear of all Types of Plagiarism Choose a Style Manual Choose a Documentation Style Use the Following Examples from Chicago to Format your References Citing Different Types of Books Citing Articles in Journals, Newspapers, or Magazines Citing a Stand Alone Web Page Use Bibliographic Software to Cite your Sources Bring Evaluation into the Process Appendix A: Specialized Journal Article Databases ? Indexes and Full Text Glossary About the Author Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Research -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Information retrieval -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Information resources -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Computer network resources -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Electronic information resource searching -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Library research -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Bibliography -- Methodology -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Report writing -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.