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Contents 1. Minerals: rock and stone; pigments, abrasives, gemstones a. The chemical elements b. Minerals and mineraloids c. Rock and stone d. The study of archaeological stone e. The chemical analysis of archaeological materials i. Isotopes in archaeology f. The provenance of archaeological materials g. The chronology of archaeological materials i. Potassium argon dating ii. Argon-argon dating iii. Archaeologically related rock and stone h. Pigments i. White pigments ii. Black pigments iii. Red pigments iv. Yellow pigments v. Green pigments vi. Blue pigments i. Abrasives j. Gemstones i. Cutting and polishing gemstones ii. Some archaeological gemstones 2. Lithics: Flint and obsidian a. Quartz and flint b. Obsidian i. Dating obsidian c. Use wear analysis 3. Sand: glass, glaze, enamel a. Glass, glaze and enamel b. Glass i. Soda glass ii. Soda lime glass iii. Potash glass iv. Lead glass v. Colored glass vi. Opaque glass c. Glassmaking d. Ancient glass studies i. Some special types of ancient glass ii. The provenance of glass e. The decay of glass 4. Secondary rocks: building stone, brick, cement, mortar a. Building stone i. Gypsum and alabaster ii. Limestone and marble b. Cement i. Mud ii. Bitumen iii. Lime and gypsum cements c. The study of ancient cements 5. Ores: metals and alloys a. Native metals b. Metalliferous ores c. Mining d. Ore dressing e. Smelting i. Smelting fuel and metal reduction f. Metal refining g. Alloys h. The metals and alloys of antiquity i. Copper ii. Iron iii. Gold iv. Silver v. Lead vi. Tin vii. Zinc viii. Mercury ix. Platinum i. The deterioration of metals and alloys - Corrosion i. The corrosion of ancient metals and alloys j. The study of archaeological metals and alloys i. Ancient metallurgy ii. Arsenical copper iii. Damascus steel iv. Granulation and filigree v. Coins 6. Sediments and soils a. Sediments, oxygen isotopes and ancient temperatures b. Soil i. The composition and properties of soils ii. Archaeological soils 7. Clay: Pottery and other ceramic materials a. Primary clay b. Secondary clay c. Clay and ceramic materials d. Ceramic materials i. Pre-ceramics ii. The components of ceramic materials e. Making ceramics i. Pottery kilns ii. The color of fired pottery iii. Glazing f. Common ceramic materials i. Terra cotta ii. Earthenware iii. Stoneware iv. Porcelain g. The study of ancient pottery i. Attic vase painting ii. Coral red Attic Pottery iii. Manganese black decoration iv. Islamic stone-paste v. Egyptian faience vi. The firing conditions of ancient pottery vii. The provenance of pottery viii. Dating pottery 8. The biosphere: Organic and biological substances a. Living organisms and cells b. Biological matter: organic and bioinorganic substances i. Bioinorganic substances c. Ancient biological materials d. Dating organic materials i. Radiocarbon dating 9. Carbohydrates: wood, gums, resins a. Wood i. The nature of wood ii. The composition and physical properties of wood iii. Dendrochronology and dendroclimatology iv. Dead wood v. Burnt wood vi. Archaeological wood b. Gums c. Resins i. Lacquers ii. Incense d. Carbohydrates, isotopes and the study of ancient diets 10. Lipids: oils, fats and waxes a. Oils b. Fats c. Waxes d. Soap e. Ancient lipids 11. Proteins: skin and hide, leather, glue a. Animal skin b. Skin and hide i. Fur ii. Parchment and vellum c. Leather i. Tanning ii. After tanning processes; finishing d. Glue e. Dating ancient proteins - amino acid racemization dating 12. The nucleic acids: Human traits; genetics and evolution a. DNA after death b. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) c. Ancient DNA studies 13. Fibers: yarn, textiles and cordage; writing materials a. Fibers b. Textile and cordage fibers c. Vegetable fibers d. Animal fibers e. Inorganic fibers f. The study of archaeological fibers g. Writing materials i. Papyrus ii. Paper iii. Non paper flat materials 14. Dyes and dyeing a. Stains and staining b. The dyeing process c. Mordants d. The nature of dyes e. Ancient dyes i. Blue dyes ii. Green dyes iii. Purple dyes iv. Red dyes v. Yellow dyes f. The identification and characterization of ancient dyes and mordants 15. Bioinorganic materials; bone, ivory, shell, phytoliths a. Bone b. Teeth c. Ivory d. Horn e. Antler f. Shell g. Archaeological bone i. The diagenesis of buried bone ii. Dating bone h. Bone, stable isotopes and ancient diets i. Nitrogen stable isotopes and diet ii. Strontium isotopes 16. Some ancient remains: mummies, fossils, coprolites a. Mummies and mummification b. Embalming c. Fossils and fossilization d. Animal excretions, coprolites i. Coprolites 17. The environment and the decay of archaeological materials a. Air and the atmosphere b. The composition of the atmosphere c. Water and the hydrosphere d. Pollution e. Air pollutants f. Water pollutants g. The interaction of materials with the environment h. Temperature effects i. Sunlight j. Oxygen and ozone k. Water l. Air pollutants m. The deterioration of some archaeological materials i. Pottery ii. Glass iii. Metals iv. Wood v. Skin, hide and leather vi. Fibrous matter 18. The authentication of antiquities a. Technical and scientific and methods of authentication i. Material evidence ii. Scientific examination b. Some authentication studies i. The Piltdown man ii. Francis Drake's brass plate iii. The Greek bronze horse from the Metropolitan Museum iv. The shroud of Turin Appendix I: The Chemical Elements Appendix II: Chronometric Dating Methods: Selection criteria Appendix III: Symbols, constants, units and equivalencies Glossary Bibliography
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