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Contents Preface viii Basic Questions about the Pentateuch 1 A. The Origin of the Word Pentateuch and Its Usage 1 B. Tetrateuch, Pentateuch, Hexateuch, or Enneateuch? 3 C. Moses, the Pentateuch, and the Canon of the Hebrew Bible 9 The Five Books of the Pentateuch: Content and Structure 16 A. The Division into Five Books 16 B. The Structure of the Book of Genesis 19 C. The Structure of the Book of Exodus 26 D. The Structure of the Book of Leviticus 32 E. The Structure of the Book of Numbers 35 F. The Structure of the Book of Deuteronomy 38 Literary Problems of the Pentateuch I: The Legislative Texts 40 A. The Laws with Regard to Slaves 40 B. The Laws regarding Loans: (Exod 22:24; Deut 23:20/21; Lev 25:35/36) 45 C. The Laws concerning the Enemy's Donkey or the Love of One's Enemies: Exod 23:4/5; Deut 22:1/4; Lev 19:17/18 46 D. The Decalogue 48 Literary Problems of the Pentateuch II: The Narrative Texts 53 A. Different Versions of the Same Event 53 B. Doublets within a Single Narrative 60 Literary Problems of the Pentateuch III: Some Redactional Interventions 76 A. Two Examples of Redactional "Insertions" 76 B. The "Resumptive Repetition" 77 C. Some "Linguistic Markers" of Redactional Work 82 D. Important "Divine Discourses" of Redactional Origin 87 E. Moses' Intercessions: Exod 32:7/14, Num 14:11b/23a 93 F. Conclusion 94 Exegesis of the Pentateuch: A History of Research from Ancient Times to 1970 96 A. Antiquity and the Middle Ages 96 B. Humanism and the Beginning of Modern Exegesis 99 C. The Classic Documentary Hypothesis 102 D. Gunkel, Noth, von Rad, and Form Criticism 112 E. Other Schools of Research 123 Recent Developments in the Study of the Pentateuch 127 A. Criticisms of the Documentary Hypothesis 127 B. The Problem of the Various Sources 131 C. The "Synchronic" Study of the Pentateuch 161 Basic Characteristics of Ancient Literature 165 A. The Law of Antiquity or Precedence 165 B. The Law of Conservation: Nothing Is Eliminated 169 C. The Law of Continuity and of Updating 171 D. The Law of Economy: Only What Is Necessary Should Be Written 173 E. Extrabiblical Parallels 177 Reference Points for Reading the Pentateuch 184 A. The Pentateuch and the Reconstruction of Israel after the Exile 185 B. Anchor Points for Interpretation: Three Codes, Three Theologies, and the Final Redaction 187 C. Did a Preexilic Source on Israel's Origins Exist? 191 D. The Preexilic Materials of the Pentateuch 202 The Pentateuch and Postexilic Israel 216 A. Persian Imperial Authorization 216 B. The Theory of Citizens Connected with the Temple (Børger-Tempel-Gemeinde) 225 Conclusion 229 Bibliography 233 Supplement to the English edition 264
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Bible. O.T. Pentateuch -- Criticism, interpretation, etc.