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1. Introduction and General Philosophies 1.1 Introduction and Definitions 1.2 Typical Protective Relays and Relay Systems 1.3 Typical Power Circuit Breakers 1.4 Nomenclature and Device Numbers 1.5 Typical Relay and Circuit Breaker Connections 1.6 Basic Objectives of System Protection 1.7 Factors Affecting the Protection System 1.8 Clasification of Relays 1.9 Protective Relay Performance 1.10 Principles of Relay Application 1.11 Information for Application 1.12 Structural Changes Within the Electric Power Industry 1.13 Reliability and Protection Standards Bibliography 2. Fundamental Units: Per Unit and Percent Values 2.1 Indroduction 2.2 Per Unit and Percent Definitions 2.3 Advantages of Per Unit and Percent 2.4 General Relations Between Circuit Quantities 2.5 Basic Quantities 2.6 Per Unit and Percent Impedance Relations 2.7 Per Unit and Percent Impedances of Transformer Units 2.8 Per Unit and Percent Impedances of Generators 2.9 Per Unit and Percent Impedances of Overhead Lines 2.10 Changing Per Unit (Percent) Quantities to Different Bases Bibliography 3. Phasors and Polarity 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Phasors 3.3 Circuit and Phasor Diagrams for a Balanced Three-Phase Power System 3.4 Phasor and Phase Rotation 3.5 Polarity 3.6 Application of Polarity for Phase-Fault Directional Sensing 3.7 Directional Sensing for Ground Faults: Voltage Polarization 3.8 Directional Sensing for Ground Faults: Current Polarization 3.9 Other Directional-Sensing Connections 3.10 Application Aspects of Directional Relaying 3.11 Summary 4. Symmetrical Components: A Review 4.1 Inrtroduction and Background 4.2 Positive-Sequence Set 4.3 Nomenclature Convenience 4.4 Negative-Sequence Set 4.5 Zero-Sequence Set 4.6 General Equations 4.7 Sequence Independence 4.8 Positive-Sequence Sources 4.9 Sequence Networks 4.10 Shunt Unbalance Sequence Network Interconnections 4.11 Example: Fault Calculations on a Typical System Shown in Figure 4.16 4.12 Example: Fault Calculation for Autotransformers 4.13 Example: Open-Phase Conductor 4.14 Example: Open Phase Falling to Ground on One Side 4.15 Series and Simultaneous Unbalances 4.16 Overview 4.17 Summary Bibliography Appendix 4.1 Short-Circuit MVA and Equivalent Impedance Appendix 4.2 Impedance and Sequence Connections for Transformer Banks Appendix 4.3 Sequence Phase Shifts Through Wye-Delta Transformer Banks 5. Relay Input Sources 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Equivalent Circuits of Current and Voltage Transformers 5,3 Current Transformers for Protection Applications 5.4 Current Transformer Performance on a Symmetical AC Component 5.5 Secondary Burdens During Faults 5.6 CT Selection and Performance Evaluation for Phase Faults 5.7 Performance Evaluation for Ground Relays 5.8 Effect of Unenergized CTs on Performance 5.9 Flux Summation Current Transformer 5.10 Current Transformer Performance on the DC Component 5.11 Summary: Current Transformer Performance Evaluation 5.12 Current Transformer Residual Flux and Subsidence Transients 5.13 Auxiliary Current Transformers in CT Secondary Circuits 5.14 Voltage Transformers for Protective Applications 5.15 Optical Sensors Bibliography 6. Protection Fundamentals and Basic Design Principles 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The Differential Principle 6.3 Overcurrent-Distance Protection and the Basic Protection Problem 6.4 Backup Protection: Remote Versus Local 6.5 Basic Design Principles 6.6 Ground Distance Relays 6.7 Solid-State Microprocessor Relays 6.8 Summary Bibliography 7. System-Grounding Principles 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Ungrounded Systems 7.3 Transient Overvoltages 7.4 Ground-Detection Methods for Ungrounded Systems 7.5 High-Impedance-Grounding Systems 7.6 System Grounding for Mine or Other Hazardous-Type Applications 7.7 Low-Impedance Grounding 7.8 Solid (Effective) Grounding 7.9 Ferroresonance in Three-Phase Power Systems 7.10 Safety Grounding 7.11 Grounding Summary and Recommendations Bibliography 8. Generator