Table of contents for Protective relaying : principles and applications, / Thomas J. Domin.

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1. Introduction and General Philosophies
	1.1 Introduction and Definitions
	1.2 Typical Protective Relays and Relay Systems
	1.3 Typical Power Circuit Breakers
 	1.4 Nomenclature and Device Numbers
	1.5 Typical Relay and Circuit Breaker Connections
	1.6 Basic Objectives of System Protection
	1.7 Factors Affecting the Protection System
	1.8 Clasification of Relays
	1.9 Protective Relay Performance
	1.10 Principles of Relay Application
	1.11 Information for Application
	1.12 Structural Changes Within the Electric Power Industry
	1.13 Reliability and Protection Standards
	Bibliography
2. Fundamental Units: Per Unit and Percent Values
	2.1 Indroduction
	2.2 Per Unit and Percent Definitions
	2.3 Advantages of Per Unit and Percent
	2.4 General Relations Between Circuit Quantities
	2.5 Basic Quantities
	2.6 Per Unit and Percent Impedance Relations
	2.7 Per Unit and Percent Impedances of Transformer Units
	2.8 Per Unit and Percent Impedances of Generators
	2.9 Per Unit and Percent Impedances of Overhead Lines
	2.10 Changing Per Unit (Percent) Quantities to Different Bases
	Bibliography
3. Phasors and Polarity
	3.1 Introduction
	3.2 Phasors
	3.3 Circuit and Phasor Diagrams for a Balanced Three-Phase Power System
	3.4 Phasor and Phase Rotation
	3.5 Polarity
	3.6 Application of Polarity for Phase-Fault Directional Sensing
	3.7 Directional Sensing for Ground Faults: Voltage Polarization
	3.8 Directional Sensing for Ground Faults: Current Polarization
	3.9 Other Directional-Sensing Connections
	3.10 Application Aspects of Directional Relaying
	3.11 Summary
4. Symmetrical Components: A Review
	4.1 Inrtroduction and Background
	4.2 Positive-Sequence Set
	4.3 Nomenclature Convenience
	4.4 Negative-Sequence Set
	4.5 Zero-Sequence Set
	4.6 General Equations
	4.7 Sequence Independence
	4.8 Positive-Sequence Sources
	4.9 Sequence Networks
	4.10 Shunt Unbalance Sequence Network Interconnections
	4.11 Example: Fault Calculations on a Typical System Shown in Figure 4.16
	4.12 Example: Fault Calculation for Autotransformers
	4.13 Example: Open-Phase Conductor
	4.14 Example: Open Phase Falling to Ground on One Side
	4.15 Series and Simultaneous Unbalances
	4.16 Overview
	4.17 Summary
	Bibliography
	Appendix 4.1 Short-Circuit MVA and Equivalent Impedance
	Appendix 4.2 Impedance and Sequence Connections for Transformer Banks
	Appendix 4.3 Sequence Phase Shifts Through Wye-Delta Transformer Banks
5. Relay Input Sources
	5.1 Introduction
	5.2 Equivalent Circuits of Current and Voltage Transformers
	5,3 Current Transformers for Protection Applications
	5.4 Current Transformer Performance on a Symmetical AC Component
	5.5 Secondary Burdens During Faults
	5.6 CT Selection and Performance Evaluation for Phase Faults
	5.7 Performance Evaluation for Ground Relays
	5.8 Effect of Unenergized CTs on Performance
	5.9 Flux Summation Current Transformer
	5.10 Current Transformer Performance on the DC Component
	5.11 Summary: Current Transformer Performance Evaluation
	5.12 Current Transformer Residual Flux and Subsidence Transients
	5.13 Auxiliary Current Transformers in CT Secondary Circuits
	5.14 Voltage Transformers for Protective Applications
	5.15 Optical Sensors
	Bibliography
6. Protection Fundamentals and Basic Design Principles
	6.1 Introduction
	6.2 The Differential Principle
	6.3 Overcurrent-Distance Protection and the Basic Protection Problem
	6.4 Backup Protection: Remote Versus Local
	6.5 Basic Design Principles
	6.6 Ground Distance Relays
	6.7 Solid-State Microprocessor Relays
	6.8 Summary
	Bibliography
7. System-Grounding Principles
	7.1 Introduction
	7.2 Ungrounded Systems
	7.3 Transient Overvoltages
	7.4 Ground-Detection Methods for Ungrounded Systems
	7.5 High-Impedance-Grounding Systems
	7.6 System Grounding for Mine or Other Hazardous-Type Applications
	7.7 Low-Impedance Grounding
	7.8 Solid (Effective) Grounding
	7.9 Ferroresonance in Three-Phase Power Systems
	7.10 Safety Grounding
	7.11 Grounding Summary and Recommendations
