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CONTENTS Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) Petr Py?ek, Matthew J. W. Cock, Wolfgang Nentwig and Hans Peter Ravn (eds) David M. Richardson Preface: All you ever wanted to know about hogweed, but were afraid to ask! ? rka Jahodov , Lars Fr¿berg, Petr Py?ek, Dmitry Geltman, Sviatlana Trybush and Angela Karp Chapter 1. Taxonomy, identification, genetic relationships and distribution of large Heracleum species in Europe History of taxonomic investigations of large Heracleum species in the native Caucasus. ? Introduction of large Heracleum species and their distribution in Europe. ? Taxonomy and history of invasive Heracleum species in Nordic countries. ? Genetic relationships among large-leaved tall hogweed taxa in both their invaded and native ranges. ? Implications of the genetic studies for taxonomy. Annette Otte, R. Lutz Eckstein and Jan Thiele Chapter 2. Heracleum mantegazzianum in its primary distribution range of the Western Caucasus Habitat description and ecology. ? Main vegetation types with Heracleum mantegazzianum and their phytosociological classification. Petr Py?ek, Jana M¿llerov and Vojt?ch Jaro?ík Chapter 3. Historical dynamics of Heracleum mantegazzianum invasion at regional and local scales Reconstruction of the invasion of the Czech Republic. ? Environmental factors and habitat preferences during the invasion. ? Invasion dynamics at a local scale, analysed using aerial photographs. ? Rate of Heracleum mantegazzianum spread compared to that of other important invasive species. ? What can be inferred from the comparison of invasion at local and national scales? Irena Perglov , Jan Pergl and Petr Py?ek Chapter 4. Reproductive ecology of Heracleum mantegazzianum Description of the pattern and timing of flowering. ? Potential for selfing. ? Implications of self-compatibility for the invasion. ? Fecundity. ? Life span and age of flowering plants in native and invaded ranges, and under different management regimes. Lenka Moravcov , Petr Py?ek, Luk ? Krinke, Jan Pergl, Irena Perglov and Ken Thompson Chapter 5. Seed germination, dispersal and seed bank in Heracleum mantegazzianum Dormancy breaking mechanisms. ? Germination characteristics related to the position on the plant. ? Germination at different temperature regimes. ? The persistent seed bank of Heracleum mantegazzianum: in pursuit of an urban myth. ? Seed bank type, its size and seasonal dynamics. ? Seasonal and long-term survival of buried seed and timing of germination. ? Breaking of dormancy: Towards a threshold or dormancy/non-dormancy cycle? ? Mechanisms of dispersal. Jan Pergl, J¿rg H¿ls, Irena Perglov , R. Lutz Eckstein, Petr Py?ek and Annette Otte Chapter 6. Population dynamics of Heracleum mantegazzianum Seedling dynamics. ? Seedling RGR. ? Population structure, mortality and flowering. ? Matrix model approach: Life tables from the Czech Republic and Germany. ? Comparison of open and dense stands of Heracleum mantegazzianum. ? Concluding remarks and future perspective. Petr Py?ek, Irena Perglov , Luk ? Krinke, Vojt?ch Jaro?ík, Jan Pergl and Lenka Moravcov Chapter 7. Regeneration ability of Heracleum mantegazzianum and implications for control Effect of organ removal on mortality. ? Flowering plants of Heracleum mantegazzianum do not survive into the next season. ? Effect of organ removal on vegetative growth and regeneration. ? Effect of organ removal on fecundity. ? Effect of organ removal on seed quality. ? Timing of control is crucial. ? Removed umbels left at a site produce viable seeds. ? Guidelines for control. Jan Thiele, Annette Otte and R. Lutz Eckstein Chapter 8. Ecological needs, habitat preferences and plant communities invaded of Heracleum mantegazzianum Habitats invaded by Heracleum mantegazzianum. ? Plant communities invaded by Heracleum mantegazzianum. ? Types of disturbance and soil conditions in sites invaded by Heracleum mantegazzianum. ? Population characteristics of