Table of contents for Organizational behavior : emerging realities for the workplace revolution / Steven L. McShane, Mary Ann Von Glinow.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter
CONTENTS
PART ONE
Introduction 1
Introduction to the Field 
of Organizational Behavior 2
The Field of Organizational Behavior 4
What Are Organizations? 5
Why Study Organizational Behavior? 6
Organizational Behavior Trends 7
Globalization 8
Information Technology and OB 9
The Changing Workforce 11
Emerging Employment Relationships 14
Global Connections 1.1: Japan?s Rising 
Tide of Freeters 15
Workplace Values and Ethics 16
The Five Anchors of Organizational Behavior 18
The Multidisciplinary Anchor 18
The Systematic Research Anchor 20
The Contingency Anchor 20
The Multiple Levels of Analysis Anchor 20
The Open Systems Anchor 21
Knowledge Management 23
Knowledge Management Processes 23
Organizational Memory 25
The Journey Begins 26
Chapter Summary 26
Key Terms 27
Discussion Questions 27
Case Study 1.1: Pfizer-Pharmacia Merger 28
Case Study 1.2: Ancol Corporation 30
	Case Study 1.3: Planet Starbucks 31
Team Exercise 1.4: Human Checkers 32
Self-Assessment Exercise 1.5: It All Makes Sense 33
Self-Assessment Exercise 1.6: Telework Disposition Assessment 33
PART TWO
Individual Behavior 
and Processes 35
Individual Behavior, Values, 
and Personality 36
MARS Model of Individual Behavior and Results 38
Employee Motivation 39
Ability 39
Role Perceptions 41
Situational Factors 41
Types of Individual Behavior in Organizations 42
Task Performance 42
Exhibiting Organizational Citizenship 43
Counterproductive Work Behaviors 43
Joining and Staying with the Organization 44
Maintaining Work Attendance 45
Values in the Workplace 45
Global Connections 2.1: Cultivating Values at New Zealand?s ?The Warehouse? 46
Types of Values 47
Values Congruence 48
Values across Cultures 49
Global Connections 2.2: South Korean Culture Meets American Values in 
Montgomery, Alabama 50
Individualism and Collectivism 51
Other Cross-Cultural Values 52
Ethical Values and Behavior 53
Four Ethical Principles 54
Moral Intensity, Ethical Sensitivity, and Situational 
Influences 55
Cultural Differences in Business Ethics 55
Supporting Ethical Behavior 56
Personality in Organizations 57
The Origins of Personality 57
Personality and Organizational Behavior 58
The Big Five Personality Dimensions 58
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 60
Other Personality Traits 61
Personality and Vocational Choice 62
Chapter Summary 64
Key Terms 65
Discussion Questions 65
Case Study 2.1: Heading for the Big Apple 66
Case Study 2.2: Pushing Paper Can Be Fun 68
	Case Study 2.3: After Enron: The Ideal Corporation 69
Team Exercise 2.4: Comparing Cultural Values 70
Team Exercise 2.5: Ethics Dilemma Vignettes 70
Self-Assessment Exercise 2.6: Identifying Your Self-Monitoring Personality 71
Self-Assessment Exercise 2.7: Individualism?Collectivism Scale 73
Self-Assessment Exercise 2.8: Identifying Your Locus 
of Control 73
Self-Assessment Exercise 2.9: Matching Holland?s 
Career Types 73
Perception and Learning 
in Organizations 74
The Perceptual Process 76
Selective Attention 77
Perceptual Organization and Interpretation 77
Social Identity Theory 78
Perceiving Others through Social Identity 80
Stereotyping in Organizational Settings 80
Why Stereotyping Occurs 81
Problems with Stereotyping 81
Global Connections 3.1: Social Identity and Stereotypes Discourage Women from 
Engineering 82
MINIMIZING STEREOTYPING BIAS 83
Connections 3.2: Meaningful Contact through the UPS Community Internship Program 
84
Attribution Theory 85
Attribution Errors 86
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy 87
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in Practice 88
Other Perceptual Errors 89
Primacy Effect 89
Recency Effect 89
Halo Error 90
Projection Bias 90
Improving Perceptions 91
Improving Perceptions through Empathy 91
Know Yourself: Applying the Johari Window 92
