Table of contents for An introduction to biomedical optics / Robert Splinter and Brett A. Hooper.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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Section I	General biomedical optics theory
1	Introduction to the use of light for diagnostic and therapeutic modalities
	1.1	What is biomedical optics?
	1.2	Biomedical optics timeline
		1.2.1	Elementary optical discoveries
		1.2.2	Development of optical devices
		1.2.3	Scientific advancements in optics theory
	1.3	Historical events in therapeutic and diagnostic use of light
		1.3.1	Development of therapeutic applications of light in medicine
		1.3.2	Development of diagnostic optical applications
	1.4	Light sources
	1.5	Current state of the art
	1.6	Summary
	1.7	Additional reading
	1.8	Problems
2	Review of optical principles, fundamental electromagnetic theory, and description of light sources
	2.1	Definitions in optics
	2.2	Kirchhoff¿s laws of radiation
		2.2.1	Planck function for black body radiation
	2.3	Electromagnetic wave theory
		2.3.1	Gauss¿s law
		2.3.2	Faraday¿s law
		2.3.3	Maxwell equations
		2.3.4	Energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves
		2.3.5	Coherence of electromagnetic waves
		2.3.6	Interference of electromagnetic waves
		2.3.7	Phase velocity
		2.3.8	Group velocity
		2.3.9	Cauchy theorem
		2.3.10	Electromagnetic wave spectrum
			