	Bibliography
8. Generator Protection, Generator/System Intertie Protection
	8.1 Introduction
	8.2 Generator Connections and Overview of Typical Protection
	8.3 Stator Phase-Fault Protection for All Size Generators
	8.4 Unit Transformer Phase-Fault Differential Protection (87TG)
	8.5 Phase-Fault Backup Protection (51V) or (21)
	8.6 Negative-Sequence Current Backup Protection
 	8.7 Stator Ground-Fault Protection
	8.8 Multiple Generator Units Connected Directly to a Transformer: Grounding and Protection
	8.9 Field Ground Protection (64)
	8.10 Generator Off-Line Protection
	8.11 Reduced or Lost Excitation Protection (40)
	8.12 Generator Protection for System Distrubances and Operational Hazards
	8.13 Loss of Voltage Transformer Signal
	8.14 Generator Breaker Failure
	8.15 Excitation System Protection and Limiters
	8.16 Synchronous Condenser Protection
	8.17 Generator-Tripping Systems
	8.18 Station Auxiliary Service System
	8.19 Distributed Generator Intertie Protection
	8.20 Protection Summary
	Bibliography
9. Transformer, Reactor, and Shunt Capacitor Protection
	9.1 Transformers
	9.2 Factors Affecting Differential Protection
	9.3 False Differential Current
	9.4 Transformer Differential Relay Characteristics
	9.5 Application and Connection of Transformer Differential Relays
	9.6 Example: Differential Protection Connections for a Two-Winding Wye-Delta Transformer
	 Bank
	9.7 Load Tap-Changing Transformers
	9.8 Example: Differential Protection Connections for Multiwinding Transformer Bank
	9.9 Application of Auxiliaries for Current Balancing
	9.10 Paralleling CTs in Differential Circuits
	9.11 Special Connections for Transformer Differential Relays
	9.12 Differential Protection for Three-Phase Banks of Single-Phase Transformer Units
	9.13 Ground (Zero-Sequence) Differential Protection for Transformers
	9.14 Equipment for Transfer Trip Systems
	9.15 Mechanical Fault Detection for Transformers
	9.16 Grounding Transformer Protection
	9.17 Ground Differential Protection with Directional Relays
	9.18 Protection of Regulating Transformers
	9.19 Transformer Overcurrent Protection
	9.20 Transformer Overload-Through-Fault-Withstand Standards
	9.21 Examples: Transformer Overcurrent Protection
	9.22 Transformer Thermal Protection
	9.23 Overvoltage on Transformers
	9.24 Summary: Typical Protection for Transformers
	9.25 Reactors
	9.26 Capacitors
	9.27 Power System Reactive Requirements
	9.28 Shunt Capacitor Applications
	9.29 Capacitor Bank Designs
	9.30 Distribution Capacitor Bank Protection
	9.31 Designs and Limitations of Large Capacitor Banks
	9.32 Protection of Large Capacitor Banks
	9.33 Series Capacitor Bank Protection
	9.34 Capacitor Bank Protection Application Issues
	Bibliography
10. Bus Protection
	10.1 Introduction: Typical Bus Arrangements
	10.2 Single Breaker-Single Bus
	10.3 Single Buses Connected with Bus Tie
	10.4 Main and Transfer Buses with Single Breaker
	10.5 Single Breaker-Double Bus
	10.6 Double Breaker-Double Bus
	10.7 Ring Bus
	10.8 Breaker-and-a-Half Bus
	10.9 Tnsformer-Bus Combination
	10.10 General Summary of Buses
	10.11 Differential Protection for Buses
	10.12 Other Bus Differential Systems
	10.13 Ground-Fault Bus
	10.14 Protection Summary
	10.15 Bus Protection - Practical Considerations
	Bibliography
11. Motor Protection
	11.1 Introduction
	11.2 Potential Motor Hazards
	11.3. Motor Characteristics Involved in Protection
	11.4 Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit
	11.5 General Motor Protection
	11.6 Phase-Fault Protection
	11.7 Differential Protection
	11.8 Ground-Fault Protection
	11.9 Thermal and Locked-Rotor Protection
	11.10 Locked-Rotor Protection for Large Motors (21)
	11.11 System Unbalance and Motors
	11.12 Unbalance and Phase Rotation Protection
	11.13 Undervoltage Protection
	11.14 Bus Transfer and Reclosing
	11.15 Repetitive Starts and Jogging Protection
	11.16 Multifunction Microprocessor Motor Protection Units
	11.17 Synchronous Motor Protection
	11.18 Summary: Typical Protection for Motors
	11.19 Practical Considerations of Motor Protection
	Bibliography
12. Line Protection
	12.1 Classification of Lines and Feeders
