Table of contents for Biology of disease / Nessar Ahmed ... [et al.].

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 Contents
Preface											00
Glossary										00
Chapter 1: The Nature and Investigation of Diseases					1
1.1 Introduction									1
1.2 Characteristic Features of Diseases						2 
 Etiology										2
 Pathogenesis 									3
 Manifestations of Diseases 						 4
 Outcome of a Disease 							5
1.3 Classification of Diseases							6
1.4 Epidemiology of Disease 							7
1.5 Investigating Diseases								8
1.6 Types of Pathology Laboratories						9
1.7 Role of Hospital Laboratory Tests					 10
1.8 Hospital Laboratory Tests 						 14
1.9 Evaluation of Laboratory Tests						 16
1.10 Reference Ranges							 17 
1.11 Quality of Test Results and Clinical Auditing				 18
1.12 Summary								 21
Further Reading								 22
Chapter 2: Pathogens and Virulence						 25
2.1 Introduction									25
2.2 Types of Pathogens								26
 Prions 										26
 Viruses										27
 Bacteria										30
 Protozoa, Fungi and Helminths							30
 Arthropods and Vertebrates							31
2.3 Virulence Factors								33
 Defensive Virulence Factors							33
 Offensive Virulence Factors							34
2.4 Course of Infection								37
2.5 Summary										38
Further Reading									39
Chapter 3: Infectious Diseases and Treatments					41
3.1 Introduction 									41
3.2 Infections of the Skin								42
3.3 Infections of the Eyes, Ears and Central Nervous System			42
3.4 Infections of the Respiratory System						44
3.5 Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract						46
3.6 Infections of the Urogenital System						48
3.7 Sepsis and Systemic Infections							53
3.8 Investigating Infectious Diseases						54
 Culture										54
 Serological Tests									55
 Biochemical and Molecular Biological Techniques				56
3.9 Preventing Infectious Diseases							59
3.10 Controlling the Spread of Pathogens						60
3.11 Treatment of Infectious Diseases						60
 Antiviral Drugs									60
 Antibacterial Drugs								61
 Antifungal, Antiprotozoal and Antihelminthic Drugs			 	64
 Combination Therapy								66
 Surgery										66
3.12 Summary									69
Further Reading									70
Chapter 4: The Immune System							73
4.1 Introduction									73
4.2 Types of Immune Defense							74
4.3 Nonspecific Defenses								74
 Interferons									74
 Complement									75
 Nonspecific Cells								75
 Mononuclear Leukocytes							77
 Inflammation and the Acute Phase Response					77
4.4 Specific Immune Responses							79
 Roles of Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity				80
 Humoral Immunity								80
 Cell-Mediated Immunity								85
4.5 Small Lymphocytes								86
4.6 Production of a Specific Immune Response					87
 Humoral Immunity								89
4.7 Summary										95
Further Reading									97
Chapter 5: Disorders of the Immune System						99
5.1 Introduction									99
5.2 Immunodeficiency Diseases						 100
 Primary Immunodeficiency Disease					 100
5.3 Autoimmune Disorders							 110
 Classification of Autoimmune Disorders 				 110
 Autoimmune Disorders Affecting Endocrine Glands			 111
 Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease				 113
 Myasthenia Gravis							 114 
 Rheumatoid Arthritis							 115
 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus						 116
5.4 Immunological Hypersensitivity						 118
 Type I Hypersensitivity							 118
 Type II Hypersensitivity							 121
 Type III Hypersensitivity 						 121
 Type IV Delayed Type Hypersensitivity				 122
5.5 Summary									 123
Further Reading								 125
Chapter 6: Transfusion and Transplantation					 127
6.1 Introduction								 127
6.2 Blood and Blood Products for Transfusion				 128
6.3 The Discovery of the Blood Group Systems				 129
6.4 The ABO Blood Group System (ISBT 001)				 132
 The Antigens of the ABO System					 133
 Antibodies of the ABO Blood Group System				 134