Protection, Generator/System Intertie Protection 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Generator Connections and Overview of Typical Protection 8.3 Stator Phase-Fault Protection for All Size Generators 8.4 Unit Transformer Phase-Fault Differential Protection (87TG) 8.5 Phase-Fault Backup Protection (51V) or (21) 8.6 Negative-Sequence Current Backup Protection 8.7 Stator Ground-Fault Protection 8.8 Multiple Generator Units Connected Directly to a Transformer: Grounding and Protection 8.9 Field Ground Protection (64) 8.10 Generator Off-Line Protection 8.11 Reduced or Lost Excitation Protection (40) 8.12 Generator Protection for System Distrubances and Operational Hazards 8.13 Loss of Voltage Transformer Signal 8.14 Generator Breaker Failure 8.15 Excitation System Protection and Limiters 8.16 Synchronous Condenser Protection 8.17 Generator-Tripping Systems 8.18 Station Auxiliary Service System 8.19 Distributed Generator Intertie Protection 8.20 Protection Summary Bibliography 9. Transformer, Reactor, and Shunt Capacitor Protection 9.1 Transformers 9.2 Factors Affecting Differential Protection 9.3 False Differential Current 9.4 Transformer Differential Relay Characteristics 9.5 Application and Connection of Transformer Differential Relays 9.6 Example: Differential Protection Connections for a Two-Winding Wye-Delta Transformer Bank 9.7 Load Tap-Changing Transformers 9.8 Example: Differential Protection Connections for Multiwinding Transformer Bank 9.9 Application of Auxiliaries for Current Balancing 9.10 Paralleling CTs in Differential Circuits 9.11 Special Connections for Transformer Differential Relays 9.12 Differential Protection for Three-Phase Banks of Single-Phase Transformer Units 9.13 Ground (Zero-Sequence) Differential Protection for Transformers 9.14 Equipment for Transfer Trip Systems 9.15 Mechanical Fault Detection for Transformers 9.16 Grounding Transformer Protection 9.17 Ground Differential Protection with Directional Relays 9.18 Protection of Regulating Transformers 9.19 Transformer Overcurrent Protection 9.20 Transformer Overload-Through-Fault-Withstand Standards 9.21 Examples: Transformer Overcurrent Protection 9.22 Transformer Thermal Protection 9.23 Overvoltage on Transformers 9.24 Summary: Typical Protection for Transformers 9.25 Reactors 9.26 Capacitors 9.27 Power System Reactive Requirements 9.28 Shunt Capacitor Applications 9.29 Capacitor Bank Designs 9.30 Distribution Capacitor Bank Protection 9.31 Designs and Limitations of Large Capacitor Banks 9.32 Protection of Large Capacitor Banks 9.33 Series Capacitor Bank Protection 9.34 Capacitor Bank Protection Application Issues Bibliography 10. Bus Protection 10.1 Introduction: Typical Bus Arrangements 10.2 Single Breaker-Single Bus 10.3 Single Buses Connected with Bus Tie 10.4 Main and Transfer Buses with Single Breaker 10.5 Single Breaker-Double Bus 10.6 Double Breaker-Double Bus 10.7 Ring Bus 10.8 Breaker-and-a-Half Bus 10.9 Tnsformer-Bus Combination 10.10 General Summary of Buses 10.11 Differential Protection for Buses 10.12 Other Bus Differential Systems 10.13 Ground-Fault Bus 10.14 Protection Summary 10.15 Bus Protection - Practical Considerations Bibliography 11. Motor Protection 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Potential Motor Hazards 11.3. Motor Characteristics Involved in Protection 11.4 Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit 11.5 General Motor Protection 11.6 Phase-Fault Protection 11.7 Differential Protection 11.8 Ground-Fault Protection 11.9 Thermal and Locked-Rotor Protection 11.10 Locked-Rotor Protection for Large Motors (21) 11.11 System Unbalance and Motors 11.12 Unbalance and Phase Rotation Protection 11.13 Undervoltage Protection 11.14 Bus Transfer and Reclosing 11.15 Repetitive Starts and Jogging Protection 11.16 Multifunction Microprocessor Motor Protection Units 11.17 Synchronous Motor Protection 11.18 Summary: Typical Protection for Motors 11.19 Practical Considerations of Motor Protection Bibliography 12. Line Protection 12.1 Classification of Lines and Feeders 12.2 