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Williams/Colomb, Craft of Argument 3E Preface: Teaching the Craft of Argument A Message to Students Acknowledgments Part 1: The Nature of Argument: Introduction Chapter 1. Argument and Rationality. What Is Argument? What Good Is Argument? Arguments Help Us Think Critically Arguments Help us Sustain Communities Arguments Define Academic and Professional Communities Arguments Enable Democracy What's Not an Argument.?: Three Forms of Persuasion That Are Not Arguments Arguments and Explanations Arguments and Stories Arguments and Visual Images WRITING PROCESS: Argument and Critical Thinking Thinking and Talking Reading and Researching Preparing and Planning Drafting Revising Working Collaboratively INQUIRIES: Reflections; Tasks; Projects FOCUS ON WRITING IN A NUTSHELL 2. Argument as Civil Conversation. The Five Questions of Argument. The Roots of Argument in Civil Conversation. Review: Modeling an Argument. The Core of an Argument: Claim + Reason + Evidence Dialogue with Readers: Acknowledgment + Response Explaining Logic: Warrants Crafting Written Arguments. Thickening Your Argument. WRITING PROCESS: Argument as Civil Conversation Thinking and Talking Preparing and Planning Drafting Revising INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects FOCUS ON WRITING SAMPLE ESSAYS IN A NUTSHELL 3. Motivating Your Argument. Two Kinds of Problems. How Practical and Conceptual Problems Motivate Arguments The Two-Part Structure of Practical Problems The Two-Part Structure of Conceptual Problems How To Identify Motivating Costs or Consequences by Asking So What? Framing Problems in Introductions. The Core of an Introduction: Conditions and Costs The Outer Frame of an Introduction: Common Ground and Solution Conclusions. Introductions and Conclusions as Ways of Thinking. Problem-Posing Versus Problem-Solving Arguments WRITING PROCESS: Motivating Your Argument Reading and Research Preparing and Planning Drafting Revising Working Collaboratively INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects FOCUS ON WRITING SAMPLE ESSAYS IN A NUTSHELL Part 2: Developing Your Argument: Introduction 4. The Core of Your Argument: Finding and Stating A Claim Exploring Claims Without Rushing to Judgment. What Kind of Claim Does Your Problem Require? Is Your Claim Pragmatic or Conceptual? How Strongly Do You Want Your Readers to Accept Your Claim? What Counts as a Claim Worth Considering? What Does a Thoughtful Claim Look Like? Is Your Claim Conceptually Rich? Is Your Claim Logically Rich? Is Your Claim Appropriately Qualified? WRITING PROCESS: Finding and Stating Claims Drafting Revising INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects FOCUS ON WRITING SAMPLE ESSAYS IN A NUTSHELL 5. The Core of Your Argument: Reasons and Evidence. Supporting Claims Reasons and Evidence as Forms of Support. Distinguishing Reasons and Evidence. Distinguishing Evidence and Reports of It Direct and Reported Evidence Multiple Reasons. Reasons in Parallel Reasons in Sequence The Deep Complexity of Serious Arguments Using Reasons to Help Readers Understand Evidence. WRITING PROCESS: Reasons and Evidance Preparing and Planning Drafting: Integrating Quotations into Your Sentences; Avoiding Inadvertent Plagiarism Revising INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects FOCUS ON WRITING SAMPLE ESSAYS IN A NUTSHELL 6. The Core of Your Argument: Reporting Evidence. Weigh Your Burden of Evidence. Make a Plan to Find Evidence The Four Maxims of Quality. Trustworthy Reports of Evidence. Reports of Memories Anecdotes Reports from Authorities Visual Reports with Photographs, Drawings, and Recordings Visual Presentations of Quantitative Data Radical Skepticism WRITING PROCESS: Reporting Evidence Reading and Research Working Collaboratively INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects FOCUS ON WRITING SAMPLE ESSAYS IN A NUTSHELL 7. Your Readers' Role in Your Argument: Acknowledgments and Responses The Importance of Other Viewpoints. Questions about Your Problem and Its Solution. Questions about Your Support. Questions about Your Consistency. Responding with Subordinate Arguments WRITING PROCESS: Acknowledgment and Responses Reading and Research Preparing and Planning Drafting Working Collaboratively INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects FOCUS ON WRITING IN A NUTSHELL Ch. 8. The Logic of Your Argument: Warranting Claims and Reasons The Reasoning Behind Reasons What Warrants Look Like. How Warrants Work Knowing When to Use Warrants in a Written Argument The Most Common Uses for Warrants Two Special Uses for Warrants How to Test a Warrant Distinguishing Reasons and Warrants The Challenge of Using Warrants. Review: A Test Case. Warranting Evidence Arguing by Evidence vs. Arguing by Warrants. WRITING PROCESS: Warrants Preparing and Planning Working Collaboratively INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects FOCUS ON WRITING IN A NUTSHELL Part 3: Thinking About Thinking in Arguments: Introduction 9. The Forms of Reasoning. Three Forms of Reasoning Inductive Reasoning; From Specifics to a General Conclusion Deductive Reasoning: From a Generalization to a Specific Conclusion Abductive Reasoning: From Problem to Hypothesis to Confirmation Real Life Barriers to Abductive Critical Thinking Don't Rely on Warrants in Place of Evidence Don't Collect Evidence Randomly Guard Against the Biases Common in Abductive Thinking WRITING PROCESS: Forms of Reasoning Preparing and Planning INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects FOCUS ON WRITING IN A NUTSHELL 10. Arguments about Meanings. Some Terminology. Meanings and Problems. What Problems Does Your Definition Solve? Is the Issue of Meaning a Surrogate for a Larger Problem? How to Argue about Meanings. Do Readers Expect Common or Authorized Meanings? Strategies for Using Common Meanings Strategies for Using Authorized Meanings When to Rely on Authorized Definitions Why Dictionaries Cannot Settle Arguments over Meaning WRITING PROCESS: Arguments about Meanings Preparing and Planning Drafting INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects FOCUS ON WRITING IN A NUTSHELL 11. Arguments about Causes The Impossible Vastness of Causes. Finding Relevant Causes. Everyday Thinking about Causation Thoughtful Thinking about Causation Analyzing Causation Systematically. The Principle of Similarity and Difference The Principle of Co-Variation Four Cautions about Using the Principles Causation and Personal Responsibility. Who's Responsible? Five Criteria for Assigning Personal Responsibility Attribution Bias WRITING PROCESS: Arguments about Causes Preparing and Planning Drafting INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks FOCUS ON WRITING IN A NUTSHELL Part 4: The Languages of Argument: Introduction 12. Clear Language. Some Principles of Clear and Direct Writing. The Principles in a Nutshell Concision and Vividness. How to Be Concise How to Be Vivid Abstract vs. Concrete The System of Imageable Words Deliberate Generality WRITING PROCESS: Clear Language Revising INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks A GUIDE TO TERMS IN A NUTSHELL 13. The Overt and Covert Force of Language. Invoking Values, Evoking Feeling. Value-Laden Words You Can't Avoid Values When Emotional Language Undermines Sound Thinking Polarizing Language Cynical Language Subjects and Point of View. Manipulating Subjects to Assign Responsibility Treating Means as Agents Abstractions as Characters. Metaphorical Scenarios. WRITING PROCESS: The Overt and Covert Force of Language Drafting Revising INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks IN A NUTSHELL Appendix 1: Avoiding Inadvertent Plagiarism through Proper Citations Appendix 2: Cognitive Biases and Fallacies Part 5: Readings
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
English language -- Rhetoric.