 Consequences of ABO Incompatible Transfusions			 134
6.5 The RH Blood Group System (ISBT 004)				 135
 Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn					 136
6.6 Other Blood Group Systems						 138
6.7 Laboratory Determination of Blood Groups				 139
6.8 Role of Complement in Transfusion Reactions				 140
6.9 Hazards of Transfusion							 141
 Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury					 142
 Iron Overload								 142
 Alloimmunization							 142
 Graft versus Host Disease						 143
 Infections									 143
6.10 Screening of Blood Donors						 143
6.11 Transplantation of Solid Tissues and Organs 				 145
 Immunological Rejection of Transplants				 145
 Causes of Graft Rejection						 146
6.12 The HLA System							 147
 HLA Typing								 148
6.13 Immunosuppression							 150
6.14 Hemopoeitic Stem Cell Transplantation				 152
 Bone Marrow Transplantation						 152
 Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation				 153
 Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Transplantation				 153
 Identification of Hemopoeitic Stem Cells				 153
6.15 Summary								 154
Further Reading 								 155
Chapter 7: Disorders of the Endocrine System				 157
7.1 Introduction								 157
7.2 Hormone Production							 159
7.3 Mechanisms of Hormonal Action					 162
7.4 Causes of Endocrine Disorders						 164
7.5 The Pituitary Gland							 165
 Disorders of Pituitary Function						 166
7.6 Growth Hormone Disorders						 169
 Diagnosis and Treatment of Growth Hormone Disorders		 171
7.7 Thyroid Hormone Disorders						 172
 Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Disorders				 174
7.8 Regulation of Blood Glucose						 177
 Diabetes mellitus								 178
 Hypoglycemia								 181
7.9 Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex						 183
 Addison¿s Disease 							 184
 Cushing¿s Syndrome							 185 
 Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia						 186
 Conn¿s Syndrome							 187
7.10 Reproductive Hormones						 188
 Disorders of Sex Hormones						 194
7.11 Summary								 198
Further Reading								 200
Chapter 8: Disorders of Water, Electrolytes and Urate Balances		 203
8.1 Introduction									203
8.2 Kidneys										204
 Renal Function Tests								206
 Renal Failure									206
8.3 Disorders of Water Homeostasis						208
8.4 Disorders of Na+ Homeostasis							210
8.5 Disorders of K+ Homeostasis							211
8.6 Disorders of Ca2+ Homeostasis							212
8.7 Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis						216
8.8 Disorders of Mg2+ Homeostasis					 218
8.9 Disorders of Urate Metabolism					 	 219
8.10 Summary 								 222
Further Reading								 223
Chapter 9: Disorders of Acid-Base Balance					 225
9.1 Introduction								 225
9.2 The Production and Transport of Carbon Dioxide			 226
9.3 Buffering and the Excretion of H+ 227
9.4 Types of Acid-Base Disorders							230
 Metabolic Acid-Base Disorders							230
 Respiratory Acid-Base Disorders						231
 Mixed Acid-Base Disorders							232
9.5 Investigating Acid-Base Disorders						233
9.6 Summary										236
Further Reading									237
Chapter 10: Diet and Disease								239
10.1 Introduction									239
10.2 Diet and Nutrition								240
 Nutrients and Energy								240
 Carbohydrates									241
 Lipids										241
 Proteins										244
 Water										244
 Vitamins										245
 Minerals and Trace Elements							250
10.3 Nutritional Disorders								252
 Protein-Energy Malnutrition							252
 Obesity										254
 Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa 258
 Disorders of Vitamin Nutrition							259
 Nutritional Disorders of Minerals and Trace Elements				263
10.4 Investigating Nutritional Disorders						266
 Protein-Energy Malnutrition							267
 Obesity										267
 Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa					267
Vitamins 						268
 Minerals and Trace Elements							270
10.5 General Management of Nutritional Disorders					271