Line Classifications for Protection 12.3 Techniques and Equipment for Line Protection 12.4 Coordination Fundamentals and General Setting Criteria 12.5 Distribution Feeder, Radial Line Protection, and Coordination 12.6 Example: Coordination for a Typical Distribution Feeder 12.7 Distributed Generation Connected to Distribution Lines 12.8 Example: Coordination for a Loop System 12.9 Instantaneous Trip Application for a Loop System 12.10 Short-Line Applications 12.11 Network and Spot Network Systems 12.12 Distance Protection for Phase Faults 12.13 Distance Relay Applications for Tapped and Multiterminal Lines 12.14 Voltage Sources for Distance Relays 12.15 Distance Relay Applications in Systems Protected by Inverse-Time Overcurrent Relays 12.16 Ground-Fault Protection for Lines 12.17 Distance Protection for Ground Faults and Direction Overcurrent Comparison 12.18 Fault Resistance and Relaying 12.19 Directional Sensing for Ground-Overcurrent Relays 12.20 Polarizing Problems with Autotransformers 12.21 Voltage Polarization Limitations 12.22 Dual Polarization for Ground Relaying 12.23 Ground Directional Sensing with Negative Sequence 12.24 Mutual Coupling and Ground Relaying 12.25 Ground Distance Relaying with Mutual Induction 12.26 Long HV Series-Compensated Line Protection 12.27 Backup: Remote, Local, and Breaker Failure 12.28 Summary: Typical Protection for Lines 12.29 Practical Considerations of Line Protection 13. Pilot Protection 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Pilot System Classifications 13.3 Protection Channel Classifications 13.4 Directional Comparison Blocking Pilot Systems 13.5 Directional Comparison Unblocking Pilot System 13.6 Directional Comparison Overreaching Transfer Trip Pilot Systems 13.7 Directional Comparison Underreaching Transfer Trip Pilot Systems 13.8 Phase Comparison: Pilot Wire Relaying - Wire Line Channels 13.9 Phase Comparison: Audiotone or Fiber-Optic Channels 13.10 Segregated Phase Comparison Pilot Systems 13.11 Single-Pole - Selective Pole Pilot Systems 13.12 Directional Wave Comparison Systems 13.13 Digital Current Differential 13.14 Pilot Scheme Enhancements 13.15 Transfer Trip Systems 13.16 Communication Channels for Protection 13.17 Summary and General Evaluation of Pilot Systems 13.18 Pilot Relaying - Operating Experiences 14. Stability, Reclosing, Load Shedding, and Trip Circuit Design 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Electric Power and Power Transmission 14.3 Steady-State Operation and Stability 14.4 Transient Operation and Stability 14.5 System Swings and Protection 14.6 Out-of-Step Detection by Distance Relays 14.7 Automatic Line Reclosing 14.8 Distribution Feeder Reclosing 14.9 Substransmission and Transmission-Line Reclosing 14.10 Reclosing on Lines with Transformers or Reactors 14.11 Automatic Synchronizing 14.12 Frequency Relaying for Load-Shedding - Load Saving 14.13 Under Frequency Load Shedding Design 14.14 Performance of Under Frequency Load Shedding Schemes 14.15 Frequency Relaying for Industrial Systems 14.16 Voltage Collapse 14.17 Voltage Collapse Mitigation Techniques 14.18 Protection and Control Trip Circuits 14.19 Substation DC Systems 14.20 Trip Circuit Devices 14.21 Trip Circuit Design 14.22 Trip Circuit Monitoring and Alarms 14.23 Special Protection Schemes 14.24 Practical Considerations - Special Protection Schemes Bibliography 15. Microprocessor Applications and Substation Automation 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Microprocessor Based Relay Designs 15.3 Programmable Logic Controllers 15.4 Application of Microprocessor Relays 15.5 Programming of Microprocessor Relaying 15.6 Attributes of Microprocessor Based Relays 15.7 Protection Enhancements 15.8 Multifunctional Capability 15.9 Wiring Simplification 15.10 Event Reports 15.11 Commissioning and Periodic Testing 15.12 Setting Specifications and Documentation 15.13 Fault Location 15.14 Power System Automation 15.15 Practical Observations--Microprocessor Relay Applications Bibliography Problems Index
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