Learning in Organizations 93
Learning Explicit and Tacit Knowledge 93
Behavior Modification: Learning through Reinforcement 94
A-B-C?s of Behavior Modification 94
Contingencies of Reinforcement 95
Schedules of Reinforcement 96
Behavior Modification in Practice 97
Social Learning Theory: Learning by Observing 98
Behavioral Modeling 98
Learning Behavior Consequences 99
Self-Reinforcement 99
Learning through Experience 99
Experiential Learning in Practice 100
Chapter Summary 102
Key Terms 103
Discussion Questions 103
Case Study 3.1: Nupath Foods, Inc. 104
	Case Study 3.2: No Way to Treat a Lady 105
Team Exercise 3.3: The Learning Exercise 106
Self-Assessment Exercise 3.4: Assessing Your General 
Self-Efficacy 106
Self Assessment Exercise 3.5: Assessing Your Perspective-Taking (Cognitive 
Empathy) 106
Self-Assessment Exercise 3.6: Assessing Your Emotional Empathy 107
Workplace Emotions 
and Attitudes 108
Emotions in the Workplace 110
Types of Emotions 111
Emotions, Attitudes, and Behavior 111
Connections 4.1: Serious Fun: Companies Want Employees to Experience Positive 
Emotions 115
Managing Emotions at Work 116
CONDITIONS REQUIRING EMOTIONAL LABOR 116
Emotional Dissonance 117
Global Connections 4.2: Japanese Employees Learn Service with a Smile 118
Supporting Emotional Labor 118
Emotional Intelligence 119
Job Satisfaction 122
Job Satisfaction and Work Behavior 123
Job Satisfaction and Performance 124
Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction 125
Organizational Commitment 126
Consequences of Organizational Commitment 127
Building Organizational Commitment 127
Psychological Contracts 128
Types of Psychological Contracts 129
Psychological Contracts across Cultures 
and Generations 130
Chapter Summary 131
Key Terms 131
Discussion Questions 132
Case Study 4.1: Diana?s Disappointment: The Promotion Stumbling Block 132
	Case Study 4.2: The Big Squeeze 
on Workers 134
Team Exercise 4.3: Ranking Jobs on Their Emotional 
Labor 134
Self-Assessment Exercise 4.4: School Commitment 
Scale 135
Self-Assessment 4.5: Dispositional Mood Scale 137
Motivation in the Workplace 138
Needs-Based Theories of Motivation 140
Needs Hierarchy Theory 141
ERG Theory 141
Innate Human Drives 143
Theory of Learned Needs 145
Practical Implications of Needs-Based Motivation 
Theories 147
Expectancy Theory of Motivation 147
Expectancy Theory Model 148
Expectancy Theory in Practice 149
Does Expectancy Theory Fit Reality? 151
Goal Setting and Feedback 151
Characteristics of Effective Goals 152
Characteristics of Effective Feedback 153
Connections 5.1: A Coach for All Seasons 155
Applications and Limitations of Goal Setting 
and Feedback 156
Organizational Justice 157
Distributive Justice and Equity Theory 157
Global Connections 5.2: Protesting Unfair ?Fat Cat? Pay in the United Kingdom 
160
Procedural Justice 161
CHAPTER SUMMARY 164
Key Terms 165
Discussion Questions 165
Case Study 5.1: Buddy?s Snack Company 166
	Case Study 5.2: CEO Coaches 167
Team Exercise 5.3: A Question of Feedback 168
Self-Assessment Exercise 5.4: Measuring Your Equity Sensitivity 168
Self-Assessment Exercise 5.5: Measuring Your Growth Need Strength 170
Applied Performance Practices 172
The Meaning of Money in the Workplace 174
Money and Employee Needs 174
Money Attitudes and Values 174
Money and Self-Identity 175
Reward Practices 176
Membership- and Seniority-Based Rewards 176
Job Status?Based Rewards 176
Competency-Based Rewards 177
Performance-Based Rewards 178
Global Connections 6.1: Opening the Books at Tien Wah Press 180
Improving Reward Effectiveness 181
Connections 6.2: When Rewards Go Wrong 183
Job Design Practices 184
Job Design and Work Efficiency 184
Job Design and Work Motivation 186
Increasing Work Motivation through Job Design 188
Empowerment Practices 191
Creating Empowerment 191
Global Connections 6.3: The Empowerment 
of Semco 192
Practicing Self-Leadership 193
Personal Goal Setting 194
Constructive Thought Patterns 194