	12.2 Line Classifications for Protection
	12.3 Techniques and Equipment for Line Protection
	12.4 Coordination Fundamentals and General Setting Criteria
	12.5 Distribution Feeder, Radial Line Protection, and Coordination
	12.6 Example: Coordination for a Typical Distribution Feeder
	12.7 Distributed Generation Connected to Distribution Lines
	12.8 Example: Coordination for a Loop System
	12.9 Instantaneous Trip Application for a Loop System
	12.10 Short-Line Applications
	12.11 Network and Spot Network Systems
	12.12 Distance Protection for Phase Faults
	12.13 Distance Relay Applications for Tapped and Multiterminal Lines
	12.14 Voltage Sources for Distance Relays
	12.15 Distance Relay Applications in Systems Protected by Inverse-Time Overcurrent Relays
	12.16 Ground-Fault Protection for Lines
	12.17 Distance Protection for Ground Faults and Direction Overcurrent Comparison
	12.18 Fault Resistance and Relaying
	12.19 Directional Sensing for Ground-Overcurrent Relays
	12.20 Polarizing Problems with Autotransformers
	12.21 Voltage Polarization Limitations
	12.22 Dual Polarization for Ground Relaying
	12.23 Ground Directional Sensing with Negative Sequence
	12.24 Mutual Coupling and Ground Relaying
	12.25 Ground Distance Relaying with Mutual Induction
	12.26 Long HV Series-Compensated Line Protection
	12.27 Backup: Remote, Local, and Breaker Failure
	12.28 Summary: Typical Protection for Lines
	12.29 Practical Considerations of Line Protection
13. Pilot Protection
	13.1 Introduction
	13.2 Pilot System Classifications
	13.3 Protection Channel Classifications
	13.4 Directional Comparison Blocking Pilot Systems
	13.5 Directional Comparison Unblocking Pilot System
	13.6 Directional Comparison Overreaching Transfer Trip Pilot Systems
	13.7 Directional Comparison Underreaching Transfer Trip Pilot Systems
	13.8 Phase Comparison: Pilot Wire Relaying - Wire Line Channels
	13.9 Phase Comparison: Audiotone or Fiber-Optic Channels
	13.10 Segregated Phase Comparison Pilot Systems
	13.11 Single-Pole - Selective Pole Pilot Systems
	13.12 Directional Wave Comparison Systems
	13.13 Digital Current Differential
	13.14 Pilot Scheme Enhancements
	13.15 Transfer Trip Systems
	13.16 Communication Channels for Protection
	13.17 Summary and General Evaluation of Pilot Systems
	13.18 Pilot Relaying - Operating Experiences
14. Stability, Reclosing, Load Shedding, and Trip Circuit Design
	14.1 Introduction
	14.2 Electric Power and Power Transmission
	14.3 Steady-State Operation and Stability
	14.4 Transient Operation and Stability
	14.5 System Swings and Protection
	14.6 Out-of-Step Detection by Distance Relays
	14.7 Automatic Line Reclosing
	14.8 Distribution Feeder Reclosing
	14.9 Substransmission and Transmission-Line Reclosing
	14.10 Reclosing on Lines with Transformers or Reactors
	14.11 Automatic Synchronizing
	14.12 Frequency Relaying for Load-Shedding - Load Saving
	14.13 Under Frequency Load Shedding Design
	14.14 Performance of Under Frequency Load Shedding Schemes
	14.15 Frequency Relaying for Industrial Systems
	14.16 Voltage Collapse
	14.17 Voltage Collapse Mitigation Techniques
	14.18 Protection and Control Trip Circuits
	14.19 Substation DC Systems
	14.20 Trip Circuit Devices
	14.21 Trip Circuit Design
	14.22 Trip Circuit Monitoring and Alarms
	14.23 Special Protection Schemes
	14.24 Practical Considerations - Special Protection Schemes
	Bibliography
15. Microprocessor Applications and Substation Automation
	15.1 Introduction
	15.2 Microprocessor Based Relay Designs
	15.3 Programmable Logic Controllers
	15.4 Application of Microprocessor Relays
	15.5 Programming of Microprocessor Relaying
	15.6 Attributes of Microprocessor Based Relays
	15.7 Protection Enhancements
	15.8 Multifunctional Capability
	15.9 Wiring Simplification
	15.10 Event Reports
	15.11 Commissioning and Periodic Testing
	15.12 Setting Specifications and Documentation
	15.13 Fault Location
	15.14 Power System Automation
	15.15 Practical Observations--Microprocessor Relay Applications
	Bibliography
Problems
Index
	 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Protective relays.