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Contents Series Editor¿s Foreword 000 Acknowledgements 000 Chapter 1 Introduction 000 Structure of This Volume 000 Chapter 2 Validity and the Social Dimension of Language Testing 000 Cronbach 000 Messick 000 Messick on Construct Validity 000 Construct Definition and Validation: Mislevy 000 Kane¿s Approach to Test Score Validation 000 The Social Dimension of Validity in Language Testing 000 The Broader Social Context: The Limits of Validity 000 Conclusion 000 Chapter 3 The Social Dimension of Proficiency: How Testable is it? 000 Assessing Face-to-face Interaction 000 Assessing Second Language Pragmatics 000 Second Language Pragmatics 000 Tests of Second Language Pragmatics 000 Testing Sociopragmatics 000 Testing Implicature 000 Testing Pragmalinguistics 000 Apologies and Requests for Chinese EFL learners 000 The Tension in Testing Pragmatics: Keeping it Social but Practical 000 DCT Items in Pragmatics Tests: A Case Study in Limiting the Construct 000 Methodological Issues in DCTs 000 Testing Sociopragmatics: Role Plays and Appropriateness Judgments 000 Foreigner-specific Norms? 000 Assessing Pragmatic Aptitude 000 The Way(s) Forward 000 Conclusion 000 Chapter 4 Psychometric Approaches to Fairness: Bias and DIF 000 Bias and Differential Item Functioning: Definition and History 000 Bias 000 Differential Item Functioning 000 History 000 The Where and Wherefore of DIF 000 Methods for Detecting DIF 000 Early DIF Techniques: Different Item Difficulties for Different Groups 000 The Delta Plot in Language Testing DIF Studies 000 Contingency Table Methods and Other Non-parametric Approaches 000 Item Difficulty and Matched Groups: The Standardization Procedure 000 Contingency Table Methods in Language Testing 000 DIF and Item-Response Theory 000 Calculating DIF in IRT Models 000 IRT and Language Testing DIF Research 000 Comparison of DIF Techniques 000 Other Approaches 000 Logistic Regression 000 Logistic Regression in Language Testing DIF Research 000 Generalizability Theory 000 Multi-faceted Rasch Measurement 000 Problems with DIF Analyses 000 Dealing with DIF and Bias: A Judgment Call 000 Conclusion 000 Chapter 5 Fairness Reviews and Codes of Ethics 000 Pre-empting DIF: Fairness Reviews 000 University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations 000 Educational Testing Service 000 Fairness as a Professional Obligation: Codes of Ethics and Practice 000 Codes of Ethics and Practice 000 Codes of Ethics and Practice in Language Testing 000 The ILTA Codes of Ethics and Practice 000 The ALTE Code of Practice and Quality Management Checklists 000 Codes of Ethics in Related Areas 000 Future Directions 000 Summary 000 Chapter 6 Language Tests and Social Identity 000 Language Tests, Identity, and the Denial of Rights 000 Language Tests and the Claims of Asylum Seekers 000 Language Tests and Immigration 000 Language Tests and Citizenship 000 Canada: Language Tests and the Official Languages Policy 000 Conclusion: Language Tests and Subjectivity 000 Chapter 7 Language Assessments at School: Social Values and Policy 000 Introduction 000 Values and Policy Dimensions of Test Constructs 000 The Japanese Senior High School Entrance Examination in English 000 The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages 000 Policy Implementation through Standards 000 Standards: Format and Structure 000 Standards: Conceptual Organization (The Construct) 000 Competing Views of the Construct: Literacy 000 Catering for Second/Additional Language Learners in Policy-driven Literacy Assessments 000 Standards: The Process of Formulation 000 Standards: Gathering Evidence ¿ Teacher Assessment and Formal Tests 000 Formal Tests 000 Formal Tests and the Evaluation of Policy Initiatives 000 The NALSAS Evaluation Project 000 Policy-related International Comparative Assessments: PISA 000 Standards and Impact: The No Child Left Behind Act and ESL Learners 000 The NCLB Itself 000 The Law¿s Impact: Consequences Intended and Unintended 000 ESL Learners in the Larger Student Population 000 Conclusion Chapter 8 Where To From Here? Implications for Research and Training 000 Directions for Research 000 Implications for Training 000 References 000
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Language and languages -- Ability testing.