10.6 Summary									273
Further Reading									276
Chapter 11: Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Pancreas, Liver and
 Gallbladder							 277
11.1 Introduction								 277
11.2 The Gastrointestinal Tract and its Accessory Organs			 278
11.3 Digestion								 281
 Mouth									 282
 Stomach									 283
 Small Intestine								 285
11.4 Absorption of the Products of Digestion				 289
11.5 Activities of the Large Intestine						 295
11.6 The Small Intestine and Homeostasis					 295
11.7 Hormonal Control of GIT Secretions					 296
11.8 Disorders of the GIT and Accessory Organs				 297
 Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas					 297
 Disorders of the Liver, Gall Bladder and Bile Duct			 298
 Disorders of the Stomach					 	 302 
 Disorders of the Small Intestine						 306
 Disorders of the Large Intestine						 311
11.9 Summary								 312
Further Reading								 313
Chapter 12: Toxicology							 315
12.1 Introduction								 315
12.2 Drug Action, Metabolism, Distribution and Excretion		 316
12.3 Physiological Detoxification Mechanisms				 318
12.4 Symptomatic Poisoning							 321
12.5 Common Poisons							 321
 Paracetamol								 321
 Aspirin									 325
 Ethanol									 327 
 Methanol								 331
 Ethylene Glycol								 331
 Barbiturates								 332
 Carbon Monoxide							 333
 Paraquat									 334
 Metals									 335
12.6 Summary								 341
Further Reading								 342
Chapter 13: Disorders of the Blood						 345
13.1 Introduction								 345
13.2 Blood Cells and Platelets						 346
13.3 Hemoglobins								 349
 Key Properties of Hemoglobin						 350
 Embryonic and Fetal Hemoglobins					 351
13.4 Hemostasis and Blood Clotting						 352
 The Intrinsic Pathway							 353
 The Extrinsic Pathway							 354
 Common Final Pathway							 355
 Prevention of Clotting							 355
 Dissolution of Clots							 356
13.5 Anemias									 356
 Microcytic Anemias							 357
 Macrocytic Anemia							 359
13.6 Hemoglobinopathies							 361
 Sickle Cell Anemia 							 362
 The Thalassemias							 365
13.7 Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (G6PD)		 368
 Favism									 369
13.8 Clinical Aspects of Clotting 						 370
 Vitamin K and Anticoagulants						 370
 Hemophilia 					 371
13.9 Thrombocytopenia and Thrombocytosis				 372
13.10 Summary 							 375
Further Reading 								 377
Chapter 14: Disorders of the Cardiovascular System					379
14.1 Introduction									379
14.2 The Heart and Circulatory Systems						380
14.3 Blood Vessels									383
 Arteries										384
 Veins										386
 Capillaries									386
14.4 Blood Pressure									386
14.5 Investigating Cardiac Function in Health and Disease				389
 The Electrocardiogram (ECG)							389
 Echocardiography								391
 Cardiac Catheterization (Angiography)						391
 Angiography and Radiographic Visualization					391
 Exercise Stress Test								391
14.6 Endocarditis									392
14.7 Abnormal Heart Rhythms							392
 Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter							393
 Ventricular Tachycardia								393
 Ventricular Fibrillation								394
 Heart Block									394
14.8 Cardic Failure									395
 Investigation									395
 Treatment 									395
 Chronic Heart Failure								396
 Acute Heart Failure								396
14.9 Ischemic Heart Disease								396
14.10 Cardiomyopathies								397
 Dilated Congestive Cardiomyopathy						397
 Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy							398
 Restrictive Cardiomyopathy							398
14.11 Heart Valve Disorders								399
14.12 Heart Tumors									399
14.13 Atherosclerosis or Arteriosclerosis						400
 Angina										400
 Cholesterol and Lipoproteins							402
14.14 Myocardial Infarction								404
 Plasma Enzymes in Myocardial Infarction					405
 Treatment 									405
 Coronary Bypass Surgery							405
14.15 Pericardial Diseases								406
14.16 Disorders of Arteries and Veins						407
 Peripheral Arterial Disease							407