Heracleum mantegazzianum in relation to plant and site conditions. ? Heracleum mantegazzianum in secondary succesional series. ? Land-use changes as drivers of invasion. Jan Thiele and Annette Otte Chapter 9. Impact of Heracleum mantegazzianum on invaded vegetation and human activities Which habitat patches are most likely to become invaded? ? Impact on local plant communities. ? Impact on regional flora. ? Other environmental impacts. ? Potential for conflicts with nature conservation. ? Impact on human health and activities. ? Economic impact. Lenka Moravcov , Zigmantas Gud?inskas, Petr Py?ek, Jan Pergl and Irena Perglov Chapter 10. Seed ecology of Heracleum mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi, two invasive species with different distribution in Europe Differences in soil seed bank of Heracleum mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi. ? Differences in germination characteristics of Heracleum mantegazzianum and H.ÿsosnowskyi. Steen O. Hansen, Jan Hattendorf, Charlotte Nielsen, Ruediger Wittenberg and Wolfgang Nentwig Chapter 11. Herbivores and arthropods on Heracleum mantegazzianum in its native and invaded distribution range Th herbivorous guilds on Heracleum mantegazzianum. ? Insect species on Heracleum mantegazzianum. Marion K. Seier and Harry C. Evans Chapter 12. Fungal pathogens associated with Heracleum mantegazzianum in its native and invaded distribution range Literature and herbarium surveys. ? Field surveys. Jan Hattendorf, Steen O. Hansen and Wolfgang Nentwig Chapter 13. Defence systems of Heracleum mantegazzianum Plant defence by secondary plant compounds. ? Trichomes. ? Defence in native and invasive populations. Charlotte Nielsen, Ineta Vanaga, Olga Treikale and Ilze Priekule Chapter 14. Mechanical and chemical control of Heracleum mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi Mechanical control. ? Chemical control. ? Integrated control options. ? Management of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Rita Merete Buttensch¿n and Charlotte Nielsen Chapter 15. Control of Heracleum mantegazzianum by grazing Biomass production and nutritional value of Heracleum mantegazzianum. ? Chosing livestock for control by grazing. ? Effect of grazing on Heracleum mantegazzianum and its management. ? Management strategies. ? Livestock poisoning. ? Economic aspects of control by grazing. Matthew J.W. Cock and Marion K. Seier Chapter 16. The scope for biological control of giant hogweed, Heracleum mantegazzianum Survey results and host-specificity observations. ? Classical biological control of weeds in Europe. ? Evolutionary history as an explanation for the absence of specialized natural enemies. Hans Peter Ravn, Olga Treikale, Ineta Vanaga and Ilze Priekule Chapter 17. Revegetattion as a part of an integrated management strategy for large Heracleum species Integrated management strategies in the control of invasive species. ? Revegation options following the eradication of large Heracleum species. ? Experimental sowing of grass mixtures for revegetation of sites invaded by Heracleum sosnowskyi. Nana Nehrbass and Eckart Winkler Chapter 18. Model-assisted evaluation of control strategies for Heracleum mantegazzianum Heracleum mantegazzianum individual based model. ? Model predictions on the effect of control measures. ? From modelling results to practical efforts. ? Simulations. Petr Py?ek, Mathew Cock and Wolfgang Nentwig Chapter 19. Master of all traits: Can we successfully fight giant hogweed? What are the attributes of an aggressive invader and how does Heracleum mantegazzianum compare with other invasive species? ? What makes Heracleum mantegazzianum so special: a botanical perspective. ? Herbovivores and pathogens: a zoological perspective. ? Landscape features set the scene for invasion. ? Biological control perspective. ? Conclusions: Master of all traits.
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Giant hogweed -- Control -- Europe.
Giant hogweed -- Ecology -- Europe.