## Table of contents for Elementary statistics : a step by step approach : a brief version / Allan G. Bluman.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding. ```
Contents

Preface xiii
chapter one
The Nature of Probability and Statistics 1
1.1	Introduction 2
1.2	Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 3
1.3	Variables and Types of Data 6
1.4 Data Collection and Sampling Techniques 8
Random Sampling 10
Systematic Sampling 10
Stratified Sampling 11
Cluster Sampling 11
Other Sampling Methods 12
1.4	Observational and Experimental Studies 12
1.5	Uses and Misuses of Statistics 15
Suspect Samples 15
Ambiguous Averages 15
Changing the Subject 16
Detached Statistics 16
Implied Connections 16
Faulty Survey Questions 16
1.6	Computers and Calculators 17
1.7	Summary 23
chapter two
Frequency Distributions and Graphs 31
2.1	Introduction 33
2.2	Organizing Data 33
Categorical Frequency Distributions 34
Grouped Frequency Distributions 35
2.3 Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Ogives 45
The Histogram 47
The Frequency Polygon 47
The Ogive 49
Relative Frequency Graphs 51
Distribution Shapes 54
2.4 Other Types of Graphs 61
Pareto Charts 61
The Time Series Graph 62
The Pie Graph 64
Stem and Leaf Plots 71
2.5 Paired Data and Scatter Plots 83
Analyzing the Scatter Plot 84
2.6 Summary 90
chapter three
Data Description 99
3.1 Introduction 100
3.2 Measures of Central Tendency 101
The Mean 102
The Median 105
The Mode 107
The Midrange 109
The Weighted Mean 110
Distribution Shapes 112
3.3 Measures of Variation 118
Range 119
Population Variance and Standard Deviation 120
Sample Variance and Standard Deviation 122
Variance and Standard Deviation for Grouped Data 124
Coefficient of Variation 127
Chebyshev?s Theorem 128
The Empirical (Normal) Rule 130
3.4 Measures of Position 135
Standard Scores 135
Percentiles 136
Quartiles and Deciles 143
Outliers 144
3.5 Exploratory Data Analysis 154
The Five-Number Summary and Boxplots 154
3.6 Summary 162
chapter four
Probability and Counting Rules 171
4.1	Introduction 172
4.2	Sample Spaces and Probability 173
Basic Concepts 173
Classical Probability 176
Complementary Events 179
Empirical Probability 180
Law of Large Numbers 182
Subjective Probability 183
Probability and Risk Taking 183
4.3	The Addition Rules for Probability 187
4.4	The Multiplication Rules and Conditional Probability 197
The Multiplication Rules 197
Conditional Probability 202
Probabilities for At Least 204
4.5 Counting Rules 208
The Fundamental Counting Rule 209
Factorial Notation 211
Permutations 211
Combinations 212
4.5	Probability and Counting Rules 218
4.6	Summary 222
chapter five
Discrete Probability Distributions 229
5.1 Introduction 230
5.2 Probability Distributions 231
5.3 Mean, Variance, Standard Deviation, and Expectation 235
Mean 235
Variance and Standard Deviation 238
Expectation 240
5.4 The Binomial Distribution 245
5.5 Summary 258
chapter six
The Normal Distribution 263
6.1 Introduction 264
6.2 Properties of the Normal Distribution 266
6.3 The Standard Normal Distribution 267
Finding Areas Under the Standard Normal Distribution Curve 269
The Normal Distribution Curve as a Probability Distribution Curve 276
6.4 Applications of the Normal Distribution 283
Finding Data Values Given Specific Probabilities 287
Determining Normality 289
6.5 The Central Limit Theorem 297
Distribution of Sample Means 297
Finite Population Correction Factor (Optional) 304
6.6 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial
Distribution 307
6.7 Summary 313
chapter seven
Confidence Intervals and Sample Size 321
7.1 Introduction 322
7.2 Confidence Intervals for the Mean (s Known or n _ 30) and Sample Size 323
Confidence Intervals 324
Sample Size 330
7.3 Confidence Intervals for the Mean ( s Unknown and n _ 30) 336
7.4 Confidence Intervals and Sample Size for Proportions 342
Confidence Intervals 344
Sample Size for Proportions 345
7.5 Confidence Intervals for Variances and Standard Deviations 350
7.6 Summary 355
chapter eight
Hypothesis Testing 361
8.1 Introduction 362
8.2 Steps in Hypothesis Testing--Traditional Method 363
8.3 z Test for a Mean 374
P -Value Method for Hypothesis Testing 379
8.4 t Test for a Mean 388
8.5 z Test for a Proportion 397
8.6 x2 Test for a Variance or Standard Deviation 404
8.7 Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Testing 416
8.8 Summary 418
chapter nine
Testing the Difference Between Two Means, Two Variances, and Two Proportions 425
9.1	Introduction 426
9.2	Testing the Difference Between Two Means: Large Samples 427
9.3	Testing the Difference Between Two Variances 438
9.4	Testing the Difference Between Two Means: Small Independent Samples 448
9.5	Testing the Difference Between Two Means: Small Dependent Samples 458
9.6	Testing the Difference Between Proportions 470
9.7 Summary 477
Hypothesis-Testing Summary 1 484
chapter ten
Correlation and Regression 487
10.1	Introduction 488
10.2	Correlation 489
Correlation Coefficient 491
Correlation and Causation 492
The Significance of the Correlation Coefficient 493
10.3 Regression 500
Line of Best Fit 500
Determination of the Regression Line Equation 502
10.4 Coefficient of Determination and Standard Error of the Estimate 513
Types of Variation for the Regression Model 513
Coefficient of Determination 515
Standard Error of the Estimate 516
Prediction Interval 518
10.5 Summary 520
chapter eleven
Chi-Square and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 527
11.1 Introduction 528
11.2 Test for Goodness of Fit 529
Test of Normality (Optional) 534
11.3 Tests Using Contingency Tables 541
Test for Independence 541
Test for Homogeneity of Proportions 546
11.4 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 555
11.5 Summary 567
Hypothesis-Testing Summary 2 574
appendix A
Algebra Review 575
appendix B?1
Writing the Research Report 581
appendix B?2
Alternate Approach to the Standard Normal Distribution 583
appendix C
Tables 587
appendix D
Data Bank 605
appendix E
Glossary 613
sppendix F
Bibliography 619
appendix G
Photo Credits 621
appendix H