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TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgments Preface Chapter 1: Why Anthropology? GUIDE TO THIS CHAPTER WHAT IS CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY? THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE How Do Cultural Anthropologists Collect Data? How Do Cultural Anthropologists Analyze Data? THE ADVANTAGES OF ANTHROPOLOGY FOR THE HEALTH SCIENCES The Mighty Disease Model The Social Perspective on Health Why Isn't the Social Perspective More Widely Used? The Advantages of the Social Perspective SUMMARY Chapter 2: Positivism: The Laboratory Theory of Knowledge GUIDE TO THIS CHAPTER THE MEANINGS OF KNOWLEDGE POSITIVISM: THE LABORATORY THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE Validity Elegance and Parsimony THE LIMITS OF POSITIVISM SUMMARY Chapter 3: The Naturalistic Theory of Knowledge: Anthropology GUIDE TO THIS CHAPTER NATURALISTIC THEORY The Idea of Usefulness THE NATURALISTIC SEARCH FOR KNOWLEDGE Intuition, or Using What We Already Know How Science Is Different from Everyday Problem Solving: The Issue of Persuasion THE PROCESS OF NATUALISTIC RESEARCH ADVANTAGES OF NATURALISTIC KNOWLEDGE The Issue of Meaning The Issue of Pattern Coherence THE DISADVANTAGES OF NATURALISTIC KNOWLEDGE Conceptual Problem No. 1: Verification Conceptual Problem No. 2: Objectivity Practical Problem No. 1: Time Practical Problem No. 2: Generalizability WHAT ABOUT THEORY? SUMMARY Chapter 4: The Study of Real People in Natural Situations GUIDE TO THIS CHAPTER ETHNOGRAPHY AND THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL ATTITUDE The Moral Relationship of Researcher and Community SURVEY RESEARCH AND THE POSITIVIST ATTITUDE THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXTS IN SOCIAL RESEARCH SUMMARY Chapter 5: Designing a Research Project GUIDE TO THIS CHAPTER THE PROCESS OF DETAILED UNDERSTANDING IDENTIFYING A RESEARCH PROBLEM Why Have We Chosen this Problem? How Will We Recognize the Answer? The Problem Statement The Intuition Statement FORMULATING SPECIFIC RESEARCH QUESTIONS Characteristics of Good Questions RESEARCH DESIGN AS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS SUMMARY Chapter 6: The Researcher In and Beyond the Community GUIDE TO THIS CHAPTER PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION ETHICS AND VALUES Ethics for Other Styles of Research Observing Unacceptable Behavior TAKING ROLES, FITTING IN CLOTHING, SPEECH, MANNERS EXAMPLES OF ROLES The Role of Student or Scholar The Role of Friend The Roles of Leader, Teacher, and Expert CULTURE SHOCK: UNAVOIDABLE, HIGHLY VALUABLE IF YOUR TIME IN THE COMMUNITY IS LIMITED THE RESEARCHER BEYOND THE COMMUNITY SUMMARY Chapter 7: Collecting Data GUIDE TO THIS CHAPTER PLANNING FOR RESEARCH The Research Problem Background Research OBSERVING AND TAKING NOTES General Principles of Observation What Situations and Behaviors to Observe Minimizing Distortion Rapport Building KEEPING RECORDS Audio and Video Recordings Taking Notes Adding Analytic Details <per text> INTERVIEWING Minimizing Distortion Closed-Ended Versus Open-Ended Interviews Getting Truth Through Interviews Maintaining Rapport Keeping Interview Records UNOBTRUSIVE MEASURES INDIRECT INDICATORS SUMMARY Chapter 8: Analyzing Data GUIDE TO THIS CHAPTER DATA ANALYSIS USES NATURAL HUMAN SKILLS ANALYSIS: MAKING OUR IMPLICIT UNDERSTANDINGS EXPLICIT DATA MANAGEMENT Kinship Diagrams or Genograms Classification Trees, Organization Charts Networks and Flow Charts Face Sheets HOW TO TREAT DATA MANAGEMENT TOOLS ANALYZING RAW DATA: CONTENT CODING USING STATISTICS HOW TO READ AND LISTEN TO ANTHROPOLOGY Reading for Context Reading and Listening for Technique WRITING THE RESULTS Persuasion Transparency Language Usefulness SUMMARY Chapter 9: The Theory of Needs GUIDE TO THIS CHAPTER EXISTING MODEL OF COMMUNITY HEALTH PRACTICE (CHP) The Concept of Health The Concept of Community The Goals and Limitations of the CHP Model A MORE EFFECTIVE MODEL: PEOPLE MEETING NEEDS IN PATTERNED CONTEXT Meeting Needs Patterned Context Context, Meaning, and Change THE BASIC HUMAN NEEDS NEEDS AND HEALTH SYNERGY, CONFLICT, AND SUBSTITUTION AMONG NEEDS Synergy Conflict Substitution NEEDS AND COMMUNITY HEALTH RESEARCH Assessing Health in the Context of Needs The Role of Social Change in Health The Impact of Planned Changes on Health A METHOD FOR ASSESSING NEED SATISFACTION STRATEGIES SUMMARY Chapter 10: Community Change: The Theory of Hope GUIDE TO THIS CHAPTER ANOMIE AND HOPELESSNESS The Substitution of Satisfactions Loss of Meaning SELF-WOUNDING COMMUNITIES SELF-HEALING COMMUNITIES THE PROCESS OF COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT Helping People Understand Themselves An Alternative Theory of Community Change: Street Marxism USING THEORY TO HELP PEOPLE CHANGE The Theory of Hope The Theory of Street Marxism SUMMARY Chapter 11: Action Anthropology GUIDE TO THIS CHAPTER RESEARCH AS COMMUNITY PRACTICE The Empowerment Process Action Research Adds a Moral Dimension to Science THE ACTION RESEARCHER AND COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT Developing Self-Awareness in the Community Creating a Liaison Between the Community and Outsiders The Limitations of the Action Researcher DOING ACTION ANTHROPOLOGY I: KNOWING THE COMMUNITY DOING ACTION ANTHROPOLOGY II: FACILITATING CHANGE Organizing Gatherings and Sharing Information Organizing Work, Collecting Facts, Evaluating Actions The Look, Think, Act Model Sustaining the Process SUMMARY Chapter 12: Teaching Health Anthropology GUIDE TO THIS CHAPTER TEACHING AND RESEARCH SHOULD GO TOGETHER Traditional Teaching Methods A Better Way: Student-Centered Teaching Benefits and Costs of the Student-Centered Method THE METHOD OF STUDENT-CENTERED TEACHING Class Size Selection of Students Location Classroom Resources Scheduling Preparation ROLE OF THE TEACHER/FACILITATOR Classroom Strategies for Creating Student Confidence Classroom Strategies for Larger Classes Group Teaching HOMEWORK AND OUTSIDE ASSIGNMENTS Reading Assignments Journals Field work PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING SUMMARY Chapter 13: Professionalism in Naturalistic Social Science GUIDE TO THIS CHAPTER THE QUALITY OF NATURALISTIC RESEARCH POSITIVIST-FRIENDLY NATURALISTIC METHOD USEFULNESS AS VALIDITY: A BETTER SOLUTION Objection No. 1: The Problem of Values Objection No. 2: The Problem of Shared Tradition ASSESSING COMMUNITY HEALTH BELIEFS SUMMARY Appendix References
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Medical anthropology -- Research -- Methodology.
Public health -- Anthropological aspects -- Research -- Methodology.