Designing Natural Rewards 195
Self-Monitoring 195
Self-Reinforcement 195
Self-Leadership in Practice 195
Chapter Summary 196
Key Terms 197
Discussion Questions 197
Case Study 6.1: The Regency Grand Hotel 198
	Case Study 6.2: Now It?s Getting 
Personal 200
Team Exercise 6.3: Is Student Work Enriched? 200
Self-Assessment Exercise 6.4: What Is Your Attitude toward Money? 202
Self-Assessment Exercise 6.5: Assessing Your Self-Leadership 202
Self-Assessment Exercise 6.6: Student Empowerment 
Scale 203
WORK-RELATED STRESS AND STRESS MANAGEMENT 204
What Is Stress? 206
General Adaptation Syndrome 207
Stressors: The Causes of Stress 208
Interpersonal Stressors 208
Role-Related Stressors 211
Task-Control Stressors 211
Global Connections 7.1: Karoshi: Death by Overwork 
in Japan 212
Organizational and Physical Environment Stressors 212
Work?Nonwork Stressors 213
Stress and Occupations 214
Individual Differences in Stress 215
Work Stress and Type A/Type B Behavior Patterns 216
Work Stress and Workaholism 216
Connections 7.2: Workaholism: An American 
Addiction 217
Consequences of Distress 218
Physiological Consequences 218
Psychological Consequences 218
Behavioral Consequences 220
Managing Work-Related Stress 220
Remove the Stressor 221
Withdraw from the Stressor 223
Change Stress Perceptions 223
Control the Consequences of Stress 224
Receive Social Support 225
Chapter Summary 226
Key Terms 226
Discussion Questions 226
Case Study 7.1: A Typical Day for Joe Hansen, Managing Director 227
	Case Study 7.2: Rethinking the Rat Race 229
Team Exercise 7.3: Stage Fright! 230
Self-Assessment Exercise 7.4: Time Stress Scale 230
Self-Assessment Exercise 7.5: Behavior Activity Profile?The Type A Scale 231
Self-Assessment Exercise 7.6: Work Addiction Risk 
Test 231
Self Assessment Exercise 7.7: Perceived Stress Scale 231
PART THREE
Team Processes 233
Decision Making and Creativity 234
The ?Rational? Decision-Making Model 236
Problems with the Rational Decision-Making Model 237
Identifying Problems and Opportunities 238
Perceptual Biases and Diagnostic Skill Failures 238
Connections 8.1: Famous Missed Opportunities 239
IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES MORE 
EFFECTIVELY 240
Evaluating and Choosing Alternatives 240
Problems with Goals 241
Problems with Information Processing 241
Problems with Maximization 242
Emotions and Making Choices 242
Intuition and Making Choices 243
Choosing Solutions More Effectively 243
Evaluating Decision Outcomes 244
Escalation of Commitment 244
Evaluating Decision Outcomes More Effectively 245
Employee Involvement in Decision Making 246
Global Connections 8.2: High Involvement Saves Argentine Companies 247
Benefits of Employee Involvement 248
Contingencies of Employee Involvement 248
Creativity 249
The Creative Process Model 250
Creative People and Work Environments 251
Activities that Encourage Creativity 253
Chapter Summary 254
Key Terms 255
Discussion Questions 255
Case Study 8.1: Employee Involvement Cases 256
	Case Study 8.2: The Art of Brainstorming 257
Team Exercise 8.3: Where in the World Are We? 258
Team Exercise 8.4: Winter Survival Exercise 260
Team Exercise 8.5: The Hopping Orange 261
Team Exercise 8.6: Creativity Brainbusters 261
Self-Assessment Exercise 8.7: Measuring Your Creative Personality 262
Self-Assessment Exercise 8.8: Testing Your Creative Bench Strength 263
Self-Assessment Exercise 8.9: Decision-Making Style Inventory 263
Foundations of Team 
Dynamics 264
Types of Teams and Informal Groups 266
Permanent and Temporary Teams 267
Informal Groups 268
Why Rely on Teams? 269
Connections 9.1: Teamwork Revs Up Production 
at Bombardier Marine Corporation 270
A Model of Team Effectiveness 270
Organizational and Team Environment 271
Team Design Features 272
Task Characteristics 273
Team Size 274
Team Composition 275
Team Processes 276
Team Development 277
Team Norms 278
Global Connections 9.2: Elite New Zealand Prison Team?s ?Culture of Obedience? 
