Table of contents for The craft of argument / Joseph M. Williams, Gregory G. Colomb.

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Williams/Colomb, Craft of Argument 3E
Preface: Teaching the Craft of Argument
A Message to Students
Acknowledgments
Part 1: The Nature of Argument: Introduction 
Chapter 1. Argument and Rationality. 
What Is Argument?
What Good Is Argument?
	Arguments Help Us Think Critically
	Arguments Help us Sustain Communities
	Arguments Define Academic and Professional Communities
	Arguments Enable Democracy
What's Not an Argument.?: Three Forms of Persuasion That Are Not Arguments
	Arguments and Explanations
	Arguments and Stories
	Arguments and Visual Images
WRITING PROCESS: Argument and Critical Thinking
	Thinking and Talking
	Reading and Researching
	Preparing and Planning
	Drafting
	Revising
	Working Collaboratively
INQUIRIES: Reflections; Tasks; Projects
FOCUS ON WRITING
IN A NUTSHELL
2. Argument as Civil Conversation. 
The Five Questions of Argument.
The Roots of Argument in Civil Conversation.
Review: Modeling an Argument.
	The Core of an Argument: Claim + Reason + Evidence
	Dialogue with Readers: Acknowledgment + Response
	Explaining Logic: Warrants
Crafting Written Arguments.
Thickening Your Argument.
WRITING PROCESS: Argument as Civil Conversation
	Thinking and Talking
	Preparing and Planning
	Drafting
	Revising
INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects
FOCUS ON WRITING
SAMPLE ESSAYS
IN A NUTSHELL
3. Motivating Your Argument. 
Two Kinds of Problems.
How Practical and Conceptual Problems Motivate Arguments
	The Two-Part Structure of Practical Problems
	The Two-Part Structure of Conceptual Problems
	How To Identify Motivating Costs or Consequences by Asking So What?
Framing Problems in Introductions.
	The Core of an Introduction: Conditions and Costs
	The Outer Frame of an Introduction: Common Ground and Solution
Conclusions.
Introductions and Conclusions as Ways of Thinking.
	Problem-Posing Versus Problem-Solving Arguments
WRITING PROCESS: Motivating Your Argument
	Reading and Research
	Preparing and Planning
	Drafting
	Revising
	Working Collaboratively
INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects
FOCUS ON WRITING
SAMPLE ESSAYS
IN A NUTSHELL
Part 2: Developing Your Argument: Introduction 
4. The Core of Your Argument: Finding and Stating A Claim 
Exploring Claims Without Rushing to Judgment.
What Kind of Claim Does Your Problem Require?
	Is Your Claim Pragmatic or Conceptual?
	How Strongly Do You Want Your Readers to Accept Your Claim?
What Counts as a Claim Worth Considering?
What Does a Thoughtful Claim Look Like?
	Is Your Claim Conceptually Rich?
	Is Your Claim Logically Rich?
	Is Your Claim Appropriately Qualified?
WRITING PROCESS: Finding and Stating Claims
	Drafting
	Revising
INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects
FOCUS ON WRITING
SAMPLE ESSAYS
IN A NUTSHELL
5. The Core of Your Argument: Reasons and Evidence. 
Supporting Claims
Reasons and Evidence as Forms of Support.
Distinguishing Reasons and Evidence.
Distinguishing Evidence and Reports of It
	Direct and Reported Evidence
Multiple Reasons.
	Reasons in Parallel
	Reasons in Sequence
	The Deep Complexity of Serious Arguments
Using Reasons to Help Readers Understand Evidence.
WRITING PROCESS: Reasons and Evidance
Preparing and Planning
Drafting: Integrating Quotations into Your Sentences; Avoiding Inadvertent 
Plagiarism
Revising
INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects
FOCUS ON WRITING
SAMPLE ESSAYS
IN A NUTSHELL
6. The Core of Your Argument: Reporting Evidence. 
Weigh Your Burden of Evidence.
Make a Plan to Find Evidence
The Four Maxims of Quality.
Trustworthy Reports of Evidence.
	Reports of Memories
	Anecdotes
	Reports from Authorities
	Visual Reports with Photographs, Drawings, and Recordings
	Visual Presentations of Quantitative Data
Radical Skepticism
WRITING PROCESS: Reporting Evidence
	Reading and Research
	Working Collaboratively
INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects
FOCUS ON WRITING
SAMPLE ESSAYS
IN A NUTSHELL