 Aneurysms									407
 Aortic Dissection								407
 Stroke										408
 Varicose Veins									409
 Deep Vein Thrombosis								409
14.17 Clinical Problems Associated with Blood Pressure				410
 Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)						410
 Shock										410
 High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)						411
14.18 Summary									412
Further Reading									414
Chapter 15: Genetic Diseases								415
15.1 Introduction									415
15.2 Genetics and DNA								416
15.3 DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle						417
 Mitosis and Meiosis								418
15.4 Genotype and Phenotype							421
15.5 Inheritance and Mutations							421
 Sex-linked Genetic Diseases							423
15.6 Inherited Gene Disorders							424
 Consequences of an Enzyme Deficiency					424
 National Screening Programs for Inherited Diseases				428
15.7 Chromosomes and the Human Karyotype					428
 Fragile Sites									430
15.8 Chromosomal Mutations or Aberrations					432
 Deletions									433
 Duplications									434
 Inversions									435
 Translocations									435
15.9 Variations in Chromosome Numbers				 	 437
 Aneuploidy								 437
 Euploidy									 440
15.10 Detecting, Diagnosing and Screening Human Genetics Diseases	 441
 Detection of Hereditary Diseases					 442
15.11 Summary								 445
Further Reading									446 
Chapter 16: Membrane, Organelle and Cytoskeletal Disorders			449
16.1 Introduction									449
16.2 Nucleus and Nucleocytoplasmic Transport					450
 Clinical Aspects of Nucleocytoplasmic Transport				453
16.3 Plasma Membrane Disorders							453
 Cystic Fibrosis									454
16.4 Mitochondrial Disorders							456
 Causes of Mitochondrial Disorders						457
 Diagnosis and Treatment of Mitochondrial Disorders				460
16.5 Peroxisomal Disorders								461
 Diagnosis and Treatment of Peroxisomal Disorders				462
16.6 Lysosomal Disorders								463
 Diagnosis and Treatment of Lysosomal Storage Disorders			465
16.7 Cytoskeletal Disorders								465
 Muscular Dystrophies								467
 Hereditary Elliptocytosis and Spherocytosis					470
16.8 Summary									471
Further Reading									473
Chapter 17: Cancer									475
17.1 Introduction									475
17.2 Classification of Cancer Types							476
17.3 Epidemiology of Cancer							476
17.4 Molecular Biology of Cancer							478
 Oncogenes									478
 Tumor Suppressor Genes							479
17.5 Causes of Cancer								480
 Inherited Cancers								480
 Chromosomes and Cancer							481
 Chemical Carcinogens								482
 Diet and Cancer									484
 Radiation and Cancer								485
 Viruses and Cancer								486
17.6 General Diagnosis of Cancer							487
 Clinical Tests for Cancer							487
17.7 General Treatment of Cancer							492
 Chemotherapy									493
 Radiation Therapy								497
 Immunotherapy									497
17.8 Specific Types of Cancer							498
 Lung Cancer									498
 Breast Cancer 									500
 Prostate Cancer									502
 Colorectal Cancer								505
 Leukemias									507
17.9 Summary									511
Further Reading									512
Chapter 18: Aging and Disease							515
18.1 Introduction									515
18.2 Aging of Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems					516
 Cells										516
 Tissues										516
 Organs										516
 Systems										517
18.3 Causes of Aging									519
 ¿Wear and Tear¿ Theories							519
 Genome-Based Theories						 521
18.4 Age-Related Diseases							 522
 Cancer									 522
 Cardiovascular Disease							 522
 Diabetes Mellitus Type 2						 523
 Cataracts									 523
 Arthritis									 523
 Parkinson¿s Disease							 523
18.5 Calorie Restriction and Aging						 527
18.6 Investigations and Management of the Elderly					527
18.7 Summary									528
Further Reading									529

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Pathology -- Textbooks.
Diseases -- Textbooks.
Medical sciences -- Textbooks.
Pathology -- methods.
Disease.