280
Team Roles 281
Team Cohesiveness 282
The Trouble with Teams 285
Social Loafing 286
Chapter Summary 287
Key Terms 288
Discussion Questions 288
Case Study 9.1: Treetop Forest Products 289
	Case Study 9.2: Detroit Is Cruising 
for Quality 290
Team Exercise 9.3: Team Tower Power 291
Self-Assessment Exercise 9.4: Team Roles Preferences Scale 292
Developing High-Performance Teams 294
Self-Directed Work Teams 296
Sociotechnical Systems Theory and SDWTs 297
Challenges to Self-Directed Work Teams 300
Virtual Teams 301
Why Companies Form Virtual Teams 302
Designing High-Performance Virtual Teams 303
Team Trust 305
Team Decision Making 307
Constraints on Team Decision Making 307
Team Structures to Improve Creativity and Decision 
Making 309
Connections 10.1: IDEO Catches a Brainstorm 312
Team Building 314
Types of Team Building 314
Global Connections 10.2: Asian Companies Move Team Building Outdoors 315
Is Team Building Effective? 316
Chapter Summary 316
Key Terms 318
Discussion Questions 318
Case Study 10.1: The Shipping Industry Accounting 
Team 318
	Case Study 10.2: The New Teamwork 320
Team Exercise 10.3: Egg Drop Exercise 320
Self-Assessment Exercise 10.4: The Team Player 
Inventory 321
Communicating in Teams 
and Organizations 322
A Model of Communication 325
Communication Channels 326
Verbal Communication 326
Electronic Mail 326
Other Computer-Mediated Communication 328
Global Connections 11.1: British Organizations Ban E-Mail to Rediscover Live 
Conversation 329
Nonverbal Communication 330
Global Connections 11.2: Nonverbal Gestures Help Crowd Control during 
Iraq War 331
Choosing the Best Communication Channels 332
Media Richness 332
Symbolic Meaning of the Medium 334
Communication Barriers (Noise) 334
Perceptions 334
Filtering 334
Language 335
Information Overload 336
Cross-Cultural and Gender Communication 337
Nonverbal Differences 338
Gender Differences in Communication 339
Improving Interpersonal Communication 340
Getting Your Message Across 340
Active Listening 341
Communicating in Organizational Hierarchies 342
Work Space Design 343
Newsletters and E-Zines 343
Employee Surveys 344
Direct Communication with Top Management 344
Communicating through the Grapevine 345
Grapevine Characteristics 345
Grapevine Benefits and Limitations 345
Chapter Summary 347
Key Terms 348
Discussion Questions 348
Case Study 11.1: Bridging the Two Worlds: The Organizational Dilemma 348
	 Case Study 11.2: Watch What You Put in that Office E-Mail 350
Team Exercise 11.3: Analyzing the Electronic 
Grapevine 350
Team Exercise 11.4: Active Listening 351
Team Exercise 11.5: A Cross-Cultural Communications 
Game 352
Self-Assessment Exercise 11.6: Active Listening Skills Inventory 353
Power and Influence in the Workplace 356
The Meaning of Power 358
A Model of Power in Organizations 359
Sources of Power in Organizations 359
Legitimate Power 360
Reward Power 361
Coercive Power 362
Expert Power 362
Referent Power 362
Information and Power 362
Contingencies of Power 364
Substitutability 364
Centrality 365
Discretion 366
Visibility 366
Networking and Power 367
Office Romance and Power 367
Connections 12.1: Golf Power 368
Influencing Others 369
Types of Influence Tactics 369
Contingencies of Influence Tactics 374
Influence Tactics and Organizational Politics 375
Conditions Supporting Organizational Politics 376
Global Connections 12.2: The Organizational Politics of Replacing Your Boss 377
Minimizing Organizational Politics and Its 
Consequences 377
Chapter Summary 378
Key Terms 379
Discussion Questions 379
Case Study 12.1: TriVac Industries, Inc. 380
	12.2: A Whistle-Blower Rocks 
an Industry 382
Team Exercise 12.3: Budget Deliberations 383
Self-Assessment Exercise 12.4: Upward Influence 
Scale 384
Self-Assessment Exercise 12.5: Perceptions of Politics 
Scale (POPS) 384
Self-Assessment Exercise 12.6: Machiavellianism 
Scale 384
Conflict and Negotiation in the Workplace 386
The Conflict Process 388
Conflict Perceptions and Emotions 388
Manifest Conflict 389
Conflict Outcomes 390
Sources of Conflict in Organizations 391
Incompatible Goals 391
Differentiation 391