7. Your Readers' Role in Your Argument: Acknowledgments and Responses 
The Importance of Other Viewpoints.
Questions about Your Problem and Its Solution.
Questions about Your Support.
Questions about Your Consistency.
Responding with Subordinate Arguments
WRITING PROCESS: Acknowledgment and Responses
	Reading and Research
	Preparing and Planning
	Drafting
	Working Collaboratively
 INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects
FOCUS ON WRITING
IN A NUTSHELL
Ch. 8. The Logic of Your Argument: Warranting Claims and Reasons
The Reasoning Behind Reasons
What Warrants Look Like.
How Warrants Work
Knowing When to Use Warrants in a Written Argument
	The Most Common Uses for Warrants
	Two Special Uses for Warrants
How to Test a Warrant
Distinguishing Reasons and Warrants
The Challenge of Using Warrants.
Review: A Test Case.
Warranting Evidence 
Arguing by Evidence vs. Arguing by Warrants.
WRITING PROCESS: Warrants
	Preparing and Planning
	Working Collaboratively
INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects
FOCUS ON WRITING
IN A NUTSHELL
Part 3: Thinking About Thinking in Arguments: Introduction 
9. The Forms of Reasoning. 
Three Forms of Reasoning
	Inductive Reasoning; From Specifics to a General Conclusion
	Deductive Reasoning: From a Generalization to a Specific Conclusion
	Abductive Reasoning: From Problem to Hypothesis to Confirmation
Real Life Barriers to Abductive Critical Thinking
	Don't Rely on Warrants in Place of Evidence
	Don't Collect Evidence Randomly
	Guard Against the Biases Common in Abductive Thinking
WRITING PROCESS: Forms of Reasoning
	Preparing and Planning
INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects
FOCUS ON WRITING
IN A NUTSHELL
10. Arguments about Meanings. 
Some Terminology.
Meanings and Problems.
	What Problems Does Your Definition Solve?
	Is the Issue of Meaning a Surrogate for a Larger Problem?
How to Argue about Meanings.
	Do Readers Expect Common or Authorized Meanings?
	Strategies for Using Common Meanings
	Strategies for Using Authorized Meanings
	When to Rely on Authorized Definitions
	Why Dictionaries Cannot Settle Arguments over Meaning
WRITING PROCESS: Arguments about Meanings
	Preparing and Planning
	Drafting
INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects
FOCUS ON WRITING
IN A NUTSHELL
11. Arguments about Causes
The Impossible Vastness of Causes.
Finding Relevant Causes.
	Everyday Thinking about Causation
	Thoughtful Thinking about Causation
Analyzing Causation Systematically.
	The Principle of Similarity and Difference
	The Principle of Co-Variation
	Four Cautions about Using the Principles
Causation and Personal Responsibility.
	Who's Responsible?
	Five Criteria for Assigning Personal Responsibility
	Attribution Bias
WRITING PROCESS: Arguments about Causes
	Preparing and Planning
	Drafting
INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks
FOCUS ON WRITING
IN A NUTSHELL
Part 4: The Languages of Argument: Introduction
12. Clear Language. 
Some Principles of Clear and Direct Writing.
The Principles in a Nutshell
Concision and Vividness.
	How to Be Concise
	How to Be Vivid
	Abstract vs. Concrete
	The System of Imageable Words
	Deliberate Generality
WRITING PROCESS: Clear Language
	Revising
INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks
A GUIDE TO TERMS
IN A NUTSHELL
13. The Overt and Covert Force of Language. 
Invoking Values, Evoking Feeling.
	Value-Laden Words
	You Can't Avoid Values
When Emotional Language Undermines Sound Thinking
Polarizing Language
Cynical Language
Subjects and Point of View.
	Manipulating Subjects to Assign Responsibility
	Treating Means as Agents
Abstractions as Characters.
Metaphorical Scenarios.
WRITING PROCESS: The Overt and Covert Force of Language
	Drafting
	Revising
INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks
IN A NUTSHELL
Appendix 1: Avoiding Inadvertent Plagiarism through Proper Citations
Appendix 2: Cognitive Biases and Fallacies
Part 5: Readings

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

English language -- Rhetoric.
Persuasion (Rhetoric).
Report writing.