Table of contents for Distributed systems : principles and paradigms / Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Maarten Van Steen.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION 1 
1.1 DEFINITION OF A DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM 2 
1.2 GOALS 3 
1.2.1 Making Resources Accessible 3 
1.2.2 Distribution Transparency 4 
1.2.3 Openness 7 
1.2.4 Scalability 9 
1.2.5 Pitfalls 16 
1.3 TYPES OF DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 17 
1.3.1 Distributed Computing Systems 17 
1.3.2 Distributed Information Systems 20 
1.3.3 Distributed Pervasive Systems 24 
1.4 SUMMARY 30 
2 ARCHITECTURES 33 
2.1 ARCHITECTURAL STYLES 34 
2.2 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURES 36 
2.2.1 Centralized Architectures 36 
2.2.2 Decentralized Architectures 43 
2.2.3 Hybrid Architectures 52 
2.3 ARCHITECTURES VERSUS MIDDLEWARE 54 
2.3.1 Interceptors 55 
2.3.2 General Approaches to Adaptive Software 57 
2.3.3 Discussion 58 
vii 
viii CONTENTS 
2.4 SELF-MANAGEMENT IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 59 
2.4.1 The Feedback Control Model 60 
2.4.2 Example: Systems Monitoring with Astrolabe 62 
2.4.3 Example: Differentiating Replication Strategies in Globule 63 
2.4.4 Example: Automatic Component Repair Management in Jade 65 
2.5 SUMMARY 66 
3 PROCESSES 69 
3.1 THREADS 70 
3.1.1 Introduction to Threads 70 
3.1.2 Threads in Distributed Systems 75 
3.2 VIRTUALIZATION 79 
3.2.1 The Role of Virtualization in Distributed Systems 79 
3.2.2 Architectures of Virtual Machines 80 
3.3 CLIENTS 82 
3.3.1 Networked User Interfaces 82 
3.3.2 Client-Side Software for Distribution Transparency 87 
3.4 SERVERS 88 
3.4.1 General Design Issues 
3.4.2 Server Clusters 92 
3.4.3 Managing Server Clusters 98 
3.5 CODE MIGRATION 103 
3.5.1 Approaches to Code Migration 103 
3.5.2 Migration and Local Resources 107 
3.5.3 Migration in Heterogeneous Systems 110 
3.6 SUMMARY 112 
4 COMMUNICATION 115 
4.1FUNDAMENTALS116
4.1.1 Layered Protocols 116 
4.1.2 Types of Communication 124 
4.2 REMOTE PROCEDURE CALL 125 
4.2.1 Basic RPC Operation 126 
4.2.2 Parameter Passing 130 
CONTENTS ix 
4.2.3 Asynchronous RPC 134 
4.2.4 Example: DCE RPC 135 
4.3 MESSAGE-ORIENTED COMMUNICATION 140 
4.3.1 Message-Oriented Transient Communication 141 
4.3.2 Message-Oriented Persistent Communication 145 
4.3.3 Example: IBM's WebSphere Message-Queuing System 152 
4.4 STREAM-ORIENTED COMMUNICATION 157 
4.4.1 Support for Continuous Media 158 
4.4.2 Streams and Quality of Service 160 
4.4.3 Stream Synchronization 163 
4.5 MULTICAST COMMUNICATION 166 
4.5.1 Application-Level Multicasting 166 
4.5.2 Gossip-Based Data Dissemination 170 
4.6 SUMMARY 175 
5 NAMING 179 
5.1 NAMES, IDENTIFIERS, AND ADDRESSES 180 
5.2 FLAT NAMING 182 
5.2.1 Simple Solutions 183 
5.2.2 Home-Based Approaches 186 
5.2.3 Distributed Hash Tables 188 
5.2.4 Hierarchical Approaches 191 
5.3 STRUCTURED NAMING 195 
5.3.1 Name Spaces 195 
5.3.2 Name Resolution 198 
5.3.3 The Implementation of a Name Space 202 
5.3.4 Example: The Domain Name System 209 
5.4 ATTRIBUTE-BASED NAMING 217 
5.4.1 Directory Services 217 
5.4.2 Hierarchical Implementations: LDAP 218 
5.4.3 Decentralized Implementations 222 
5.5 SUMMARY 
6 SYNCHRONIZATION 231 
6.1 CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION 232 
6.1.1 Physical Clocks 233 
6.1.2 Global Positioning System 236 
6.1.3 Clock Synchronization Algorithms 238 
6.2 LOGICAL CLOCKS 244 
6.2.1 Lamport's Logical Clocks 244 
6.2.2 Vector Clocks 248 