Global Connections 13.1: Midair Conflicts for Air Canada and Former Canadian 
Airline Pilots 392
Task Interdependence 393
Scarce Resources 393
Ambiguous Rules 394
Communication Problems 394
Interpersonal Conflict Management Styles 394
Choosing the Best Conflict Management Style 396
Cultural and Gender Differences in Conflict Management Styles 397
Structural Approaches to Conflict Management 398
Emphasizing Superordinate Goals 398
Reducing Differentiation 400
Improving Communication and Understanding 400
Reducing Task Interdependence 400
Connections 13.2: Learning Cooperative Teamwork through the Drumbeat 401
Increasing Resources 402
Clarifying Rules and Procedures 402
Resolving Conflict through Negotiation 402
Bargaining Zone Model of Negotiations 403
Situational Influences on Negotiations 404
Negotiator Behaviors 405
Third-Party Conflict Resolution 406
Choosing the Best Third-Party Intervention Strategy 407
Chapter Summary 408
Key Terms 409
Discussion Questions 409
Case Study 13.1: Conflict in Close Quarters 410
	Case Study 13.2: The House of Pritzker 412
Team Exercise 13.3: Ugli Orange Role Play 412
Self-Assessment Exercise 13.4: The Dutch Test for Conflict Handling 413
Leadership in Organizational Settings 414
Perspectives of Leadership 416
Competency (Trait) Perspective of Leadership 417
Connections 14.1: In Search of Leader Integrity 419
Competency (Trait) Perceptive Limitations and Practical Implications 420
Behavioral Perspective of Leadership 421
Choosing Task- versus People-Oriented Leadership 421
Contingency Perspective of Leadership 422
Path?Goal Theory of Leadership 422
Contingencies of Path?Goal Theory 424
Practical Implications and Limitations of Path?Goal 
Theory 425
Other Contingency Theories 425
Transformational Perspective of Leadership 428
Transformational versus Transactional Leadership 428
Transformational versus Charismatic Leadership 429
Elements of Transformational Leadership 429
Evaluating the Transformational Leadership 
Perspective 431
Implicit Leadership Perspective 432
Attributing Leadership 432
Stereotyping Leadership 432
Need for Situational Control 433
Cross-Cultural and Gender Issues in Leadership 433
Global Connections 14.2: Leading through Ubuntu 
Values 434
Gender Differences in Leadership 435
Chapter Summary 436
Key Terms 437
Discussion Questions 437
Case Study 14.1: Josh Martin 437
	Case Study 14.2: Staying on Top 439
Team Exercise 14.3: Leadership Diagnostic Analysis 439
Self-Assessment Exercise 14.4: Leadership Dimensions Instrument 440
PART FOUR
Organizational Processes 443
Organizational Structure 
and Design 444
Division of Labor and Coordination 446
Division of Labor 446
Coordinating Work Activities 447
Elements of Organizational Structure 449
Span of Control 449
Centralization and Decentralization 451
Formalization 453
Mechanistic versus Organic Structures 453
Connections 15.1: The Extreme Organic Structure 
of Harbinger Partners 454
Forms of Departmentalization 455
Simple Structure 455
Functional Structure 456
Divisional Structure 457
Matrix Structure 459
Team-Based (Lateral) Structure 461
Global Connections 15.2: Flight Centre?s Team-Based Tribal Structure 462
Network Structures 463
Contingencies of Organizational Design 465
Organizational Size 465
Technology 466
External Environment 466
Organizational Strategy 468
Chapter Summary 468
Key Terms 469
Discussion Questions 469
Case Study 15.1: The Rise and Fall of PMC AG 470
	Case Study 15.2: Ballmer?s Microsoft 471
Team Exercise 15.3: The Club Ed Exercise 472
Self-Assessment Exercise 15.4: Identifying Your Preferred Organizational 
Structure 472
Organizational Culture 474
Elements of Organizational Culture 476
Content of Organizational Culture 477
Organizational Subcultures 478
Deciphering Organizational Culture through 
Artifacts 478
Organizational Stories and Legends 479
Rituals and Ceremonies 480
Organizational Language 480
Physical Structures and Symbols 481
Organizational Culture and Performance 481
Organizational Culture Strength and Fit 482
Global Connections 16.1: German Advertising Firm Embraces a ?Back to Work? 
