Table of contents for Methods in behavioral research / Paul C. Cozby.

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Contents
Preface xi
	1	-SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING OF 
BEHAVIOR 1
Uses of Research Methods 2
The Scientific Approach 3
Goals of Science 7
Basic and Applied Research 10
Study Terms 14
Review Questions 14
Activity Questions 14
Answers 15
	2	WHERE TO START 16
Hypotheses and Predictions 17
Who We Study: A Note on Terminology 18
Sources of Ideas 18
Library Research 23
Anatomy of a Research Article 33
Study Terms 35
Review Questions 35
Activity Questions 35
	3	ETHICAL RESEARCH 37
Milgram's Obedience Experiment 38
The Belmont Report 39
Assessment of Risks and Benefits 39
Informed Consent 42
The Importance of Debriefing 47
Alternatives to Deception 48
Justice and the Selection of Participants 50
Researcher Commitments 51
Federal Regulations and the Institutional Review Board 51
APA Ethics Code 54
Research With Human Participants 55
Ethics and Animal Research 57
Risks and Benefits Revisited 59
Misrepresentation 61
Study Terms 63
Review Questions 63
Activity Questions 64
Answers 65
	4	STUDYING BEHAVIOR 66
Variables 67
Operational Definitions of Variables 68
Relationships Between Variables 69
Nonexperimental Versus Experimental Methods 74
Independent and Dependent Variables 79
Causality 81
Choosing a Method: Advantages of Multiple Methods 83
Evaluating Research: Three Validities 86
Study Terms 87
Review Questions 88
Activity Questions 88
Answers 90
	5	MEASUREMENT CONCEPTS 91
Reliability of Measures 92
Construct Validity of Measures 97
Research on Personality and Individual Differences 101
Reactivity of Measures 101
Variables and Measurement Scales 102
Study Terms 105
Review Questions 106
Activity Questions 106
	6	OBSERVING BEHAVIOR 108
Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches 109
Naturalistic Observation 110
Systematic Observation 114
Case Studies 117
Archival Research 118
Study Terms 121
Review Questions 121
Activity Questions 121
Answers 122
	7	-ASKING PEOPLE ABOUT THEMSELVES:SURVEY 
RESEARCH 123
Why Conduct Surveys? 124
Constructing Questions to Ask 126
Responses to Questions 129
Finalizing the Questionnaire 133
Administering Surveys 134
Survey Designs to Study Changes Over Time 137
Sampling From a Population 138
Sampling Techniques 140
Evaluating Samples 144
Study Terms 146
Review Questions 147
Activity Questions 147
Answers 148
	8	Experimen
tal Design 149
Confounding and Internal Validity 150
Basic Experiments 151
Assigning Participants to Experimental Conditions 154
Independent Groups Design 155
Repeated Measures Design 156
Matched Pairs Design 161
Study Terms 163
Review Questions 163
Activity Questions 163
	9	Conducting Experiments 165
Selecting Research Participants 166
Manipulating the Independent Variable 166
Measuring the Dependent Variable 172
Additional Controls 176
Additional Considerations 180
Analyzing and Interpreting Results 182
Communicating Research to Others 183
Study Terms 184
Review Questions 184
Activity Questions 185
Answers 185
	10	COMPLEX EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS 186
Increasing the Number of Levels of an Independent Variable 187
Increasing the Number of Independent Variables: Factorial Designs 188
Study Terms 201
Review Questions 201
Activity Questions 201
Answers 202
	11	-SINGLE CASE, QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL,AND 
DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH 203
Single Case Experimental Designs 204
Program Evaluation 208
Quasi-Experimental Designs 210
Developmental Research Designs 218
Study Terms 221
Review Questions 222
Activity Questions 222
	12	-UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH 
RESULTS:DESCRIPTION AND CORRELATION 225
Scales of Measurement: A Review 226
Analyzing the Results of Research Investigations 227
Frequency Distributions 229
Descriptive Statistics 231
Graphing Relationships 232
Correlation Coefficients: Describing the Strengthof 
Relationships 233
Effect Size 238
Statistical Significance 239
Regression Equations 239
Multiple Correlation 240
Partial Correlation and the Third-Variable Problem 242
Structural Models 243
Study Terms 244
Review Questions 245
Activity Questions 245
Answers 246
	13	-UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH 
RESULTS:STATISTICAL INFERENCE 247
Samples and Populations 248
Inferential Statistics 248
Null and Research Hypotheses 249
Probability and Sampling Distributions 250
Example: The t and F Tests 253
Type I and Type II Errors 259
Choosing a Significance Level 262
Interpreting Nonsignificant Results 262
Choosing a Sample Size: Power Analysis 264
The Importance of Replications 265
Significance of a Pearson r Correlation Coefficient 265
Computer Analysis of Data 266
Selecting the Appropriate Significance Test 268
Study Terms 269
Review Questions 269
Activity Questions 270
	14	GENERALIZING RESULTS 271
Generalizing to Other Populations of Research Participants 272
Cultural Considerations 275
Generalizing to Other Experimenters 277
Pretests and Generalization 277
Generalizing from Laboratory Settings 278
The Importance of Replications 279
Evaluating Generalizations via Literature Reviewsand Meta-
Analysis 282
Using Research to Improve Lives 284
Study Terms 285
Review Questions 285
Activity Questions 286
APPENDIX A: WRITING RESEARCH REPORTS 287
Introduction 287
Writing Style 288
Organization of the Report 292
The Use of Headings 303
Citing and Referencing Sources 304
Abbreviations 311
Some Grammatical Considerations 313
Reporting Numbers and Statistics 316
Conclusion 317
Paper and Poster Presentations 318
Sample Paper 319
APPENDIX B: STATISTICAL TESTS 342
Descriptive Statistics 342
Statistical Significance Tests 345
Correlation and Effect Size 360
APPENDIX C: STATISTICAL TABLES 364
Table C.1 Random Number Table 366
Table C.2 Critical Values of Chi-Square 370
Table C.3 Critical Values of t 371
Table C.4 Critical Values of F 372
Table C.5 -Critical Values of r (Pearson product-momentcorrelation 
coefficient) 375
APPENDIX D: CONSTRUCTING A LATIN SQUARE 376
Glossary 378
References 386
Index 397 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Psychology -- Research -- Methodology.
Social sciences -- Research -- Methodology.