Table of contents for Elementary statistics : a step by step approach : a brief version / Allan G. Bluman.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents 
 
 
Preface xiii 
chapter one 
The Nature of Probability and Statistics 1 
1.1	Introduction 2 
1.2	Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 3 
1.3	Variables and Types of Data 6 
1.4 Data Collection and Sampling Techniques 8 
Random Sampling 10 
 Systematic Sampling 10 
Stratified Sampling 11 
 Cluster Sampling 11 
Other Sampling Methods 12 
1.4	Observational and Experimental Studies 12 
1.5	Uses and Misuses of Statistics 15 
 Suspect Samples 15 
 Ambiguous Averages 15 
Changing the Subject 16 
Detached Statistics 16 
Implied Connections 16 
Misleading Graphs 16 
Faulty Survey Questions 16
1.6	Computers and Calculators 17 
1.7	Summary 23 
chapter two 
Frequency Distributions and Graphs 31 
2.1	Introduction 33 
2.2	Organizing Data 33 
Categorical Frequency Distributions 34 
Grouped Frequency Distributions 35 
2.3 Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Ogives 45 
The Histogram 47 
The Frequency Polygon 47 
The Ogive 49 
Relative Frequency Graphs 51 
Distribution Shapes 54 
2.4 Other Types of Graphs 61 
Pareto Charts 61 
The Time Series Graph 62 
The Pie Graph 64 
Misleading Graphs 68 
Stem and Leaf Plots 71 
2.5 Paired Data and Scatter Plots 83 
Analyzing the Scatter Plot 84 
2.6 Summary 90 
chapter three 
Data Description 99 
3.1 Introduction 100 
3.2 Measures of Central Tendency 101 
The Mean 102 
The Median 105 
The Mode 107 
The Midrange 109 
The Weighted Mean 110 
Distribution Shapes 112 
3.3 Measures of Variation 118 
Range 119 
Population Variance and Standard Deviation 120 
Sample Variance and Standard Deviation 122 
Variance and Standard Deviation for Grouped Data 124 
Coefficient of Variation 127 
Chebyshev?s Theorem 128 
The Empirical (Normal) Rule 130 
3.4 Measures of Position 135 
Standard Scores 135 
Percentiles 136 
Quartiles and Deciles 143 
Outliers 144 
3.5 Exploratory Data Analysis 154 
The Five-Number Summary and Boxplots 154 
3.6 Summary 162 
chapter four 
Probability and Counting Rules 171 
4.1	Introduction 172 
4.2	Sample Spaces and Probability 173 
Basic Concepts 173 
Classical Probability 176 
 Complementary Events 179 
Empirical Probability 180 
Law of Large Numbers 182 
Subjective Probability 183 
 Probability and Risk Taking 183 
4.3	The Addition Rules for Probability 187 
4.4	The Multiplication Rules and Conditional Probability 197 
The Multiplication Rules 197 
Conditional Probability 202 
Probabilities for At Least 204 
4.5 Counting Rules 208 
The Fundamental Counting Rule 209 
Factorial Notation 211 
Permutations 211 
Combinations 212 
4.5	Probability and Counting Rules 218 
4.6	Summary 222 
chapter five 
Discrete Probability Distributions 229 
5.1 Introduction 230 
5.2 Probability Distributions 231 
5.3 Mean, Variance, Standard Deviation, and Expectation 235 
Mean 235 
Variance and Standard Deviation 238 
Expectation 240 
5.4 The Binomial Distribution 245 
5.5 Summary 258 
chapter six 
The Normal Distribution 263 
6.1 Introduction 264 
6.2 Properties of the Normal Distribution 266 
6.3 The Standard Normal Distribution 267 
Finding Areas Under the Standard Normal Distribution Curve 269 
The Normal Distribution Curve as a Probability Distribution Curve 276 
6.4 Applications of the Normal Distribution 283 
Finding Data Values Given Specific Probabilities 287 
Determining Normality 289 
6.5 The Central Limit Theorem 297 
Distribution of Sample Means 297 
Finite Population Correction Factor (Optional) 304 
6.6 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial 
Distribution 307 
6.7 Summary 313 
chapter seven 
Confidence Intervals and Sample Size 321 
7.1 Introduction 322 
7.2 Confidence Intervals for the Mean (s Known or n _ 30) and Sample Size 323 
Confidence Intervals 324 
Sample Size 330 
7.3 Confidence Intervals for the Mean ( s Unknown and n _ 30) 336 
7.4 Confidence Intervals and Sample Size for Proportions 342 
Confidence Intervals 344 
Sample Size for Proportions 345 
7.5 Confidence Intervals for Variances and Standard Deviations 350 
7.6 Summary 355 
chapter eight 
Hypothesis Testing 361 
8.1 Introduction 362 
8.2 Steps in Hypothesis Testing--Traditional Method 363 
8.3 z Test for a Mean 374 
P -Value Method for Hypothesis Testing 379 
8.4 t Test for a Mean 388 
8.5 z Test for a Proportion 397 
8.6 x2 Test for a Variance or Standard Deviation 404 
8.7 Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Testing 416 
8.8 Summary 418 
chapter nine 
Testing the Difference Between Two Means, Two Variances, and Two Proportions 425 
9.1	Introduction 426 
9.2	Testing the Difference Between Two Means: Large Samples 427 
9.3	Testing the Difference Between Two Variances 438 
9.4	Testing the Difference Between Two Means: Small Independent Samples 448 
9.5	Testing the Difference Between Two Means: Small Dependent Samples 458 
9.6	Testing the Difference Between Proportions 470 
9.7 Summary 477 
Hypothesis-Testing Summary 1 484 
chapter ten 
Correlation and Regression 487 
10.1	Introduction 488 
10.2	Correlation 489 
Correlation Coefficient 491 
Correlation and Causation 492 
The Significance of the Correlation Coefficient 493 
10.3 Regression 500 
Line of Best Fit 500 
Determination of the Regression Line Equation 502 
10.4 Coefficient of Determination and Standard Error of the Estimate 513 
Types of Variation for the Regression Model 513 
Coefficient of Determination 515 
Standard Error of the Estimate 516 
Prediction Interval 518 
10.5 Summary 520 
chapter eleven 
Chi-Square and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 527 
11.1 Introduction 528 
11.2 Test for Goodness of Fit 529 
Test of Normality (Optional) 534 
11.3 Tests Using Contingency Tables 541 
Test for Independence 541 
Test for Homogeneity of Proportions 546 
11.4 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 555 
11.5 Summary 567 
Hypothesis-Testing Summary 2 574 
appendix A 
Algebra Review 575 
appendix B?1 
Writing the Research Report 581 
appendix B?2 
Alternate Approach to the Standard Normal Distribution 583 
appendix C 
Tables 587 
appendix D 
Data Bank 605 
appendix E 
Glossary 613 
sppendix F 
Bibliography 619 
appendix G 
Photo Credits 621 
appendix H 
Selected Answers 623 
index 657 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Statistics -- Textbooks.