Culture 483
Adaptive Cultures 483
Organizational Culture and Business Ethics 484
Merging Organizational Cultures 484
Bicultural Audit 485
Connections 16.2: Injecting ?Compaq DNA? into Hewlett-Packard Culture 486
Strategies to Merge Different Organizational Cultures 486
Changing and Strengthening Organizational 
Culture 488
Strengthening Organizational Culture 489
Organizational Socialization 491
Socialization as a Learning and Adjustment Process 491
Stages of Socialization 492
Improving the Socialization Process 494
Socialization Agents 494
Chapter Summary 495
Key Terms 496
Discussion Questions 496
Case Study 16.1: AssetOne Bank 497
	Case Study 16.2: Shaking Up Merrill 498
Web Exercise 16.3: Diagnosing Corporate Culture Proclamations 498
Team Exercise 16.4: Truth in Advertising 499
Self-Assessment Exercise 16.5: Corporate Culture Preference Scale 499
Organizational Change 502
Lewin?s Force Field Analysis Model 504
Restraining Forces 505
Unfreezing, Changing, and Refreezing 507
Creating an Urgency for Change 508
Reducing the Restraining Forces 508
Global Connections 17.1: Coaching for Change at Unilever?s Elida Faberge Factory 
in Seacroft 511
Refreezing the Desired Conditions 513
Strategic Visions, Change Agents, and Diffusing 
Change 513
Strategic Visions 514
Change Agents 514
Diffusion of Change 514
Three Approaches to Organizational Change 515
Action Research Approach 515
Appreciative Inquiry Approach 517
Connections 17.2: Changing for the Better by Appreciating the Positive 519
Parallel Learning Structure Approach 520
Cross-Cultural and Ethical Issues in Organization Change 520
Personal Change for the Road Ahead 521
Understand Your Needs and Values 521
Understand Your Competencies 522
Set Career Goals 522
Maintain Networks 523
Get a Mentor 523
Organizational Behavior: The Journey Continues 523
CHAPTER SUMMARY 523
Key Terms 524
Discussion Questions 524
Case Study 17.1: The Excellent Employee 525
	Case Study 17.2: Will Jeff Immelt?s New Push Pay Off for GE? 526
Team Exercise 17.3: Strategic Change Incidents 527
Self-Assessment Exercise 17.4: Tolerance of Change 
Scale 528
ADDITIONAL CASES 530
Case 1: Aegis Electronic Group, Inc. 530
Case 2: Arctic Mining Consultants 533
Case 3: Big Screen?s Big Failure 535
Case 4: Keeping Suzanne Chalmers 540
Case 5: Magic Cable 542
Case 6: Perfect Pizzeria 546
Case 7: Two Men and a Truck International 547
Video Summaries 552
APPENDIX A
Theory Building and Systematic Research Methods 557
APPENDIX B
Scoring Keys for Self-Assessment 
Exercises 565
GLOSSARY 575
NOTES 583
PHOTO CREDITS 656
COMPANY INDEX 658
NAME INDEX 661
SUBJECT INDEX 681
URL INDEX 688

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Organizational behavior.