	2.4	Light sources
		2.4.1	Broad band light sources
		2.4.2	LASER operation
		2.4.3	LASER light sources
	2.5	Applications of various lasers
	2.6	Summary
	2.7	Additional reading
	2.8	Problems
3	Review of optical principles; classical optics
	3.1	Geometrical optics
		3.1.1	Huygens¿ principle
		3.1.2	Laws of geometrical optics
		3.1.3	Fermat¿s principle
		3.1.4	Ray optics
	3.2	Other optical principles
	3.3	Quantum physics
	3.4	Gaussian optics
	3.5	Summary
	3.6	Additional reading
	3.7	Problems
4	Review of optical interaction properties
	4.1	Absorption and scattering
		4.1.1	Light and atom interactions overview
		4.1.2	Absorption
		4.1.3	Scattering
		4.1.4	Mie scattering
		4.1.5	Raman scattering
	4.2	Doppler effect
	4.3	Summary
	4.4	Additional reading
	4.5	Problems
5	Light-tissue interaction variables
	5.1	Laser variables
		5.1.1	Laser power
		5.1.2	Light delivery protocol
		5.1.3	Power density profile of the beam
		5.1.4	Gaussian beam profile
		5.1.5	Top-hat beam profile
		5.1.6	Irradiation spot size:
		5.1.7	Power density and energy density of a light source
		5.1.8	Local beam angle of incidence with the tissue
		5.1.9	Collimated or diffuse irradiation
		5.1.10	Light wavelength
		5.1.11	Repetition rate
		5.1.12	Pulse length
		5.1.13	Light delivery pulse modulation
	5.2	Tissue variables
		5.2.1	Optical properties of the tissue
		5.2.2	Surface contour
		5.2.3	Tissue temperature
		5.2.4	Thermodynamic tissue properties
		5.2.5	Tissue blood flow and blood content
	5.3	Light transportation theory
		5.3.1	The time-dependent angular and spatial photon energy rate distribution
		5.3.2	Steady state angular and spatial photon energy rate distribution
		5.3.3	Boundary conditions
		5.3.4	Radiation definitions for turbid media
	5.4	Light propagation under dominant absorption
		5.4.1	Description of angular distribution of scatter
	5.5	Summary
	5.6	Nomenclature
	5.7	Additional reading
	5.8	Problems
6	Light-tissue interaction theory
	6.1	Approximations of the equation of radiative transport
		6.1.1	Spherical-harmonics substitution method to solve the equation of radiative transport
		6.1.2	Diffusion approximation of the equation of radiative transfer.
		6.1.3	Discrete-ordinate method for solving the equation of radiative transport
		6.1.4	Light distribution under infinite wide beam irradiation
		6.1.5	Numerical method to solve the equation of radiative transport
	6.2	Summary
	6.3	Additional reading
	6.4	Problems:
7	Numerical and deterministic methods in light-tissue interaction theory
	7.1	Numerical method to solve the equation of radiative transport
		7.1.1	Monte carlo simulation
	7.2	Measurement of optical parameters
		7.2.1	Invasive techniques
		7.2.2	Noninvasive techniques
	7.3	Temperature effects of light-tissue interaction
		7.3.1	The bioheat equation
	7.4	Summary
	7.5	Additional reading
	7.6	Problems
8	Light-tissue interaction mechanisms and applications; photophysical
	8.1	Range of photophysical mechanisms
	8.2	Photoablation
		8.2.1	Ablation threshold
		8.2.2	Pulsed laser-tissue interaction
		8.2.3	Pulsed vaporization
		8.2.4	Definition of a pulsed laser
		8.2.5	Ultraviolet laser ablation
	8.3	Photoacoustics
		8.3.1	History of the photoacoustic effect
		8.3.2	The photoacoustic effect
	8.4	Birefringence effects
		8.4.1	Schlieren imaging
		8.4.2	Conventional Töepler Schlieren configuration
		8.4.3	Ronchi ruling focusing Schlieren configuration
	8.5	Polarization effects
		8.5.1	Polarization in nature
		8.5.2	Polarization in medical imaging
	8.6	Optical activity
		8.6.1	Glucose concentration determination
	8.7	Evanescent wave interaction in biomedical optics
		8.7.1	Evanescent optical waves
		8.7.2	Precise, controlled light delivery with evanescent optical waves
		8.7.3	Tissue ablation with FEL-generated evanescent optical waves
	8.8	Phase interference effects
		8.8.1	Interferometry in Medical Imaging
	8.9	Spectroscopy
		8.9.1	Light scattering spectroscopy (LSS)
		8.9.2	Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy
		8.9.3	Ultra fast spectroscopy
		8.9.4	Time-resolved spectroscopy
		8.9.5	Raman scattering spectroscopy
		8.9.6	Coherent anti-stokes raman spectroscopy
		8.9.7	Time resolved raman spectroscopy
		8.9.8	Raman spectroscopy advantages and disadvantages
	8.10	Endoscopy
		8.10.1	Light delivery with optical fibers
		8.10.2	Medical applications using endoscopy
	8.11	Summary
	8.12	Additional Reading
	8.13	Problems
9	Light-tissue interaction mechanisms and applications; photochemical
	9.1	Basic photochemical principles
		9.1.1	Photosynthesis
		9.1.2	¿Sun tanning¿
		9.1.3	Light reactive biological chromophores
	9.2	Photochemical effects
		9.2.1	Photodynamic therapy
		9.2.2	Wound healing
	9.3	Summary
	9.4	Additional reading
	9.5	Problems
10	Light-tissue interaction mechanisms and applications; photobiological
	10.1	Photobiological biostimulation
	10.2	Photobiological effects
		10.2.1	Photothermal
		10.2.2	Medical applications of the photothermal effect
		10.2.3	Photobiological nonthermal interaction
	10.3	Excitation of chromophores
	10.4	Optic nerve-cell depolarization under the influence of light (vision)
		10.4.1	Quantum photon dots as biological fluorescent markers
		10.4.2	Optical properties of quantum dots
	10.5	Summary
	10.6	Additional reading
	10.7	Problems
Section II	Therapeutic applications of light
11	Therapeutic applications of light; photophysical