6.3 MUTUAL EXCLUSION 252 
6.3.1 Overview 252 
6.3.2 A Centralized Algorithm 253 
6.3.3 A Decentralized Algorithm 254 
6.3.4 A Distributed Algorithm 255 
6.3.5 A Token Ring Algorithm 258 
6.3.6 A Comparison of the Four Algorithms 259 
6.4 GLOBAL POSITIONING OF NODES 260 
6.5 ELECTION ALGORITHMS 263 
6.5.1 Traditional Election Algorithms 264 
6.5.2 Elections in Wireless Environments 267 
6.5.3 Elections in Large-Scale Systems 269 
6.6 SUMMARY 270 
7 CONSISTENCY AND REPLICATION 273 
7.1INTRODUCTION274
7.1.1 Reasons for Replication 275 
7.1.2 Replication as Scaling Technique 
7.2 DATA-CENTRIC CONSISTENCY MODELS 276 
7.2.1 Continuous Consistency 277 
7.2.2 Consistent Ordering of Operations 281 
7.3 CLIENT-CENTRIC CONSISTENCY MODELS 288 
7.3.1 Eventual Consistency 289 
7.3.2 Monotonic Reads 291 
7.3.3 Monotonic Writes 292 
7.3.4 Read Your Writes 294 
7.3.5 Writes Follow Reads 295 
7.4 REPLICA MANAGEMENT 296 
7.4.1 Replica-Server Placement 296 
7.4.2 Content Replication and Placement 298 
7.4.3 Content Distribution 302 
7.5 CONSISTENCY PROTOCOLS 306 
7.5.1 Continuous Consistency 306 
7.5.2 Primary-Based Protocols 308 
7.5.3 Replicated-Write Protocols 311 
7.5.4 Cache-Coherence Protocols 313 
7.5.5 Implementing Client-Centric Consistency 315 
7.6 SUMMARY 317 
8 FAULT TOLERANCE 321 
8.1 INTRODUCTION TO FAULT TOLERANCE 322 
8.1.1 Basic Concepts 322 
8.1.2 Failure Models 324 
8.1.3 Failure Masking by Redundancy 326 
8.2 PROCESS RESILIENCE 328 
8.2.1 Design Issues 328 
8.2.2 Failure Masking and Replication 330 
8.2.3 Agreement in Faulty Systems 331 
8.2.4 Failure Detection 335 
8.3 RELIABLE CLIENT-SERVER COMMUNICATION 336 
8.3.1 Point-to-Point Communication 337 
8.3.2 RPC Semantics in the Presence of Failures 337 
8.4 RELIABLE GROUP COMMUNICATION 343 
8.4.1 Basic Reliable-Multicasting Schemes 343 
8.4.2 Scalability in Reliable Multicasting 345 
8.4.3 Atomic Multicast 348 
8.5 DISTRIBUTED COMMIT 355 
8.5.1 Two-Phase Commit 355 
8.5.2 Three-Phase Commit 360 
8.6 RECOVERY 363 
8.6.1 Introduction 363 
8.6.2 Checkpointing 366 
8.6.3 Message Logging 369 
8.6.4 Recovery-Oriented Computing 372 
8.7 SUMMARY 373 
9 SECURITY 377 
9.1 INTRODUCTION TO SECURITY 378 
9.1.1 Security Threats, Policies, and Mechanisms 378 
9.1.2 Design Issues 384 
9.1.3 Cryptography 389 
9.2 SECURE CHANNELS 396 
9.2.1 Authentication 397 
9.2.2 Message Integrity and Confidentiality 405 
9.2.3 Secure Group Communication 408 
9.2.4 Example: Kerberos 411 
9.3 ACCESS CONTROL 413 
9.3.1 General Issues in Access Control 414 
9.3.2 Firewalls 418 
9.3.3 Secure Mobile Code 420 
9.3.4 Denial of Service 427 
9.4 SECURITY MANAGEMENT 428 
9.4.1 Key Management 428 
9.4.2 Secure Group Management 433 
9.4.3 Authorization Management 434 
9.5 SUMMARY 439 
10 DISTRIBUTED OBJECT-BASED SYSTEMS 443 
10.1 ARCHITECTURE 443 
10.1.1 Distributed Objects 444 
10.1.2 Example: Enterprise Java Beans 446 
10.1.3 Example: Globe Distributed Shared Objects 448 
10.2 PROCESSES 451 
10.2.1 Object Servers 451 
10.2.2 Example: The Ice Runtime System 454 
10.3 COMMUNICATION 456 
10.3.1 Binding a Client to an Object 456 
10.3.2 Static versus Dynamic Remote Method Invocations 458 
10.3.3 Parameter Passing 460 
10.3.4 Example: Java RMI 461 
10.3.5 Object-Based Messaging 464 
10.4 NAMING 466 
10.4.1 CORBA Object References 467 
10.4.2 Globe Object References 469 
10.5 SYNCHRONIZATION 470 
10.6 CONSISTENCY AND REPLICATION 462 
10.6.1 Entry Consistency 472 
10.6.2 Replicated Invocations 475 
10.7 FAULT TOLERANCE 477 
10.7.1 Example: Fault-Tolerant CORBA 471 
