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CONTENTS Preface iii Summary v Contents xi Figures xiii Tables xv Acknowledgements xvii Glossary xxi 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. ECONOMIC FAULTLINES 3 Economic Overview 3 Poverty 9 The Shadow Economy 14 Corruption 17 Foreign Debt 29 3. SECTORAL TRENDS AND IMPLICATIONS 32 Agriculture 32 Energy 39 Banking 50 4. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL TRENDS 52 Health Care 52 Education 55 Drug Trade and Human Trafficking 57 5. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES 63 Prospects for Development in the Region 63 Overview of Foreign Assistance in Central Asia 63 Implications for U.S. Role in Central Asia 63 Appendix A 63 Bibliography 63 FIGURES Figure 2.1: Comparison of Economic Recoveries in Central Asia with U.S. Depression 4 Figure 3.1: Major Irrigation Regions in the Aral Sea Basin 34 Figure 3.2: Water Endowment and Water-Energy Trade in Central Asia 35 Figure 5.1: U.S. Government Assistance to Central Asia (Cumulative, FY 1992-FY 2002) 63 Figure A.1: Development Assistance to Central Asia (1992-2003) 63 Figure A.2: Distribution of Development Assistance among Central Asian Republics (Cumulative, 1992-2003) 63 Figure A.3: Sources of Development Assistance to Central Asia 63 Figure A.4: Sources of Development Assistance to Central Asia (Cumulative, 1992-2003) 63 TABLES Table 2.1: Economic and Demographic Indicators (2002) 6 Table 2.2: Economic Growth Rates in Central Asia (1991-2004) 7 Table 2.3: Foreign Trade Commodity Structure in Central Asia 9 Table 2.4: Perceptions of Corruption in Central Asia (2004) 19 Table 2.5: External Debt Indicators (2001) 30 Table 3.1: Rural Population and Agricultural Employment in Central Asia 32 Table 3.2: Central Asia Energy Reserves and Export Revenues 41 Table 3.3: Money Supply to GDP Ratio 51 Table 4.1: Public and Private Health Expenditures in Central Asia 53 Table A.1: Ownership Structure of Major Oil and Gas Fields and Pipelines 63 Table A.2: International Financial Institution Credits to Central Asia (Cumulative, 1991-2004) 63 Table A.3: U.S. Government Assistance to Central Asia, 1994-2003 (Current Million USD) 63 This ¶ is a kludge to fix a bug in MS Word. Don't delete it!
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Asia, Central -- Economic conditions -- 1991-.
Asia, Central -- Social conditions -- 1991-.
Economic assistance, American -- Asia, Central.