	11.1	Delivery considerations
	11.2	Pulsed laser use in cardiology
		11.2.1	Pulsed laser tissue interaction
			11.2.1.1	Ablation rate
		11.2.2	Laser plaque molding (angioplasty)
		11.2.3	Laser thrombolysis
		11.2.4	Laser valvulotomy and valve debridement
		11.2.5	Transmyocardial revascularization
	11.3	Dentistry and oral surgery
		11.3.1	Photo curing
		11.3.2	Dental drill
		11.3.3	Etching
		11.3.4	Tooth hardening
		11.3.5	Scaling
	11.4	Ophthalmology
	11.5	Optical tweezers
		11.5.1	Rayleigh regime particle force
		11.5.2	Mie regime particle force
		11.5.3	Size region between the Rayleigh and Mie regime
		11.5.4	Applications of Optical Tweezers
	11.6	Summary
	11.7	Additional reading
	11.8	Problems
12	Therapeutic applications of light; photochemical
	12.1	Vascular welding
	12.2	Cosmetic surgery
		12.2.1	Inflammatory disease lesion treatment
		12.2.2	Pigmented lesion treatment
	12.3	Oncology
		12.3.1	photodynamic therapy
	12.4	Summary
	12.5	Additional reading
	12.6	Problems
13	Therapeutic applications of light; photobiological
	13.1	Cardiology and cardiovascular surgery
		13.1.1	Arrhythomegenic laser applications
		13.1.2	Laser photocoagulation
		13.1.3	Arrhythmic node ablation
		13.1.4	Atrial ablation
	13.2	Soft tissue treatment
	13.3	Dermatology
		13.3.1	Vascular lesion treatment
	13.4	Fetal surgery
	13.5	Gastroenterology
	13.6	General surgery
	13.7	Gynecology
	13.8	Neurosurgery
	13.9	Ophthalmology
	13.10	Pulmonology & otorhinolaryngology
	13.11	Otolaryngology, ear-nose and throat (ENT) and maxillofacial surgery
	13.12	Podiatry
	13.13	Urology
		13.13.1	Lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia
	13.14	Summary
	13.15	Additional reading
	13.16	Problems
Section III	Diagnostic applications of light
14	Diagnostic methods using light; photophysical
	14.1	Optical microscopy
		14.1.1	Diffraction in the far-field
	14.2	Various microscopic techniques
		14.2.1	Confocal microscopy
		14.2.2	Multiphoton imaging
	14.3	Near-field-scanning optical microscope
		14.3.1	The concept of the near field scanning optical microscope
		14.3.2	General design of NSOM microscope
	14.3.3	NSOM tip
		14.3.3.1	Feedback mechanisms employed to maintain a constant tip and sample separation
		14.3.3.2	Shear-force-mode tip feedback
		14.3.3.3	Tapping-mode tip feedback
		14.3.3.4	Intensity imaging
		14.3.3.5	Phase imaging
	14.4	Spectroscopy
		14.4.1	Diagnostic applications of spectroscopy
		14.4.2	Optical detection of erythema
	14.5	Holographic imaging
	14.6	Polarization Imaging
	14.7	Transillumination imaging
		14.7.1	Examination of the male genitalia of infants
		14.7.2	Transillumination for detection of pneumothorax in premature infants
		14.7.3	Transillumination of infant brain
		14.7.4	Diffuse optical tomography
		14.8	Optical coherence tomography
		14.8.1	Conventional optical coherence tomography systems
		14.8.2	Light sources and coherence length
		14.8.3	Theory of optical coherence tomography
		14.8.4	Operation of the fiber optic Michelson interferometer
		14.8.5	Correlation theory
		14.8.6	The effect of scattering on the visibility function
		14.8.7	Image acquisition process
		14.8.8	Applications of optical coherence tomography to physical problems
	14.9	Ballistic photon imaging
	14.10	Reflectometry
	14.11	Evanescent wave imaging applications
		14.11.1	Evanescent optical wave device designs
	14.12	Medical thermography
	14.13	photoacoustic imaging
		14.13.1	Acoustic wave
		14.13.2	Medical imaging applications
	14.14	Tera hertz imaging
	14.15	Summary
	14.16	Additional reading
	14.17	Problems
15	Diagnostic methods using light; photochemical
	15.1	Fluorescence imaging
		15.1.1	Fluorecence molecular explanation
		15.1.2	Fluorescent molecules
		15.1.3	Fading
	15.2	Ratio fluorescence microscopy
		15.2.1	Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy
		15.2.2	Mechanism of fluorescent resonant energy transfer (FRET) imaging
		15.2.3	FRET Pair
		15.2.4	Problems with FRET microscopy Imaging
	15.3	Raman spectroscopy with NSOM employed
		15.3.1	Fluorescence resonance emission transfer
		15.3.2	Applications in biology
	15.4	Optical ¿tongue¿
		15.4.1	Mechanism of operation
		15.4.2	Taste stimuli transduction
		15.4.3	Taste transduction mechanisms
		15.4.4	Taste processes
		15.4.5	Combinatorial libraries
		15.4.6	CCD detection
	15.5	Summary
	15.6	Additional reading
	15.7	Problems
16	Diagnostic methods using light; photobiological
	16.1	Immuno staining (¿functional imaging¿)
	16.2	Immunofluorescence
	16.3	Diagnostic applications of spectroscopy
		16.3.1	Detection of dental cavities and caries
		16.3.2	Optical detection of erythema
	16.4	Fiberoptic sensors
		16.4.1	Biosensors
		16.4.2	Fiber optic biosensor design
		16.4.3	Distributed fiber optic sensors
		16.5	Optical Coherence Tomography in dentistry
		16.6	Optical biopsy
		16.7	Determination of Blood Oxygenation
		16.8	Electroluminescent Electro-Physiologic mapping
		16.9	Quantum Dots as Biological Fluorescent markers
	16.10	Compilation of the optical requirements for wavelength selection based on the desired effects
	16.11	Summary
	16.12	Additional reading
	16.13	Problems
Index

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Optoelectronic devices.
Biomedicine.
Biotechnology.
Optical fibers in medicine.
Biomedical Technology.
Light.
Biophysics -- methods.
Optics.
Photobiology -- methods.