10.7.2 Example: Fault-Tolerant Java 480 
10.8 SECURITY 481 
10.8.1 Example: Globe 481 
10.8.2 Security for Remote Objects 486 
10.9 SUMMARY 487 
11 DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS 
11.1 ARCHITECTURE 491 
11.1.1 Client-Server Architectures 491 
11.1.2 Cluster-Based Distributed File Systems 496 
11.1.3 Symmetric Architectures 499 
11.2 PROCESSES 501 
11.3 COMMUNICATION 502 
11.3.1 RPCs in NFS 
11.3.2 The RPC2 Subsystem 
11.3.3 File-Oriented Communication in Plan 9 
11.4 NAMING 506 
11.4.1 Naming in NFS 506 
11.4.2 Constructing a Global Name Space 512 
11.5 SYNCHRONIZATION 513 
11.5.1 Semantics of File Sharing 513 
11.5.2 File Locking 516 
11.5.3 Sharing Files in Coda 518 
11.6 CONSISTENCY AND REPLICATION 519 
11.6.1 Client-Side Caching 520 
11.6.2 Server-Side Replication 524 
11.6.3 Replication in Peer-to-Peer File Systems 526 
11.6.4 File Replication in Grid Systems 528 
11.7 FAULT TOLERANCE 529 
11.7.1 Handling Byzantine Failures 529 
11.7.2 High Availability in Peer-to-Peer Systems 531 
11.8 SECURITY 532 
11.8.1 Security in NFS 533 
11.8.2 Decentralized Authentication 536 
11.8.3 Secure Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing Systems 539 
11.9 SUMMARY 541 
12 DISTRIBUTED WEB-BASED SYSTEMS 545 
12.1 ARCHITECTURE 546 
12.1.1 Traditional Web-Based Systems 546 
12.1.2 Web Services 551 
12.2 PROCESSES 554 
12.2.1 Clients 554 
12.2.2 The Apache Web Server 556 
12.2.3 Web Server Clusters 558 
12.3 COMMUNICATION 560 
12.3.1 Hypertext Transfer Protocol 560 
12.3.2 Simple Object Access Protocol 566 
12.4 NAMING 567 
12.5 SYNCHRONIZATION 569 
12.6 CONSISTENCY AND REPLICATION 570 
12.6.1 Web Proxy Caching 571 
12.6.2 Replication for Web Hosting Systems 573 
12.6.3 Replication of Web Applications 579 
12.7	FAULT TOLERANCE 582 
12.8	SECURITY 584 
12.9	SUMMARY 585 
13	DISTRIBUTED COORDINATION-BASED 589 SYSTEMS 
13.1	INTRODUCTION TO COORDINATION MODELS 589 
13.2	ARCHITECTURES 591 
13.2.1 Overall Approach 592 
13.2.2 Traditional Architectures 593 
13.2.3 Peer-to-Peer Architectures 596 
13.2.4 Mobility and Coordination 599 
13.3	PROCESSES 601 
13.4	COMMUNICATION 601 
13.4.1 Content-Based Routing 601 
13.4.2 Supporting Composite Subscriptions 603 
13.5	NAMING 604 
13.5.1 Describing Composite Events 604 
13.5.2 Matching Events and Subscriptions 606 
13.6	SYNCHRONIZATION 607 
13.7	CONSISTENCY AND REPLICATION 607 
13.7.1 Static Approaches 608 
13.7.2 Dynamic Replication 611 
13.8	FAULT TOLERANCE 613 
13.8.1 Reliable Publish-Subscribe Communication 613 
13.8.2 Fault Tolerance in Shared Dataspaces 616 
13.9	SECURITY 617 
13.9.1 Confidentiality 618 
13.9.2 Secure Shared Dataspaces 620 
13.10 SUMMARY 621 
14	SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING 623 AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 
14.1 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING 623 
14.1.1 Introduction and General Works 623 
14.1.2 Architecture 624 
14.1.3 Processes 625 
14.1.4 Communication 626 
14.1.5 Naming 626 
14.1.6 Synchronization 627 
14.1.7 Consistency and Replication 628 
14.1.8 Fault Tolerance 629 
14.1.9 Security 630 
14.1.10 Distributed Object-Based Systems 631 
14.1.11 Distributed File Systems 632 
14.1.12 Distributed Web-Based Systems 632 
14.1.13 Distributed Coordination-Based Systems 633
14.2 ALPHABETICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 634
INDEX	675 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Electronic data processing -- Distributed processing.
Distributed operating systems (Computers).